Why the Bengali Ruling Brahaminical Hegemony Defends La Marts!
Indian Holocaust My Father`s Life and Time - Four Hundred THREE
Krishna, My Oceanology Dream struck Niece Knows Not Where to Get Admission in Zoology as the Dept Seems to be Wiped out Making Way for It and BBA!
In India, Oceanology is not taught at Graduation level as far as we Know. We have marine Engineering which has nothing to do with Underwater Resources which have attracted our girl from Childhood. We do not study River Technology either. Now it seems, Indian knowledge economy has DELETED Zoology also! Krishna has to read Zoology in Graduation to get admission in Oceanology at Post Graduation Level. I suggested her to get admission in Life science in JNU, but she says that it is not eligible for studies in Oceanology. The Girl has passed her Class Twelve last year and waited a full year for Zoology and it seems that we may not help her anyway. She has not enough percentage to get admission in those colleges where the Zoology department survives like an Extinct Specie. Neither we have the Caste Certificate to get admission thanks to Reservation or quota. She has passed Twelve under All India Secondary board and many Universities as Meerut does not admit the students belonging the All India Board! My brothers Padmalochan and Panchanan have tried their best to manage the admission all over in UP and Uttarakhand as Krishna failed to get Admission in Delhi University. She is not interested in other science subjects nor she is ready for either Bsc IT or BBA!
Krishna and her father ARUN, my Couisn, the only son of my Jethamoshai and Jethima visited us for two days as Krishna has applied for admission in Scottish Church College in kolkata. Travelling by Kalka mail they landed in the Metro in the Morning and shifted to my another cousin, CHOTOKAKA`s son Subhash`s place. My nephew TOTAN escorted them to the College where they found Not the name of Krishna in the list. Some students have to be admitted in SC, St and OBC quota but we refugees resettled outside Bengal have been deprived of Reservation as Mother Tongue. The Next day , they shifted in our Home at Sodepur and I could just manage a return ticket of DURANTO Express in waiting at Number Two and Three and that too in AC First Class. They returned Next day meaning last day and the tickets were confirmed by luck!
I am helpless as I persuaded her NOt to go to Australia last year while she was adamant. She only shared her dream with me since her childhood as a little schoolgirl and I may not help her to pursue her dream at home! I may not stop her now to go abroad this time!
I knew that Students in general are opting for Vocational courses and specifically for Bsc IT and BBA, but Krishna informed me that so much so hyped Foreign Universities have also opened doors for only Vocational disciplines and they have Nothing to do with Higher studies in traditional subjects, research and development.I have been interacting with IIT and IIM students and faculty who are worried that the Knowledge Economy has completely wiped out Higher studies and research and development and has focused on just Campus Recruitment and Placement and thus, Information Technology has wiped out all other disciplines. Civil Engineering, Mining, Mechanical Engineering and mathematics are the most neglected genres. But I NEVER could think that the subjects like Zoology are so neglected. Anatomy has be taught in Medical Colleges only! Pharmacy MNCs have captured Indian Market and Medicine as well as CURE being so dearly, I am afraid the discontinuity in the field of Higher studies and Research would make us land in the World of Pandemics without any Chance of medical care which we would not be able to afford at all in the Health Tour Environment!
It is learnt that Calcutta University is also going to give up Honours in zoology. While,some teachers as well as students informed me that the willing students have no chance to get admission and obliged to opt for either IT or BBA!simply Horrible!
La Marts sends report to HRD, files complaint as the Ruling Bengali Brahaminical Hegemony Defends the Erring school Management! Authorities of La Martinere for Boys school today faxed a detailed report to the HRD ministry and lodged a police complaint about the unauthorised visit by a team, which claimed to represent the ministry for probing the death of a student.
"Seeing media reports about the visit ostensibly by an HRD team to the La Martinere, Joint Secretary in the HRD ministry, S C Khantia, contacted us this morning and sought a detailed report," secretary of the school's Board of Governors Supriyo Dhar said.
"We also intimated the joint secretary of what these visitors did yesterday in the name of visiting our school, what they discussed with our principal and me. They informed us that they represented the HRD ministry as a fact-finding team," he said.
Three persons, who claimed to represent the HRD team, created a flutter yesterday when they visited the school in connection with the suicide of class VIII student Rouvanjit Rawla days after he was caned by his principal, but HRD Minister Kapil Sibal denied having authorised anybody to probe the death.
Meanwhile, the HRD Ministry has initiated an inquiry to ascertain how the three unauthorised persons visited the school. The ministry is contemplating legal action against the trio.
Indian Express reports:
There seems to be no end to La Martiniere's woes. The "HRD ministry representative" who barged into the school on Wednesday to "probe" the circumstances of Rouvanjit Rawla's death, has turned out to be a member of Rashtriya Sanskrit Parishad, who considered investigating the matter his "moral responsibility".
Accompanied by two others, Ramesh Bhattacharjee visited the school at 3.30 pm, met the principal and school secretary and sought a report on the incident.
The school, which is under scrutiny from various agencies including Kolkata Police, National Commission for Protection of Child Rights and Council for School Certificate Examinations in India, readily agreed to submit a report by the end of the week.
On its way out, the "team" also spoke to reporters waiting at the gates and said they would visit the parents of the deceased child and neutrally look into the issue.
On Thursday, the school authorities were taken aback when they received a call from the director of the HRD Ministry in New Delhi's Shastri Bhavan, asking for a report on the "team" and what had transpired that day. The HRD minister, Kapil Sibal, denied sending any team.
"The desired information has been sent to the ministry," said an official release from the school.
"We also sent a copy of our report to the DC South and OC, Shakespeare Sarani police station, for information and necessary action," said Supriya Dhar, secretary of the school.
When questioned, two members of the "team" — Dilip Dutta, (Retd) deputy secretary of Higher Education Department, West Bengal and Anthony Arun Biswas, a representative of Anglo Indian Community — said they had only accompanied Bhattacharjee, who is associated with the ministry "in some way".
Oceanography is the application of all sciences to the study of the ocean. It is also sometimes called Oceanology. Modern Oceanography is divided into four main parts. They are Biological Oceanography, Chemical Oceanography and Physical Oceanography.
The biological oceanographer studies the occourence of living organisms in the ocean. The Chemical Oceanographer studies the chemical prospects of sea water. The geological oceanographers study the sediments and rocks present on the bottom of the ocean. The physical oceanographer deals with the physical movements of the sea water. Though oceanography is divided into four branches, they are closely related.
Most important oceanographic instrument is the research vessel. It is the oceanographer's working platform. It carries the oceanographers and many kinds of instruments used in the study of the ocean. Modern oceanographic ships perform different tasks. In addition to these surface ships, the oceanographer also has underwater vesels called submersibles.
Modern oceanographic research is generally cosndiered to have begun with the Challenger Expedition (1872-76) under the direction of Sir. C. Wyville Thomson.
The challenger was a 260 foot 2300 ton steamship. She covered 111,000 km and carried out many different kindsof biological, chemical and geological studies. In 1893, the Norwegian Expedition under Fridtjot Nasen allowed the wooden ship Fram to be frozen in the ice of the Arctic ocean and drifted across the North Pole. Nansen thus collected valuable meteorological, astronomic, and oceanographic data. From 1925 to 1927 the German Ship Meteor collected temperatures, water samples and deep-sea sediments from the South Atlantic. Other expeditions on famous ships carried out oceanographic studies in various parts of the oceans.
After World War II the oceaonographic activity increased. As no single country could hope to carry out the work along, co-operative reasearch programmes for oceonographic surveys had started. One such programme was the International Indian Ocean Expedition (1962-65). This multinational expedition involveed fourteen nations and its purpose was to study the Indian Ocean. Systematic oceanographic surveys in India began with its expedition. Studies in Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were carried out by Indian oceanographers on the ship Kistna. After the IIOE was completed the Indian Government established the National Institute of Oceonography.
Right to Education Act will show results: Sibal
The RTE Act, which was passed by the Parliament in August last year and came into force from April 1 this year, provides for free and compulsory education as a fundamental right of every child in the 6-14 age group. It is touted as the Congress-led UPA government's most ambitious initiatives towards transforming education at the primary level.
Sibal dismissed the suggestion that the government was only making plain announcements vis-à-vis implementation of the act ever since it came into force. "The act itself says, in terms of physical infrastructure, three years time is given for states to develop schools and five years time for improving quality of teaching. So, you can not expect the RTE to be rolled out in a few months and start showing results," he said.
According to Sibal, announcements were bound to happen as a chain of measures like framing of guidelines and getting the states to bring their systems in line with the RTE objectives, etc have to be completed and this takes time. "Nobody said, from April 1 the entire structure of India will change," he said and added, "You will see the results some years down the line."
Asked whether the provision of not allowing education boards to fail any student up to Std VIII was good, Sibal said, "This is the will of Parliament."
On the remedial teaching for lagging in their studies, Sibal insisted, "Let us see how the act unfolds. This is not a science laboratory where we are conducting a litmus test. We are dealing with human beings."
Sibal maintained that he was getting apt cooperation from the education ministers of states and described the implementation part as a 'collaborative effort.'
Referring to the National Commission for Higher Education and Research (NCHER), which is positioned to serve as a single overarching body to regulate higher and professional education in the country, Sibal said, "The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) endorsed the commission proposal at its meeting last week. The state governments have now been given four months' time to give their suggestions on the proposed commission and the same will be evaluated by the task force dealing with the issue. Once we get the task force's report, the government will take the final call on setting up the commission."
Sibal said his prime mandate was to lay the groundwork for long-term transformation of the education sector. This includes smoother implementation of the RTE Act and taking the gross enrolment ratio (GER) i.e., the percentage of students in age group 17 to 23 accessing higher education in the country, from the present 12.4 per cent to 30 per cent by 2020. "In numbers, this translates into existing 14 million to 40 million, for which we will required three times the number of existing colleges in the country," he said.
Sibal referred to new legislations which the HRD ministry has moved, including those banning capitation fee and unfair practices by educational institutions, and accreditation of institutions, besides allowing institutions to run independently with greater autonomy as other priorities. He said, "The larger issue also is about bringing in huge investment in the education sector."
On Foreign Education Providers (FEP) bill, Sibal said too much focus was going to the aspect as to when foreign universities would come to India whereas the larger issue is about the investment that foreign institutions would bring in sectors, which do not grant degrees such as skill-oriented education, he said.
"Foreign institutions like Schultz, Virginia Tech, Essex University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have already started working in collaboration with Indian institutes," he pointed out.
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|Scheme launched for students in India and abroad|
|Higher education made affordable for poor students|
|New Delhi, June 24, DHNS|
The UPA Government has launched an education loan scheme for poor students pursuing higher education.
This was done apparently to ward off criticism that the government's reforms were turning education into a costly affair.
* Students whose annual family income is below Rs 4.5 lakh eligible
The Educational structure in India which operates at all conceivable levels from pre-school to post doctoral is of monumental proportions. According to a World Bank report there are more than 7,40,000 formal schools; more than 3.6 million teachers are working on full time basis; there are more than 175 Universities offering under graduate and post graduate courses and about 6000 colleges affiliated to these universities.
The educational structure in India is generally referred to as the Ten + Two + Three (10+2+3) pattern. The first ten years provide undifferentiated general education for all students. The +2 stage, also known as the higher secondary or senior secondary, provides for differentiation into academic and vocational streams and marks the end of school education. In +3 stage, which involves college education, the student goes for higher studies in his chosen field of subject.This is a comprehensive website on education in India. It gives detailed information on education and career options in India.
|Admission Procedure into Foreign Universities|
|Written by Admin|
|Thursday, 24 June 2010 20:52|
Breaking News: Foreign universities remained a dream for Indian students. Most Indian students are going abroad to pursue higher studies. Here are the admission procedures to get into the Universities in the USA and UK.
UK Universities Admission Process
Under Graduation Courses
British students undergo thirteen years of pre-university academics when compared to twelve of Indian students.
Students from India are required to either outperform in their class XII exams or undergo a course called the bridging course or foundation course or access course to enter into any college in Britain for under graduation. This is compulsory for entry into Oxford, London or Cambridge universities.
To avoid the one-year course, students can also write an examination called the 'A' level examination in India itself. These exams are conducted twice a year and require early enrolment. Excellent written and spoken English is essential; exam syllabus can be obtained from the nearest British council.
A score of six is the minimum requirement in this exam and the exam can be written in the nearest British council itself and will cost approximately Rs. 3000.
Applications for all colleges are available from Universities and College Admission Services (UCAS). By completing a single form, students are eligible to try admissions in six colleges. Applications are available at the British council offices.
Filled UCAS applications must be submitted by 15th of December the preceding year, applications will be processed till June 30th after which forms are handled by a system called the 'clearing process'. For admissions into the
Oxford or Cambridge universities, filled forms have to be submitted before the 15th of October the preceding year and a student cannot apply for both the universities for the same academic year. Application forms are different for these universities are different from the rest of the universities
Post Graduation Courses
For entry into post graduation courses, a three year degree in any stream in the Indian universities is sufficient and is recognized in Britain as equivalent to their British Bachelor (ordinary) degree.
For admission into few postgraduate courses in Britain, a four year degree much like a B.E., B.Tech etc is required and this recognized as equivalent to their British Bachelor (Honors) degree. Completion of post graduate degree like M.A., M.Sc etc from any Indian university is also accepted.
Post graduate degrees such as M.Tech, M.E. from institutes such as IIT are considered as equivalent to their British Master's degree.
Admission forms can be obtained from the university web site by downloading them or by filling and sending them online.
US Universities Admission Process:
After choosing a list of colleges you want to apply-you can look at the application procedures.
1) Collect the Address and E-mail ID of the chosen colleges. Contact for more information, application forms and financial aids at least a year (between June and August) before you plan to enter.
2) Register for all the required admission tests such as TOEFL, SAT and ACT (in U.S only) for a Bachelor's programme or Undergraduate study; and TOEFL, GRE and GMAT for a masters or doctoral programme (Graduate study and research.) These tests are standardized and have centers around the world.
You can arrange with the testing agencies to send your test scores directly to the colleges and universities you are applying.
3) Keep all your academic records including an official credential evaluation of the 'marks card' (known as Transcripts in USA) ready. These records should include certificates of achievement in co-curricular and extracurricular activities.
4) Approach at least 3 of your teachers in school or professors who have taught you in college for reference letters. Teachers who know you thoroughly can provide a balanced reference of your ability to pursue advanced studies. Keep these letters ready.
5) Make a list of at least four courses you want to take up. Check whether these courses are available in India's colleges or Internet study option. If they are not available it is a good reason for convincing the Visa officer to give you a Visa.
6) Get a passport.
After you receive the application form, scrutinize all the admission requirements and financial requirements. The application forms usually ask for personal information, your certified mark sheets or transcripts, your admission test scores, certificates of extracurricular activities, letters of reference from your teachers, about your education plan-i.e. your course of study, career goals and research plan and why you chose this particular school etc.
The application fee may be between $30 to $50 payable by cheque. It will not be refunded if you do not attend the school.
The applications should be duly completed and send much before the deadline mentioned in the application forms. Usually, for most Universities and colleges the academic year begins in late August or early September and ends in May or June.
The admission office of the university will inform whether you are accepted or rejected by sending an acceptance letter around April- June period.
If you are accepted you may be required to pay a deposit usually of one semester or a full year's tuition fee for reserving seat, before a certain date.
By Priyesh Ranjan
News from Australia for Students in India
By Krishna Pokharel
The headline on an Australian government release Wednesday sounded universally positive for Indian students thinking about studying Down Under:
"Changes to International Education Sector to Provide Added Security for International Students."
The statement, released by the Australian High Commission in New Delhi late Wednesday morning, quoted the then Australian Minister for Education and now Prime Minister Julia Gillard as saying the changes "will provide additional support for international students and will make sure their experiences studying in our country are positive."
But it bears a closer look.
First, the background: Australia has been trying to repair its image to sustain its education industry after a spate of attacks on Indian students, including the January murder of Nitin Garg, who was walking in West Footscray in Melbourne when he was killed.
Last Thursday, the police in Victoria state charged a 15-year-old boy with murder for the fatal stabbing of 21-year-old Indian student Nitin Garg. On Friday, they charged another 16-year-old boy "with accessory to" Mr. Garg's murder, Radio Australia reported.
The news Wednesday sounded as if it would offer better protection against Indians becoming targets. Maybe more police? A special security force? Government-subsidized student housing in better neighborhoods than many Indians live in? Multicultural sensitivity training?
Er, not exactly.
Rather the release talked about proposed changes to a 2000 law that governs the international education sector. The proposed legislative changes are less about ensuring physical security of foreign students than the country's efforts to strengthen its regulation of the universities, colleges, training institutes and individuals involved in providing educational courses and training to the overseas students. In other words, protecting students by protecting the reputation of the industry that attracts them.
The proposed changes include strengthening the education or training provider's "registration criteria to certify the viability of businesses," "risk-based monitoring which shifts the regulatory burden to those providers that present the greatest risk to the integrity of the sector" and "publishing of industry targets and reporting of regulatory activities," among other changes, according to the statement.
In all, these and other new regulations already introduced may only result in increased caution among education providers in accepting and admitting foreign students.
In fact, Ms. Gillard also said Wednesday that the government has begun consultations about changing student recruitment practices both "onshore and offshore." That might include added scrutiny in granting of student visas and "setting of appropriate English language entry levels," Ms. Gillard indicated in the statement.http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2010/06/24/news-from-australia-for-students-in-india/
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We are R & D organization !
We offer opprtunities to students who wish undertake ocean related dissertations/internships. NIO often receives requests for admissions to academic courses in oceanography. NIO does not offer any UG/PG/Diploma courses at this institute nor conduct any regular on-job-training courses.
We do not charge any fees for dissertation or summer interns programs. All the laboratory expenses involved in students programs are met by NIO funds. Students have to arrange for their travel and living expenses. Free medical consultancy in case of any emergency is available at our dispensary, but hospitalisation and other treatment expenditures to be met by the student
Opportunities for the students:
- Summer Internships (May to July of every year)
- Dissertation projects (Any time during the year except May to July)
Besides this, there are other opportunities for other levels of students from Goa and other places:
- Student workshops (for school children of Goa)
- Educational visits (for all students)
Summer-internship (Applications are entertained only during January and February of the internship year. The internship is strictly for a maximum of three months starting from 1 May and ending on 31 July)
Dissertation Project (Applications for dissertation programme can be sent any-time of the year, but period of dissertation should not cover any part of 1 May to 31 July)
The summer internships/dissertation programs are meant for the students to acquaint themselves with the oceanographic studies and research methods in any branch of oceanography (note that oceanography is a multidisciplinary subject). To apply for these programmes, follow the procedure given below:
1. Interested student should visits project and other pages and acquaint with the work being carried out at this institute. Establish a contact with suitable scientist/s with expression of interest in working for a short project/training under his/her guidance (the links to concerned scientists' biodata are available from their project pages), and obtain consent of the scientist in any written form (e-mail, post, fax). Click here to view the titles of the projects completed by earlier students.
2. The HoD/ Dean / Principal / Placement officer of the student's institution should send a request letter addressed to Director, NIO, indicating student's interest in a specific branch of oceanography along with (i) brief CV of the student, and (ii) copy of the communication between the student and scientist at NIO. (Sample request letter)
- Application with all above documents to be sent by POST ONLY to The In-charge, HRM-Students Wing, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula-403 004, Goa.
- Applications without consent of the NIO-scientist should not be sent as they have least opportunity of getting placement. Placement letter will be sent to the Departments/College, not directly to the student. Normally the placement letters are sent within 8 weeks after receiving the application at HRM. Therefore, the students should keep in touch with their department/institutions for placement letter. Preserve the placement letter carefully as without it a student cannot join for the project.
- Above (in box) time-schedules to be strictly adhared while applying and to be noted carefully while planning for dissertation or summer internship programs. We do not entertain any requests where there is overlap of timing between these two programs. DISSERTATION is for a student whose project should be more than THREE months and should form the part of student's course-curriculam. INTERNSHIP is for a student who wish to know more about oceans and get exposed to the R & D activity. This may or may not form the part of course curriculam. The duration of internship should be less than three months. We also conduct a short course of two weeks in "Fundamentals of Oceanography" for summer interns. Up to thirty interested students are admitted to this course on first-cum-first basis. They can register for this course in advance through their supervisors at NIO. The course normally starts at mid-May.
- Request letters for both programs (on official letterhead only, having all contact details) should be from HoD/Dean/Principal/Placement Officer and to be addressed to DIRECTOR. Just forwarding the request letter written by the student will not be considered.
- Time-overlapping in the above two programs is not permitted. Therefore, Dissertation students should plan their stay at NIO avoiding May-July. Summer interns will not be allowed to extend their stay beyond July. Clubbing both programs in one application is not permitted.
Oceans are dearer to all of us. Knowledge of the seas around us is a must for every young student. This website provides ample opportunities to have such knowledge (visit outreach for example). As a routine programme, NIO organizes two-days workshop on oceanography for the students from Goa who ranked in first 120 in their SSC or CBSE exams. The invitations are sent directly to the individuals as and when such programmes are organized.
NIO does provide an opportunity to the students from outside Goa to visit us and understand about oceanographic studies that we carry out. While you are welcome during any working day to visit this institute, we would organize your visit better if an advance intimation is sent and the consent is sought
|Facilities and responsibilities of the visiting student|
- A student accommodation is normally provided (at the residential campus of the institute) to the ones arriving for summer internships and dissertation projects, on sharing basis for a nominal fee of Rs.10.00 per day. The student has to approach HRM for the same on earlier day of his/her programme. The accommodation facility is provided on first come first basis, hence no advance booking is entertained.
- If your placement letter has a statement "Accommodation to be arranged by students only", then student(s) MUST make their own arrangements and then report at NIO. If the student can not make such arrangement, it is advisable not to report but rather inform us for cancellation of placement (so that seat could be given to other students who can make such arrangement of their stay). Note that the accommodation in the hostel will not be provided and Goa being a tourist place, this arrangement on arrival is equal to impossible. Student(s) are likely to land in trouble.
- Food and snacks at subsidized rates are available during working days at the institutes canteen.
- On reporting at NIO, the studnets have to produce at HRM-Secretariat (a) Valid student ID card of the college (b) Two passport size photos (c) Copy of placement letter and (d) Consent from college/univeristy and supervisor, if there is a change in dates of internship/dissertation. Without these they will not be registered.
- Maintiaining discipline in hostel and laboratory campus is mandatory and zero tolerance is observed towards violating students.
- Students are not expected to venture in to the sea for swimming any time during their stay at NIO.
- They are also not expected to leave the station without prior permission of their supervisor.
- Students failing to abide by above will be asked to quit the campus premature with notification to their parents and department.
- Every student has to pay for the accommodation and submit e-copy of the work report/ dissertation before they wind-up their stay at NIO
For Summer and dissertation programmes :
For Educational visits :
Head, Public relations
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|This article is missing citations or needs footnotes. Please help add inline citations to guard against copyright violations and factual inaccuracies. (December 2009)|
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|Anthropology · Anthrozoology · Apiology · Arachnology · Arthropodology · Cetology · Conchology · Entomology · Ethology · Helminthology · Herpetology · Ichthyology · Malacology · Mammalogy · Myrmecology · Nematology · Neuroethology · Ornithology · Paleozoology · Planktology · Primatology · Cryptozoology|
|Georges Cuvier · Charles Darwin · William Kirby · Carolus Linnaeus · Konrad Lorenz · Thomas Say · Alfred Russel Wallace · more...|
|Pre-Darwin · Post-Darwin|
Zoology (correctly pronounced /zoʊˈɒlədʒi/, though often /zuːˈɒlədʒi/), occasionally also spelt zoölogy, is the branch of biology that focuses on the structure, function, behavior, and evolution of animals.
 HistoryMain articles: History of zoology (through 1859), History of zoology (1859–1912)
Humans have been fascinated by the other members of the animal kingdom throughout history. In early Europe, they gathered up and catalogued descriptions of strange animals from distant lands or deep seas, such as are recorded in the Physiologus and in the works of Albertus Magnus. His work was based largely on the writings of Aristotle (384–322 BC). Magnus' De animalibus libri XXVI is not the only volume of his commentaries on Natural History, but it remains one of the most extensive studies of zoological observation published before modern times.
The disciplinary study of zoology also found root in Arabia and China. Arab scholar Al-Jahizz (781–868) wrote the Book of Animals. Two great Chinese authors in this field were Su Song (1020-1101) and Shen Kuo(1031-1095) of the Song Dynasty period, yet there were many others. In Roman times, the main writer about natural history was Pliny the Elder (23–79).
Scientific zoology really started in the 16th century with the awakening of the new spirit of observation and exploration, but for a long time ran a separate course uninfluenced by the progress of the medical studies of anatomy and physiology. The spirit of inquiry which now for the first time became general showed itself in the anatomical schools of the Italian universities of the 16th century and spread fifty years later to the University of Oxford.
The first founded of surviving European academies, the Academia Naturae Curiosorum (1651) confined itself to the description and illustration of the structure of plants and animals; eleven years later, the Royal Society of London was incorporated by royal charter.
A little later the Academy of Sciences of Paris was established by Louis XIV. Collectors and systematisers reached maturity in the latter part of the 18th century in Linnaeus, other anatomists such as John Hunter also set to work to examine anatomically the whole animal kingdom and to classify its members by aid of the results of careful study. Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch tailor and naturalist, introduced another revolution with his construction of the first microscope.
It was not until the 19th century that the microscope was improved and accomplished for zoology what some consider to be its most important service. The perfecting of the microscope led to an improved comprehension of cell structure and the establishment of the Cell Theory:
- That all organisms are either single cells or built of many cells;
- That all organisms begin their existence as a single cell, which multiplies by binary fission, the products growing in size and multiplying similarly by binary fission; and
- That the life of a multicellular organism is the sum of the activities of the cells of which it consists and that the processes of life must be studied in and their explanation obtained from an understanding of the chemical and physical changes which go on in each individual cell of living material or protoplasm.
The contributions of individuals such as William Harvey (the circulation of blood), Carolus Linnaeus (system of nomenclature), Georges Buffon (natural history), Georges Cuvier (comparative anatomy), and Claude Bernard (homeostasis) greatly advanced the field. Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, published on 24 November 1859, is a seminal work of scientific literature, considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.
 Systems of classification
Morphography is the systematic exploration, tabulation and characterization of data concerning animals, existing or extinct. It is similar to ethnography. Groups of people who have contributed to the field include past museum-makers of and their modern descendants, the curators and annotators of zoological collections, early explorers and modern naturalist travelers and writers collectors of fossils and paleontologists.
 Subfields of zoology
Although the study of animal life is ancient, its scientific incarnation is relatively modern. This mirrors the transition from natural history to biology at the start of the nineteenth century. Since Hunter and Cuvier, comparative anatomical study has been associated with morphography shapins the modern areas of zoological investigation: anatomy, physiology, histology, embryology, and animal behaviour. Modern zoology first arose in German and British universities. In Britain, Thomas Henry Huxley was a prominent figure. His ideas were centered on the morphology of animals. Many consider him the greatest comparative anatomist of the latter half of the nineteenth century. Similar to Hunter, his courses were composed of lectures and laboratory practical classes in contrast the previous format of lectures only. This system became widely spread.
Gradually zoology expanded beyond Huxley's comparative anatomy to include the following sub-disciplines:
- Zoography, also known as descriptive zoology, describes animals and their habitats.
- Comparative anatomy studies the structure of animals.
- Animal physiology
- Molecular Biology studies the common genetic and developmental mechanisms of animals and plants
- Ethology is the study of animal behaviour.
- Behavioural ecology
- Evolutionary biology: See of both animals and plants is considered in the articles on evolution, population genetics, heredity, variation, Mendelism, reproduction.
- Systematics, cladistics, phylogenetics, phylogeography, biogeography and taxonomy classify and group species via common descent and regional associations.
- The various taxonomically oriented disciplines such as mammalogy, herpetology, ornithology identify and classify species and study the structures and mechanisms specific to those groups. Entomology is the study of insects, by far the largest group of animals.
 See also
- Outline of zoology
- List of zoologists
- Important Publications in Zoology
- Timeline of zoology
- Zoological distribution
- Zootomy - the study of animal anatomy or animal dissection
 External links
- Zoology at Wikibooks.
- Books on Zoology at Project Gutenberg
- A Study Guide to Invertebrate Zoology at Wikibooks
- Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology
- An online dissection pictures of animals
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2008)
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ωκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "to write"), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It covers a wide range of topics, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within it: biology, chemistry, geology, meteorology, and physics.
Man first began to acquire knowledge of the waves and currents of the seas and oceans in pre-historic times. Observations on tides are recorded by Aristotle and Strabo. Early modern exploration of the oceans was primarily for cartography and mainly limited to its surfaces and of the creatures that fishermen brought up in nets, though depth soundings by lead line were taken.
Although Juan Ponce de León in 1513 first identified the Gulf Stream, and the current was well-known to mariners, Benjamin Franklin made the first scientific study of it and gave it its name. Franklin measured water temperatures during several Atlantic crossings and correctly explained the Gulf Stream's cause. Franklin and Timothy Folger printed the first map of the Gulf Stream in 1769-1770.
When Louis Antoine de Bougainville, who voyaged between 1766 and 1769, and James Cook, who voyaged from 1768 to 1779, carried out their explorations in the South Pacific, information on the oceans themselves formed part of the reports. James Rennell wrote the first scientific textbooks about currents in the Atlantic and Indian oceans during the late 18th and at the beginning of 19th century. Sir James Clark Ross took the first modern sounding in deep sea in 1840, and Charles Darwin published a paper on reefs and the formation of atolls as a result of the second voyage of HMS Beagle in 1831-6. Robert FitzRoy published a report in four volumes of the three voyages of the Beagle. In 1841–1842 Edward Forbes undertook dredging in the Aegean Sea that founded marine ecology.
As first superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory (1842–1861) Matthew Fontaine Maury devoted his time to the study of marine meteorology, navigation, and charting prevailing winds and currents. His Physical Geography of the Sea, 1855 was the first textbook of oceanography. Many nations sent oceanographic observations to Maury at the Naval Observatory, where he and his colleagues evaluated the information and gave the results worldwide distribution.
The steep slope beyond the continental shelves was discovered in 1849. The first successful laying of transatlantic telegraph cable in August 1858 confirmed the presence of an underwater "telegraphic plateau" mid-ocean ridge. After the middle of the 19th century, scientific societies were processing a flood of new terrestrial botanical and zoological information. European natural historians began to sense the lack of more than anecdotal knowledge of the oceans.
In 1871, under the recommendations of the Royal Society of London, the British government sponsored an expedition to explore world's oceans and conduct scientific investigations. Under that sponsorship the Scots Charles Wyville Thompson and Sir John Murray launched the Challenger expedition (1872–1876). The results of this were published in 50 volumes covering biological, physical and geological aspects. 4417 new species were discovered.
Other European and American nations also sent out scientific expeditions (as did private individuals and institutions). The first purpose built oceanographic ship, the "Albatros" was built in 1882. The four-month 1910 North Atlantic expedition headed by Sir John Murray and Johan Hjort was at that time the most ambitious research oceanographic and marine zoological project ever, and led to the classic 1912 book The Depths of the Ocean.
Oceanographic institutes dedicated to the study of oceanography were founded. In the United States, these included the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1892, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 1930, Virginia Institute of Marine Science in 1938, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University, and the School of Oceanography at University of Washington. In Britain, there is a major research institution: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton which is the successor to the Institute of Oceanography. In Australia, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, known as CMAR, is a leading center. In 1921 the International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) was formed in Monaco.
In 1893 Fridtjof Nansen allowed his ship "Fram" to be frozen in the Arctic ice. As a result he was able to obtain oceanographic data as well as meteorological and astronomical data. The first international organization of oceanography was created in 1902 as the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.
The first acoustic measurement of sea depth was made in 1914. Between 1925 and 1927 the "Meteor" expedition gathered 70,000 ocean depth measurements using an echo sounder, surveying the Mid atlantic ridge. The Great Global Rift, running along the Mid Atlantic Ridge, was discovered by Maurice Ewing and Bruce Heezen in 1953 while the mountain range under the Arctic was found in 1954 by the Arctic Institute of the USSR. The theory of seafloor spreading was developed in 1960 by Harry Hammond Hess. The Ocean Drilling Project started in 1966. Deep sea vents were discovered in 1977 by John Corlis and Robert Ballard in the submersible "Alvin".
In the 1950s Auguste Piccard invented the bathyscaphe and used the "Trieste" to investigate the ocean's depths. The nuclear submarine Nautilus made the first journey under the ice to the North Pole in 1958. In 1962 there was the first deployment of FLIP (Floating Instrument Platform), a 355 foot spar buoy.
Then in 1966, the U.S. Congress created a National Council for Marine Resources and Engineering Development. NOAA was put in charge of exploring and studying all aspects of Oceanography in the USA. It also enabled the National Science Foundation to award Sea Grant College funding to multi-disciplinary researchers in the field of oceanography.
From the 1970s there has been much emphasis on the application of large scale computers to oceanography to allow numerical predictions of ocean conditions and as a part of overall environmental change prediction. An oceanographic buoy array was established in the Pacific to allow prediction of El Niño events.
1990 saw the start of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) which continued until 2002. Geosat seafloor mapping data became available in 1995.
In 1942 Sverdrup and Fleming published "The Ocean" which was a major landmark. "The Sea" (in three volumes covering physical oceanography, seawater and geology) edited by M.N. Hill was published in 1962 while the "Encyclopedia of Oceanography" by Rhodes Fairbridge was published in 1966.
 Connection to the atmosphere
The study of the oceans is intimately linked to understanding global climate changes, potential global warming and related biosphere concerns. The atmosphere and ocean are linked because of evaporation and precipitation as well as thermal flux (and solar insolation). Wind stress is a major driver of ocean currents while the ocean is a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Our planet is invested with two great oceans; one visible, the other invisible; one underfoot, the other overhead; one entirely envelopes it, the other covers about two thirds of its surface.
The study of oceanography is divided into a number of branches:
- Biological oceanography, or marine biology, is the study of the plants, animals and microbes of the oceans and their ecological interaction with the ocean;
- Chemical oceanography, or marine chemistry, is the study of the chemistry of the ocean and its chemical interaction with the atmosphere;
- Geological oceanography, or marine geology, is the study of the geology of the ocean floor including plate tectonics;
- Physical oceanography, or marine physics, studies the ocean's physical attributes including temperature-salinity structure, mixing, waves, internal waves, surface tides, internal tides, and currents. Of particular interest is the behavior of sound (acoustical oceanography), light (optical oceanography) and radio waves in the ocean.
These branches reflect the fact that many oceanographers are first trained in the exact sciences or mathematics and then focus on applying their interdisciplinary knowledge, skills and abilities to oceanography.
Data derived from the work of Oceanographers is used in marine engineering, in the design and building of oil platforms, ships, harbours, and other structures that allow us to use the ocean safely.
Oceanographic data management is the discipline ensuring that oceanographic data both past and present are available to researchers.
 Related disciplines
 See also
- American Practical Navigator
- Anoxic event - Anoxic sea water
- Argo (oceanography)
- Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) (in the US)
- Bathymetric chart
- Ecological Forecasting
- Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center (USA)
- Freak wave
- List of Oceanic basins
- Marine archaeology
- Marine engineering
- Ocean colonization
- Ocean engineering
- Oceanographic Museum - Monaco
- Oceans Act of 2000
- Sea - contains list of world's seas
- Sea level
- Sea level rise
- ^ 1785: Benjamin Franklin's 'Sundry Maritime Observations'
- ^ Wilkinson, Jerry. History of the Gulf Stream January 01, 2008.
- ^ Williams, Frances L. Matthew Fontaine Maury, Scientist of the Sea. (1969) ISBN 0-8135-0433-3.
- ^ NOAA National Sea Grant Office (NSGO).
- ^ Topic: Sea Grant Colleges.
- ^ Impact from the Deep; October 2006; Scientific American Magazine; by Peter D. Ward; 8 Page(s)
- ^ Tom Garrison. "Oceanography: An Invitation to Marine Science" 5th edition. Thomson, 2005. Page 4.
 Further reading
- Hamblin, Jacob Darwin (2005) Oceanographers and the Cold War: Disciples of Marine Science. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0295984827
- Steele, J., K. Turekian and S. Thorpe. (2001). Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences. San Diego: Academic Press. (6 vols.) ISBN 0-12-227430-X
- Sverdrup, Keith A., Duxbury, Alyn C., Duxbury, Alison B. (2006). Fundamentals of Oceanography, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0072826789.
- NASA/ JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) NASA/JPL PO.DAAC Data Center responsible for archiving and distributing data relevant to the physical state of the ocean.
- Ocean Science Series from the National Academy of Sciences.
- Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) - World's largest private, nonprofit ocean research, engineering and education organization.
- Scripps Institution of Oceanography
- Virginia Institute of Marine Science - coastal ocean and estuarine science
- British Oceanographic Data Centre - a source of oceanographic data and information
- National Oceanography Centre, Southampton
- Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory
- Marine Science Articles - provided by Insciences Organisation
- Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science
- NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration
- Career Advice on Oceanographer and other careers
- NOAA Ocean and Weather Data Navigator - Plot and download ocean data
- Exploring Marine Ecosystems - Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History permanent exhibit
- Freeview Video 'Voyage to the Bottom of the Deep Deep Sea' Oceanography Programme - Vega Science Trust and the BBC/OU
- NEMO: Modeling framework for Oceanography
- Oceanographycal and Hidrobiological manuscripts The Turkish Seas
- Ocean Alliance: Conservation Biology
- Pew Institute fo Ocean Science - Protecting the world's oceans and the species that inhabit them.
- Herdman, William A. - Founders of Oceanography, and their work - An introduction to the science of the sea
- Timeline of Oceanography
- Ocean Motion and Surface Currents (NASA)
India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities
A World Bank report, India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities, was launched in Washington DC on June 28, 2005.
New World Bank Report Says India Can Make Even Greater Strides in Growing its Economy and Reducing Poverty.
See all K4D resources on India and the Knowledge Economy
One of the world's largest economies, India has made enormous strides in its economic and social development in the past two decades. But according to a new World Bank report, India can do much more to leverage its strengths in today's knowledge-based global economy.
India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities argues that, when supported by the right kind of government policy incentives, the country can increase its economic productivity and the well-being of its population by making more effective use of knowledge.
"This report serves as an important Bank input into the domestic consultation and reform process which will move India further into the global knowledge economy of the twenty-first century," says Michael Carter, World Bank Country Director for India. "The World Bank recognizes that making effective use of knowledge in any country requires developing appropriate policies and institutions to promote entrepreneurship and efficient use of knowledge."
Grooming World Class Knowledge Workers
India already has many highly educated and vocationally qualified people who are making their mark, domestically and globally, in science, engineering, information technology (IT), and research and development (R&D). But they represent only a small fraction of the total population.
"To create a sustained cadre of 'knowledge workers,' India needs to make its education system more demand driven to meet the emerging needs of the economy and to keep its highly qualified people in the country," suggests Anuja Utz, co-author of the report. "This means raising the quality of all higher education institutions, not just a few world-class ones, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology."
Some ways of making the system more demand driven are to allow the private sector to fill the burgeoning demand for higher education by relaxing bureaucratic hurdles, and through better accreditation systems for private providers of education and training. Increased university-industry partnerships to translate research into applications can yield economic value. Lifelong learning programs can be used to meet the learning needs of all, both within and outside the school system, including using distance learning technologies to expand access to and the quality of formal education and lifelong training programs.
India is becoming a major global source of R&D; about 100 multinational corporations have already set up R&D centers in the country, leading to the deepening of technological and innovative capabilities among Indian firms. But even so, "India is still a relatively closed economy compared with other Asian economies," notes Carl Dahlman, co-author of the report. "India should increasingly tap into the rapidly growing stock of global knowledge through channels such as foreign direct investment, technology licensing, and so on, so that it can catch up to countries like China, where reforms have moved ahead much more rapidly."
An important part of India 's innovation system is the diffusion of modern and more efficient technologies in all sectors of the economy. According to Dr. R.A. Mashelkar, Director General, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, "India is already gaining international repute for its innovations in areas ranging from pharmaceuticals to software. IT will achieve even more as it improves the efficiency of public R&D, increase private R&D, and encourages greater university-industry linkages. It is leveraging traditional knowledge with modern science and exploiting public-private partnerships to support grassroots innovations which can improve the quality of life for the poor. An example is the Computer-Based Functional Literacy program, initiated by Tata Group to overcome illiteracy through innovative use of IT."
Creating a for Center of Excellence Information and Communication Technology
In the telecommunications sector, fierce price competition has resulted in Indian mobile telephony becoming one of the cheapest in the world; more than 47 million people had mobile phones at the end of 2004! India has achieved remarkable global success in the IT sector which accounted for about 3.82 percent of India 's GDP in 2003-04, and provided employment for almost a million people.
But the report notes that the explosive growth of ICTs has been concentrated in urban areas. The government should promote the application and use of ICTs throughout the economy to raise productivity and growth. This requires increasing access to ICTs, such as widespread availability of telephones, including mobile phones, computers, and connectivity to the Internet; enhancing ICT literacy and skills among the population; and developing ICT applications that can provide much-needed social, economic, and government services to citizens.
Moving to Action
This report recognized India 's achievements but sees enormous potential yet to be unleashed. It recommends an India-led process to coordinate and integrate reforms, combining those in the economic and institutional regime with the many initiatives in education, innovation and ICTs.
"This report comes at a very opportune time. It provides a very useful input for discussion by all stakeholders. What is needed is a national vision and the leadership and governance mechanisms to put this into action," notes Arun Maira, Chairman, Boston Consulting Group, India.
Sam Pitroda, Chairman of India's National Knowledge Commission supports this view: "We will take into consideration the analysis and recommendations of the report as we design our own strategy. We look forward to cooperating with the World Bank and other multilateral agencies as well as with think tanks and universities in India and abroad as the Commission works to harness knowledge for India 's development and realize its potential to become a major knowledge power."
NATIONAL KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY IN INDIA
India's growing population of young people will give the country a demographic advantage over many western countries and possibly even China in the decades to come. As a result, India's Prime Minister has said India must position itself to "leapfrog in the race for social and economic development" through the formulation of knowledge-oriented focus of development. As a result of this initiative, the National Knowledge Commission (NKC) was established in June 2005. The main objective of the commission will be to take appropriate actions to give India a knowledge advantage to create, apply and disseminate knowledge. This objective is expected to be implemented through the following strategies:
- Creation of Knowledge: strengthen education systems, promote research and development in a variety of fields, and partner with foreign sources to expand learning
- Application of Knowledge: target health, agriculture, government and industry sectors to balance traditional knowledge, innovation encouragement and revise governance through technology
- Dissemination of Knowledge: focus on widespread basic education for all citizens, especially those marginalized groups, create a culture of learning, foster improved literacy, create lifelong opportunities for skill acquirement, improve information and communication technology (ICT) and enhance standards of education through public awareness
Background of Knowledge Economy in India
The potential for tremendous economic growth in India is commonly accepted, however, the direction and format in which this growth should occur is often debated. Cooperation among key stakeholders in the government, private sector and civil society will be important in formulating and implementing polices that harness the knowledge that already exists within the country to increase the welfare and productivity of the economy and citizens. India is well-known for its highly educated and vocationally-ready population in fields such as science, engineering, information technology and research and development. India has and is still becoming a major source of research and development worldwide with approximately 100 large multinational corporations housing facilities in the country.
The historical importance of the Knowledge Economy is described by the President, in February 2006, "Since ancient times, our society has greatly valued knowledge. Our democracy has enabled us to spread the benefits of knowledge more widely. Today we live in a knowledge era in which every social and economic activity is driven by knowledge."
National Knowledge Commission Focus Areas
The access to knowledge is a fundamental goal of India's strategy. It is critical for the majority of the population to possess the means to not only obtain this information but have the necessary educational background to understand and then communicate with others about the knowledge to expand learning through discussions. The skills and intellectual abilities of India's young people will provide a strong foundation of human capital; thus, facilitating India's transition to a knowledge based economy. The nation's universities, research institutions and laboratories are an integral player in the development of this knowledge. The following issues regarding access to knowledge will be addressed by the commission:
- Adult literacy
- Delivery of information
- Public information availability
- Affirmative action framework
Further development of India's educational system is believed to be the key in fostering the advancement of the knowledge economy since knowledge concepts are distributed through the education system. The role of education in the context of a developing country is considered significantly valuable. As a result, the citizens and students of India will develop the skills to think independently, improve decision making, monitor current events at a local, national and global level, and question socio-economic situations to inspire innovation and change.
Mechanisms for Change
In order for India to become a global educational leader, the National Knowledge Commission recommends the following strategies to be operationalized into action through appropriate government policies:
- The promotion of sound research in universities and institutes and the achievement of worldwide competitiveness in the quality of higher education
- The linkage of research in institutes with industry needs to best develop research and development
- The diversification of funding sources for institutes and universities as a strategy for collaboration and knowledge sharing
- The promotion of innovation through the National Innovation Foundation, which encourages students to use new approaches in science and technology
- The strengthening of Intellectual Property Rights in the country
- The inclusion of internet and e-learning into standard education systems
- The promotion of new agricultural technology that will provide sustainable food sources
- The protection of traditional knowledge which is particularly at risk due to the expansion of new technologies
- The creation of a comprehensive e-governance system to reduce costs, empower citizens and improve efficiency
The British High Commission's work on the knowledge economy is a cross-cutting effort to help ensure coherent engagement with India on economic and trade policy, science and innovation, education, and research; and to ensure that all involved realise the benefits of that engagement.
In this area, the High Commission's teams work particularly closely with DFID India (Department for International Development), and the India offices of the British Council and UK Research Councils (RCUK).
Our economic and trade policy work includes programme activities in the economic reform strand of our Low Carbon High Growth Strategic Programme Fund.
Latest from the UK on knowledge economy issuesCompetitiveness in a knowledge economy: Speech by Vince Cable, Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills.
|Developing a framework for Collaborative Linkages to meet the Emerging Challenges|
India and the Knowledge Economy
The Skills and Innovation Policy (SIP) program's interactions with top Indian policymakers interested in knowledge economy issues date back to 2001 when it organized a very successful high level forum for policymakers and representatives of the private sector and civil society from Brazil, China and India. A comprehensive report on India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities followed in 2005. The program is currently working with the World Bank's India country team on issues of enhancing the environment for innovation and fostering Diaspora networks.
Promoting Inclusive Innovation in India. Anuja Utz and Carl Dahlman. October 2007.
India and the Knowledge Economy - The road to a best selling World Bank report. An article about the publication of a best-selling report, India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities.
Diaspora Networks and the International Migration of Skills: How Countries Can Draw on their Talent Abroad. The book offers a chapter on Indian Diaspora. June 2006.
India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities. The book makes key policy recommendations to increase India's competitiveness in the global economy, boost economic productivity and growth, and help reduce poverty. June 2005.
Preliminary Benchmarking KE Assessments: India. Presentation by Carl Dahlman and Anuja Utz, November 2004. (PDF, 1.6Mb)
India's Transformation to Knowledge-Based Economy – Evolving Role of the Indian Diaspora. The key objectives of this paper are to analyze the increasingly important role of the successful Indian Diaspora in facilitating growth and improving process management within the knowledge intensive industries in India. July 2004. (PDF, 84Kb)
Governance of Technical and Engineering Education in India - Pilot Learning Forum. Hyderabad, India, September 23-26, 2009. New!
Global Workshop on Migration of Talent and Diasporas of the Highly Skilled.The workshop focused on the design of public policies to leverage expatriate skills abroad for the benefit of the countries of origin. April 2005.
Global Innovation Policy Dialogue: India and China. The event was designed to discuss issues related to the promotion of innovation in developing economies. April 2005.
Workshop on India and the Knowledge Economy. The main aim of the workshop was to have a broad discussion with a wide range of stakeholders from government and the private sector on how Indiacan leverage its potential to further compete in the global knowledge economy. November 2004.
K4D Policy forum for Brazil, China, and India. A policy forum for high level policymakers and representatives from the private sector and civil society. March 2001.
All Available Downloads
Did not find what you are looking for? The search engine below provides access to all the downloadable SIP resources relevant to India's strive towards knowledge economy, big and small – books, reports, policy notes and presentations.
Use an interactive database - the Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM), to benchmark India's position in the global knowledge economy.
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|Governance of Technical and Engineering Education in India||State Case Studies: Andhra Pradesh|
Author(s): N/A © The World Bank more
|Presentations||Accountability and Autonomy in Engineering Education: What is working ?|
|Knowledge for Development|
Author(s): Brig. S.S. Pabla © The World Bank more
|Presentations||Quality Dimensions for Excellence: Case Study of NIT Tiruchirappalli|
|Knowledge for Development|
Author(s): M. Chida © The World Bank more
|Presentations||Assessment of Higher Education Performance: International Trends and Examples|
|Assessment of Higher Education Performance: International Trends and Examples|
Author(s): Kurt Larsen © The World Bank more
|Presentations||Institutional Leadership for Transformation|
|This presentation suggests the range of institutional leadership options open to countries. Understanding these options and the strengths and weaknesses ... more|
|Presentations||Towards a Joined-Up Government|
|presentation for videoconference on Public Sector Transformation Towards Citizen-Centric Joined-up Government: Lessons Learned from UK and India|
Author(s): J Satyanarayana ... more
|Presentations||The Role of CIOs and e-Champions in the Public Sector|
|The Role of CIOs and e-Champions in the Public Sector Presentation to Information and Communication Technologies Agency of Sri Lanka ... more|
|Presentations||Building e-Government Leadership in India: Key Issues and Perspectives|
|E-Governance will be promoted on a massive scale.Understand their goals Package e-governance suitably Make them understand their role in making ... more|
|Presentations||India's Diversification from IT and Emergence as a Global Leader in Knowledge Intensive Industries – Issues at Stake and Challenges. Part 5.|
|Event: Global Innovation Policy Dialogue: India and China. |
Author(s): Anil Gupta © Indian Institute of Management more
|Presentations||India's Diversification from IT and Emergence as a Global Leader in Knowledge Intensive Industries – Issues at Stake and Challenges. Part 4.|
|Event: Global Innovation Policy Dialogue: India and China. |
Author(s): Anil Gupta © Indian Institute of Management more
|Presentations||India's Diversification from IT and Emergence as a Global Leader in Knowledge Intensive Industries – Issues at Stake and Challenges. Part 3.|
|Event: Global Innovation Policy Dialogue: India and China. |
Author(s): Anil Gupta © Indian Institute of Management more
|Presentations||India's Diversification from IT and Emergence as a Global Leader in Knowledge Intensive Industries – Issues at Stake and Challenges. Part 2.|
|Event: Global Innovation Policy Dialogue: India and China. |
Author(s): Anil Gupta © Indian Institute of Management more
|Presentations||India's Diversification from IT and Emergence as a Global Leader in Knowledge Intensive Industries – Issues at Stake and Challenges. Part 1.|
|Event: Global Innovation Policy Dialogue: India and China. |
Author(s): Anil Gupta © Indian Institute of Management more
|Articles & Papers||India's Transformation to Knowledge-Based Economy – Evolving Role of the Indian Diaspora.|
|Global Workshop on Migration of Talent and Diasporas of the Highly Skilled|
Author(s): Abhishek Pandey, Richard Devane and Yevgeny Kuznetsov, Alok ... more
|Articles & Papers||India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities.|
Author(s): Carl Dahlman and Anuja Utz. © world bank more
|Presentations||Scotland's Experience of Building a Diaspora Network.|
|Learning Event: From Brain Drain to Brain Gain: 'How to' of Mobilization of Diasporas of Highly Skilled.|
Author(s): Mairi MacRae ... more
|Presentations||India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities|
|Structure of presentation:|
India in Long Term Context
Why Focus on Knowledge Strategies?
Benchmarking India on the Four Pillars of the
Key ... more
|Articles & Papers||India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities|
|One of the world's largest economies, India has made tremendous strides in its economic and |
social development in the past two ... more
|Presentations||India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities|
|This presentation focuses on: India in Long Term Context; Why Focus on Knowledge Strategies; Benchmarking India on the Four Pillars ... more|