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Thursday, December 23, 2010

End of an era in Kerala politics! Will it Change the Equations in south as Periyar, Narayan Guru and Anyakali legacy is Captured by the Manusmriti Hegemony!

End of an era in Kerala politics! Will it Change the Equations in south as Periyar, Narayan Guru and Anyakali legacy is Captured by the Manusmriti Hegemony!

Indian Holocaust My Father`s Life and Time -FIVE HUNDRED FIFTYOne

Palash Biswas

Ayyankali - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ayyankali (1863–1941) was a leader of the Indian lower caste Dalits known as the Untouchables. He pioneered many reforms to improve the lives of the Dalits. ... - Cached - Similar

Narayana Guru - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sri Nārāyana Guru (Malayalam: നാരായണ ഗുരു) (1855–1928), also known as Sree NārāyanaGuru Swami, was a Hindu saint, sadhu and social reformer of ...
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End of an era in Kerala politics! Will it Change the Equations in south as Periyar, Narayan Guru and Anyakali legacy is Captured by the Manusmriti Hegemony!

Last time in Pallakkad, my host Prabhakar asked me how did I feel in Kerala.

I just answered, `At HOME! It is more or less Bengal!'

Kerala is strikingly different from the South Indian general aboriginal Indigenous humanscape. In Tamilnadu, kerala and even in Andhra, the Dravid Identity is Vocal, Assertive! Whereas, the Land created by God, the Land Created by the Brhamin PARSURAM as CPIM GS late Comrade Nambudaripad was proud of,Parsuram,who killed the Kshatriyas no less than 21 times as Hindu Mythology claimes, has absorbed the Dravid Identy as well as killed the Mulnivasi Movement!Kerala and bengal both are rued by Marxists.The Chief Minister Achutyanandan belongs to OBC community! But the Marxist Rule and alternative CONGRESS Rule which was often representated by Karunakaran, has made Kerala as much as Monopolistic Brahaminical as Benagl ahs turned out to be. The structural development and the displacement and exodus stories are quite Identitical!
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    End of an era in Kerala politics

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    The HinduSenior congress leader and former Kerala Chief Minister K. Karunakaran during a press conference at his residence in Thiruvananthapuram. A file photo: S. Mahinsha



    Former Kerala Chief Minister Karunakaran passes away



    A political era has come to an end with the death of veteran Congress leader K Karunakaran, but he leaves behind an indelible political legacy. The legacy: a bipolar coalition grouped into communist and anti-communist formation, predominant role for minority communities in Kerala politics, a few unforgettable, yet novel development initiatives and many more.

    The history of Kerala politics from 1970 cannot be written without Karunakaran as the central character. In the late 1960s, he stitched up a coalition mobilising parties of divergent ideologies on an anti-Marxist platform, with the Communist Party of India in the front. With just 9 MLAs, he brought the Congress back into political power in 1971 riding on the new coalition experiment.

    An intuitive politician, Karunakaran revalidated Kerala's bipolar coalition politics in 1982 by regrouping politics around the left and anti-left axis, which has stood the test of time. There is no other Kerala leader who wielded as much clout in national politics as Karunakaran. In a twist to the political script, the hardcore anti-communist nearly dismantled the edifice he had built when he formed the Democratic Indira Congress (Karunakaran) in an attempt to get into the Left camp.

    This is perhaps the only failed experiment in his rather long political career that made him the undisputed Congress leader, four-time Chief Minister, Opposition Leader and a king maker. The senior-most Congress leader was quick to realise his folly and returned to the Congress, but the Beeshamaacharya of Kerala politics had to lie on a bed of political arrows till his death.

    Born as Kannoth Karunakaran Marar to Kannoth Ramunni Marar and Kannoth Kalyani Marasiyar in Kannur, he studied in Raja's High School and did his diploma in Design, Geometry and Painting from College of Arts, Thrissur.

    But the shrewd Karunakaran discovered quite early in his life that his future was in politics. Beginning his career as a political worker in the Cochin Rajya Praja Mandalam, he entered electoral politics as member of the then Trichur Municipal Council (1945-47). He was the founding member of the Indian National Trade Union Congress in Kerala. Karunakaran was elected eight times to the Kerala Legislative Assembly between 1965 and 1995. Mala was his favourite constituency. Though he contested from Nemom and Mala assembly seats in 1977, he chose to retain his Mala seat.

    Karunakaran was Home Minister in the Achutha Menon ministry (1971-77). When the entire nation voted against the Congress party in the post-emergency elections in 1977, Kerala was the only state that returned a Congress-led government, with Karunakaran assuming the mantle of Chief Minister.

    However, the euphoria of winning 111 seats in the assembly ended quite quickly when he had to resign as Chief Minister within a month following court references in the famous Rajan case that rocked the state. He sprang back into reckoning after the courts cleared him, but the Rajan case is one incident that Karunakaran always wanted to forget.

    He was known as "king-maker" and had an important role in installing P V Narasimha Rao as Prime Minister in 1991 soon after the death of Rajiv Gandhi. He was made a Rajya Sabha MP when his Chief Ministership came to an abrupt end in 1995. He was also Union Minister for Industries in the Narasimha Rao Cabinet.

    Karunakaran has always found himself on the winning side in both the 1969 and 1978 splits in the Congress. He drew his political strength from his long-lasting loyalty to the Nehru-Gandhi family. A new phase in this relationship began from 1969 when Karunakaran stood steadfastly with Indira Gandhi and lasted till 2006 when he chose to form his own party following differences with Sonia Gandhi. The torn ties were patched up only late in 2007 with his return to the Congress in a no-win situation.

    Karunakaran seemed to be doing everything right till his burning ambition to anoint his son, K Muraleedharan as his successor blurred his amazing political vision. In the process, he misread the undercurrents of events while navigating the contours of volatile factional politics. He used his clout to create political passage for his son, K Muraleedharan, making him a member of parliament first and later the Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee president. Till the end of his life, Karunakaran sought to cut a path for his son's return to the Congress, acknowledging in a way that there was no political scope outside bipolar coalitions.

    Karunakaran always believed that factional politics provided strength to the Congress and was its unabashed practitioner. Despite all this, Karunakaran was loved by his supporters, who endearingly called him "Leader", hated by his foes, feared by his peers and respected by all.

    All said and done, Karunakaran remained a Congressman till the end. It goes to his credit that he did not ever think of jettisoning his Left of Centre and secular positions. At a time when Congress leaders in other states chose to team up with the BJP once they quit the party, Karunakaran did not dilute his stand even when he was politically cornered. This fact alone makes his political legacy more valuable for the current Congress leadership in the State to uphold.


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    Karunakaran passes away, bringing curtains down on era in Kerala politics

    Economic Times - ‎14 minutes ago‎
    THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: A struggle has never been alien to K Karunakaran, leader non-pareil of Kerala politics. Over the last fortnight, since his admission to a private hospital here, the veteran politician's fighting qualities were to the fore for a few ...

    Former Kerala chief minister Karunakaran passes away

    Hindustan Times - ‎12 minutes ago‎
    Veteran Congress leader and a four-time Kerala chief minister K Karunakaran, who rose from humble origins to straddle the state politics for over five decades, died on Thursday after prolonged illness. 93-year-old Kannoth Karunakaran, who also served...

    Karunakaran: A colossus who rubbed shoulders with Nehru, Indira

    Deccan Herald - ‎31 minutes ago‎
    He was short and diminutive. But Kannoth Karunakaran was a giant of a man in Kerala's political kaleidoscope, one who had rubbed shoulders with Jawaharlal Nehru and was Indira Gandhi's confidant, who became chief minister four times, and was addressed ...

    Former Kerala CM Karunakaran dies after prolonged illness

    Sify - ‎34 minutes ago‎
    Veteran Congress leader and former Kerala Chief Minister K Karunakaran breathed his last on Thursday after suffering a stroke and acute breathing problems at a hospital here. He was 93. Karunakaran was hospitalised on December 10 following a complaint ...

    Former Kerala chief minister Karunakaran dead, cremation Saturday

    Sify - ‎34 minutes ago‎
    Thiruvananthapuram, Dec 23 (IANS) Veteran Congress leader K. Karunakaran, who was four times chief minister of Kerala, died in a hospital here Thursday, doctors said. He was 92. His cremation will be held at his home town in Thrissur Saturday morning, ...

    End of an era in Kerala politics

    The Hindu - Girish Menon - ‎1 hour ago‎
    The Hindu Senior congress leader and former Kerala Chief Minister K. Karunakaran during a press conference at his residence in Thiruvananthapuram. A file photo: S. Mahinsha A political era has come to an end with the death of veteran Congress leader K ...

    Karunakaran, a master tactician and a king in Kerala politics, is dead

    Times of India - ‎1 hour ago‎
    THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: Affectionately called 'Leader' by his admirers, Congress stalwart Kannoth Karunakaran was a master tactician who remained a 'King' in Kerala politics for decades and at times a much sought after political troubleshooter at the ...

    Karunakaran's death a great loss: Congress

    Times of India - ‎1 hour ago‎
    NEW DELHI: The Congress Thursday condoled the death of veteran leader K Karunakaran as a "great loss" and described him as "one of the tallest" leaders of the party. Congress spokesperson Jayanthi Natarajan said that Karunakaran, who died in Kerala at ...

    'Leader' Karunakaran is no more

    Oneindia - ‎1 hour ago‎
    Trivandrum, Dec 23: Former Kerala Chief Minister passed away in a private hospital at 5:30pm on Dec 23, 2010. His condition was deteriorating due to prolonged illness. He was aged 93. He served as Kerala Chief Minister four times. ...
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    Karunakaran passes away, bringing curtains down on era in Kerala politics
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    Narayana Guru

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    Narayana Guru

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    Sri Nārāyana Guru (Malayalamനാരായണ ഗുരു) (1855–1928), also known as Sree Nārāyana GuruSwami, was a Hindu saintsadhu[1][2] and social reformer of India. The Guru was born into anEzhava family, in an era when people from backward communities like the Ezhavas faced much social injustices in the caste-ridden Kerala society. Gurudevan, as he was fondly known to his followers, led Reform movement in Kerala, revolted against casteism and worked on propagating new values of freedom in spirituality and of social equality, thereby transforming the Kerala society and as such he is adored as a prophet.[1][2]

    Nārāyana Guru is revered for his Vedic knowledge, poetic proficiency, openness to the views of others, non-violent philosophy and his unrelenting resolve to set aright social wrongs. Nārāyana Guru was instrumental in setting the spiritual foundations for social reform[3] in today's Kerala and was one of the most successful social reformers who tackled caste in India. He demonstrated a path to social emancipation without invoking the dualism of the oppressed and the oppressor.

    Guru stressed the need for the spiritual and social upliftment of the downtrodden by their own efforts through the establishment of temples and educational institutions. In the process he brushed aside the superstitions that clouded the fundamental Hindu religious convention ofChaturvarna.




    [edit]Family and Early life

    A digitised image of a photograph taken when Narayana Guru was sixty

    Narayana Guru was born in August 22, 1856, in the village ofChempazhanthi near Thiruvananthapuram, the son of Madan Asan, a farmer, and Kutti Amma. The boy was dotingly called Nanu. Madan was also a teacher ("Asan") who was learned in Sanskrit and proficient inAstrology and Ayurveda.He had three sisters. As a boy, Nānu would listen to his father with keen interest when he narrated stories from theRamayana and the Mahabharata to the simple folks of his village. Nānu was initiated into the traditional formal education Ezhuthinirithal by Chempazhanthi Pillai, a local schoolmaster and a village officer. Besides schooling, young Nānu continued to be educated at home, under the guidance of both his father and uncle Krishnan Vaidyan who was a reputed Ayurvedicphysician and a Sanskrit scholar, where he was taught the basics of the Tamil and Sanskritlanguages and traditional subjects such as SiddharupamBālaprobhodhanam and Amarakosam.

    As a child, Nanu was very reticent and was intensely drawn to worship at the local temple. He would criticise his own relatives for social discrimination and the apartheid-like practice of segregating children from, supposedly, lower castes. He preferred solitude and would be found immersed in meditation for hours on end. He showed strong affinity for poetics and reasoning, composing hymns and singing them in praise of God. He lost his mother when he was 15. Nānu spent the most part of his early youth assisting his father in tutoring, and his uncle in the practice ofAyurveda, while devoting the rest of his time for devotional practices at the temples nearby.[4]

    [edit]Transformation as master, yogi and seeker of truth

    The young Nanu had a keen mind and was sent to a famous scholar, Kummampilli Rāman Pillai Asan at Karunagapally, a village fifty miles away from his home, at the age of 21. Living as a guest in a family house Varanapally near Kayamkulam, Nānu, along with other students, was taught Sanskrit language and poetry, drama and literary criticism, and logical rhetoric. He studied the Vedas and the Upanishads. He also began teaching in a near-by school. His knowledge earned him the respect of many and he came to be known as "Nanu Asan".

    Nanu returned home to spend some time with his father, who was on the death bed. For a short period he ran a village school for the children of his neighbourhood. While continuing his quest for "the ultimate truth", Nanu would often spend time in the confines of temples, writing poems and hymns and lecturing to villagers on philosophy and moral values.

    [edit]Married life

    Under pressure from his family, Nanu married Kaliamma, the daughter of a traditional village doctor. The marriage was a simple affair with the groom's sisters themselves investing the bride with the 'Thaali' (wedding knot) on his behalf. The bride remained with her parents, since Nanu asan became a wanderer not long after.

    [edit]'Parivrajaka' (A Spiritual Wanderer)

    After the demise of his father and wife, Nanu Asan continued his life of a wandering Sanyasi. He became a 'Parivrajaka' (one who wanders from place to place in quest of Truth). It was during one of these days that Nanu met Kunjan Pillai, who later came to be known as Chattampi Swamikal. Kunjan Pillai, who discovered and appreciated Nānu Āśān's philosophical genius and passion for Yoga, introduced him to Thycattu Ayyaavu, a 'Hatha yogi'. Under the Yogi, Nānu Āśān mastered various Yogic practices including Hatha Yoga. The exposure gained from this scholastic experiences had a lasting impact on the later life and philosophy of Nārāyana Guru.

    [edit]Enlightenment and its poetic expression

    Nānu moved to his hermitage deep inside the hilly forests of Maruthwāmala, where he led an austere life immersed in meditative thought andyoga and subjected himself to extreme sustenance rituals. This phase of solitude lasted for 8 long years. After an unpretentious life of over thirty years abounding in knowledge and harsh experiences, this epoch is considered the culmination of the meditative recluse; the point at which Nārāyana Guru is believed to have attained a state of Enlightenment.

    Nārāyana Guru's later literary and philosophical masterpiece Atmopadesa Satakam (one hundred verses of self-instruction, written inMalayalam circa 1897) is considered a fertile poetic expression, encapsulating the Guru's philosophy of egalitarianism, emanating from the author's attainment of an experienced state of primordial knowledge and quintessence of the Universe; and his ensuing ability to view the human race, from a dignified and elevated perspective, as nothing but one of a genus, in unqualified equality and without any racialreligious,caste or other discriminations whatsoever.

    [edit]Consecration of Siva Lingam at Aruvippuram

    Narayana Guru's Tomb at Sivagiri

    Learning from the sacred books and the practice of Yoga did not quench the thirst of Nanu. He continued his wanderings in quest of Truth. By and by, he came to a beautiful place calledAruvippuram. It was a forest area. There were hills around. A gurgling rivulet (of river Neyyar) also flowed there. As more people sought him out for healing or advice, he and his disciples felt the need for a regular temple for worshipping Shiva. At a beautiful spot near the river, he had his followers build a small canopy of coconut leaves and mango leaves over an altar on a rock jutting out in the water. The year was 1888. They improvised lamps with shells and arranged them in rows. They were lighted at dusk and a piper began to play devotional tunes. The whole place was soon filled with pious village folk. Gurudevan, who had been sitting apart and meditating all night, stood at midnight and walked into the river. As thousands watched silently (If silence had music, the atmosphere was filled with it,wrote one correspondent) he descended into the river and then reemerged, holding an idol of Shiva. He stood beneath the canopy with it in his arms for three hours, totally lost in meditation, tears flowing down his cheeks. Finally, at three in the morning, he installed the idol on the pedestal. His action was equivalent of overturning the tables of the money changers, or refusing to give up a seat on the bus. From the beginning of time, so far as anyone knew, only Brahmins had ever installed an idol. Yet when Gurudevan performed the sacred rite it appeared so natural for him to pick up a small rock and install it. When brahmins challenged his right to consecrate, he replied in his famous quote:This is not a Brahmin Siva, but an Ezhava Siva.To those who questioned the timing of the consecration saying it was not an astrologically auspicious time, he replied: Horoscope is to be cast after the birth of a child, not before. He instructed to place a plaque containing a motto on the temple wall which read as:

    Devoid of dividing walls of Caste
    Or hatred of rival faith,
    We all live here
    In Brotherhood,
    Such, know this place to be!
    This Model Foundation!

    A new phase began in the Guru's life in 1904. He decided to give up his wandering life and settle down in a place to continue his Sadhana(spiritual practice). He chose Sivagiri, twenty miles north of ThiruvananthapuramGoddess 'Amba' became his deity of worship.

    Next, he started a Sanskrit school in Varkala. Poor boys and orphans were taken under his care. They were given education regardless of caste distinctions. Temples were built at different places - ThrissurKannurAnchuthenguTellicherryCalicutMangalore. A temple was built for Sharada Devi in 1912, at Sivagiri. Worship at such temples helped reduce to a large extent superstitious beliefs and practices.

    One of the temples built in Thrissur is the Sri Narayana Temple at Koorkenchery. The temple has a school in its compound named Sri Narayana School. The School encourages students' talents by organizing talent competitions. These competitions, regularly held every year, have been a platform for youngsters to stand up and recognize their talents.

    In 1913, he founded the Advaita Ashram at Aluva. This was an important event in his spiritual quest. This Ashram was dedicated to a great principle - Om Sahodaryam Sarvatra (all men are equal in the eyes of God). This became the motto of the new Ashram.

    When Nārāyana Guru attained the age of sixty, his birth day was observed throughout the west-coast from Mangalore to Sri Lanka. Between 1918 and 1923 he visited Sri Lanka many times. In 1921, a Conference of Universal Brotherhood was held at Aluva. Again in 1924, a conference of all religions was held there. Guru stressed the need for a Brahma Vidyalaya for a comparative study of different religious faiths.

    Sree Nārāyana Guru had many followers and disciples. Nataraja Guru, a notable disciple of Sree Nārāyana Guru, introduced Guru's visions and ideals to the western world. He established Narayana Gurukulam in 1923 in the Nilgiri Hills with the blessings of Nārāyana Guru.

    [edit]Om Sahodaryam Sarvatra (The Brotherhood of All)

    In 1913, the Guru founded an Ashram at Aluva. It was called the Advaita Ashram. This was an important event in the life of the Guru. The Ashram was dedicated to a great principle - Om Sahodaryam Sarvatra (all human beings are equal in the eyes of God). In 1921, a Conference of Universal Brotherhood was held at Aluva. Again in 1924, a conference of all religions was held there. The Guru stressed the need for aBrahma Vidyalayam for the comparative study of various religious faiths. An institution called Narayana Gurukulam was established in theNilgiri HillsTamil Nadu by Bodhananda Swamikal and later handed over to Nataraja Guru.

    [edit]Final Ceylon Journey

    Gurudevan visited Ceylon again in 1926. He had some moving experiences while travelling in Tamil Nadu in connection with his journey toCeylon. While he was in Sree Ganapathi temple in heavy rain he said, "If there is anyone writing my biography, these experiences should not be missed, they should be recorded."After that journey to CeylonGurudevan did not want to return. He went back only after repeated requests of his disciples and devotees.

    [edit]Message to Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana (SNDP) Yogam

    In a message to the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam in 1926 Gurudevan declared, No community can make progress except through organization. He further said in that message, The name Ezhava does not denote a caste or a religion and he made temple rights to everyone. Therefore people can be admitted to this organization without paying heed to differences of caste.

    On June 14, 1927 Sree Narayana Guru consecrated a mirror - with the message "Om shanti" written on the surface - in a temple in Kalavankode. The prathishta of the mirror is symbolic in that Advaita Vedanta interpret the mirror as the visible symbol of the unity of the Finite and the Infinite. That was the last prathishta that the Guru would do. Schools rather than temples are to be preferred, he exhorted in a dramatic shift of focus. Gurudevan participated in the anniversary of the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam held at Palluruthy in 1927. It was a splendid meeting which demonstrated the sincere, devout faith of the people in GurudevanT. K. Madhavan was one of the chief architects of this meeting. In 1928 Gurudevan took part in the special meeting of the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam at Kottayamand gave away registration certificates to the branch organizations.

    Even though Guru started SNDP as a forum to lead the activities for social equality and caste less society, eventually SNDP turned out to be a forum of Ezhava caste, which is a contradiction to Guru's vision. Various factions in the SNDP Yogam accuse others of financial irregularities and corruption [5][6]. There are allegations that liquor barons are controlling the SNDP Yogam [7].It is an irony that today SNDP Yogam represents exactly those things/ideas which Guru opposed.

    [edit]Sivagiri pilgrimage

    Sivagiri pilgrimage was conceived by Vallabhasseri Govindan Vaidyar and T K Kittan Writer. It was duly approved by Gurudevan on January, 1928. The setting was SNDP's Nagambadam Shiva temple. It was 3 pm and Gurudevan was resting under a mango tree when the two presented the concept of Sivagiri pilgrimage. Before giving its his blessings he set out the goals of such a pilgrimage. He said: "Let the pilgrims congregate at the beginning of the Gregorian calendar year. It should be Dhanu 16-17 in Malayalam calendar. Let the pilgrims observe 10 days'self-purification according to Sri Buddha's principles of five purities - body, food, mind, word, deed called as Pancha Dharma.

    He ruled that pilgrims could wear yellow clothes - the colour of the garments Sri Buddha wore. Let no one purchase yellow silk because we have recommended yellow garments. Not even new clothes are required on the pilgrimage. A pilgrim can dip a white garment in turmeric water and wear after drying. The pilgrimage should be conducted with simplicity and preferably be accompanied by the chanting of hymns. There should be no shouting and pilgrims should scrupulously avoid trappings of ostentation.

    To Govindan Vaidyar and Kitten Writer, Gurudevan counted on his fingers the goals of the pilgrimage, explaining how to achieve them. The goals were the promotion of

    • 1. Education
    • 2. Cleanliness
    • 3. Devotion to God
    • 4. Organization
    • 5. Agriculture
    • 6. Trade
    • 7. Handicrafts
    • 8. Technical training

    He advised them to organize a series of lectures on the themes with experts conducting them. The lectures should be listened to attentively. More important, the principles should be put into practice. Success must accompany efforts. Only then will the country and the people benefit. this must be the core purpose of Sivagiri pilgrimage.

    Finally, it was decided to start the first pilgrimage from the village of Elavumthitta in Pathanamthitta District. The S N D P unit No.76 ofElavumthitta selected 5 youngsters for the pilgrimage, namely, P.K.Divakara Panicker, P.K.Kesavan, P.V.Raghavan, M.K.Raghavan, S.Sankunni. All the 5 pilgrims wore bright yellow dress, as suggested by Sree narayana Guru. All the way to Sivagiri, they were reciting 'Swaathanthrya gadha' – written by the great poet Kumaranaasan. They were teased with the words 'Manjakkilikal' –meaning yellow birds. They never got provoked, with a smile they moved on. The dominant thought in their mind was the mission to fulfil, will have to reach Sivagiri, a great responsibility bestowed on their shoulders by the Sreenarayana devotees. Their mission was a great success. Today thousands are following the way they have shown.

    The Palluruthi event in 1927 was the last anniversary of the Yogam which Gurudevan attended. It was also the last public function Gurudevanattended.

    Gurudevan went to Vellur Mutt at Vaikom to rest. There he was taken ill. He went to Alwaye and later to Trichur for treatment. Dr. Krishnan took Gurudevan to Palghat. From there Gurudevan travelled to Madras for treatment.


    Guru became seriously ill in September 1928. He remained bedridden for some time. Devotees came in large numbers to have a glimpse. The same year, Gurudevan's birthday was celebrated in many places, mostly in KeralaMadrasMangaloreSrilanka and Europe. On 20 September, Guru died.

    Commemorative coins issued by the Reserve Bank of India in 2006 on the occasion of the 150th birth anniversary of Nārāyana Guru. Click on picture for enlarged view.

    [edit]Nārāyana Guru's philosophy

    Hailing from the land of Adi Shankara, Sree Nārāyana Guru was a great proponent and re-evaluator of Advaita Vedanta. Guru's philosophy, which is fundamentally of Advaitic and non-dual wisdom in principles, further extended Advaitic concepts into practical modes of self-realisation through spiritual education, compassion and peaceful co-existence of humanity, whilst promoting social equality and universal brotherhood. His philosophy strongly denounced discrimination in the name of casteor religion, and emphasised focusing on education and private enterprise for the ongoing upliftment of the quality of life. Guru's philosophy emphasised the consistency between true existence of the "common reality" on Earth and one Divinebehind the creation and sustenance of the Universe.

    Guru's philosophy is exemplified in his mystical writings that are truly interchanging warps and wefts of ethicslogicaesthetics and metaphysics woven into masterpieces of silken rich poetry. Guru's literary works inMalayalamSanskrit and Tamil are of a conceptual and aesthetic quality at par with the Upanishads.

    At the time of its conception, Nārāyana Guru's philosophy was in many respects ahead of its time and focused on a futuristic world order that could be shaped from his philosophical connotations that are underlain with transcendental aesthetics and logic embodied in knowledge and pure reason. Most of the serious scholars of Nārāyana Guru's philosophy have been from generations beyond his lifetime; and this list keeps growing.

    [edit]Tolerance toward others

    A message sent by Nārāyana Guru toSahodarasangham during their annual conference - May 15, 1921

    Guru had followers from all walks of life. Some of these were atheists. An Advaithin to the core, he did not differentiate people on the basis of their relegion, caste, colour or beliefs. He was tolerant toward all philosophies that stood for the progress of mankind.

    To avoid the attempts made by a section of his followers to identify him with the community he was born into, Nārāyana Guru was forced to state explicitly that he did not belong to any particular caste or religion. Through a message he sent in the year 1916, he proclaimed : It is years since I left castes and religions. Yet some people think that I belong to their caste. That is not correct. I do not belong to any particular caste or religion.

    [edit]The Guru's influence on other social thinkers

    Concerning the caste system, Gandhi said the following to Nārāyana Guru: "The caste-Hindus and the low caste-Hindus are both the sons of Hinduism. The caste-Hindu is the elder brother who shoulders responsibility, and he therefore exercises certain privileges. The low caste-Hindu is his younger brother who is to be cared for. If the elder brother turns out to be somewhat rough and aggressive that should not make the younger brother a runaway from his mother Hinduism."[8] Nārāyana Guru, however, disagreed, and voiced his tolerance for those who converted to other religions, with the argument that one should follow what one truly believes in. He also questioned the logic of Gandhi's argument, arguing that caste in India was a socio-economic issue.

    [edit]Guru's Famous Teachings

    • One Jati(Caste) One Religion, One God for Man
    • All are of one Self-fraternity Such being the dictum to avow,In such a light how can we take life And devoid of least pity go on to eat
    • Ask not, Say not Think not caste. Think only Gods.
    • Acts that one performs For one's own sake Should also aim for the good Of other men
    • Love of others is my happiness, Love that is mine is happiness for others. And so, truly, deeds that benefit a man Must be a cause for other's happiness too.
    • Grace, Love, Mercy -all the three - Stand for one same reality- Life's Star. He who loves is who really lives.
    • Whatever may be the difference in men's creed, dress, language etc. because they all belong to the same kind of creation, there is no harm at all in their dining together or having marital relation withone another.
    • Liquor is poison Make it not Sell it not Drink it not.
    • Devoid of dividing walls Of caste or race Or hatred, We all live here In Brotherhood
    • Progress through education. Strengthen through organisation.

    [edit]Public acceptance, honours and veneration

    The first Jnana Vigrahamof Narayana Guru

    Since his lifetime Nārāyana Guru has been conferred formal recognitions and honours by the State, intelligentsia and society. In 1901 the State Census Manual of Travancore recorded Sree Nārāyana as a revered "Guru" and an erudite Sanskrit scholar. A sharp drop in the statistics of the commission of crime was also attributed to the correcting and moralizing influence of Nārāyana Guru on the society. In 1904 the then Maharajah of Travancore exempted Nārāyana Guru from personal appearances in court, an honour recognizing the Guru as a distinguished living personality.

    Malayala Manoramacover spread on 31 December 1999 naming Nārāyana Guru as 'Malayalee of the Century'

    The first statue of the Guru was conceived by Moorkoth Kumaran and sculpted by an Italian sculptor Prof. Tavaroli whilst the Guru was still alive. The bronze statue, which took 14 months to complete, was installed at the Jaggannaatha temple atThalassery and unveiled on 13 March 1927, after the consecration of the statue byBodhananda Swamikal, the disciple and then spiritual successor-designate to Nārāyana Guru.

    On the Guru's Mahasamadhi (passing away), the famed Jnanapith award winner poet Mahakavi G. Sankara Kurup paid tribute to Nārāyana Guru by writing aMalayalam verse venerating the Guru as The Second Buddha. Sree Nārāyana Guru's legacy continues to be revered at esteemed levels within social, intellectual and spiritually organised communities worldwide.

    Jagadguru Swami Sathyananda Saraswathi,the renowned spiritual teacher reckoned as the greatest karmayogi to uphold Sanatana Dharma since Swami Vivekananda drew inspiration from the guru's life and teachings and popularised it through his long oratories across the length and breadth of Kerala.He can be regarded as a political sucessor of the guru who enshrined the guru's vision in the setting up of Hindu Aikya Vedi uniting all thehindu organisations in Kerala under the aegis of a single organisation brushing aside caste distinctions and uniting the two major groups of Hindus in the state,respectively the savarna Nairs and Ezhavas.As Noted byNair, Dr Balakrishnan (1999). Socio-Spiritual Movements in Kerala.

    All across the State of Kerala, and outside of the State, hundreds of small chapel-like Guru Mandirams are devoted to the reverence and worship of Sree Nārāyana Guru. Most recently, a distinctively styled iconographic statue of Nārāyana Guru named the Jnana Vigraham was conceived and created by a team of artists, as a suggestive model for the future, to improve the aesthetic quality of statues of Nārāyana Guru kept in homes and placed in Guru Mandirams worldwide.

    At the turn of the 21st Century, Sree Nārāyana Guru was named as The Malayalee of the Century by Kerala's leading daily Malayala Manorama. The full cover-page spread of the newspaper was dedicated to Nārāyana Guru in its last issue of the Century on 31 December 1999. So also Nārāyana Guru was featured first among the "100 great lives" nominated by Malayala Manorama on the occasion of Malayala Manorama's centenary celebrations in the year 1988.

    [edit]Saint Disciples Of Guru


    [edit]In Malayalam

    1. Swanubavageethi
    2. Atmopadesa Śatakam
    3. Advaitha Deepika
    4. Arivu
    5. Daiva Dasakam
    6. Jeevakarunya Panchakam
    7. Anukamba Dasakam
    8. Jathi Nirnayam
    9. Jathi Lakshanam
    10. Chijanda Chinthakam
    11. Daiva Chinthanam - 1 & 2
    12. Athma Vilasam
    13. Shiva Shathakam
    14. Kolatheereshastavam
    15. Bhadrakaalyashtakam

    [edit]In Sanskrit

    1. Darsana Mala
    2. Brahmavidya Panchakam
    3. Nirvruthi Panchakam
    4. Slokathrayi
    5. Vedantha Suthram
    6. Homa Manthram
    7. Municharya Panchakam
    8. Asramam
    9. Dharmam
    10. Charama Slokangal
    11. Homa Mantram
    12. Chidambarashtakam
    13. Guhashtakam
    14. Bhadrakaliashtakam
    15. Vinayaka Ashtakam
    16. Sree Vasudeva Ashtakam
    17. Genani Navamanjari

    [edit]In Tamil

    1. Thevarappathinkangal


    1. Thirukural
    2. Isavasyo Upanishad
    3. Ozhivil Odukkam

    His knowledge earned him the respect of many and he came to be Known as "Nanu ashan"


    Sree Narayana Guru Tomb - Front


    Sree Narayana Guru Tomb - Side

    Sharada Devi

    Guru's rest room

    Bramha Vidyalayam

    Prarthana Mandiram

    [edit]Guru In Fiction

    P.A. Backer (1940–1993)one of the "new wave" Malayalam film directors of the 1970s,has directed film named 'Sree Narayana Guru' in 1985.

    In 2010 a film 'Yugapurushan' which is also about the life and times of Sree Narayana Guru. The movie is directed by R.Sukumaran, who has previously directed the films Rajashilpi and Padamudhra. The film has an ensemble cast.Thalaivasal Vijay did the role of Sree Naryana Guru. The magnum opus was in the making for more than fifteen years according to the director R.Sukumaran. Over 2000 hand drawn images constitute the story board. The cast includes some of the best in the Malayalam Movie Industry.

    [edit]See also


    TN Jayachandran's observation on the Guru's staunch theism
    1. Matha virodhathinte Matham - The Religion of Irreligiousness BY M.C.Joseph (Page 322-325 in Narayanaguru: Ed: P.K.Balakrishnan, March 2000 (First Edition 1954) , Kerala Sahitya Academy
    2. See article by T.N.Jayachandran in Yukthireka (August 2004) and the book Charithrathe Aghadhamakkiya Guru byK.P.Appan (May 2005)
    3. See bilingual image (on the right) quoting observation by T.N.Jayachandran in his article in Gurupadhom published by Kerala Kaumudi on Guru's 150th birth anniversary celebrations(August 2004).


    1. a b Journal of Asian and African Studies Page 35. BRILL. Retrieved 2007-08-08.
    2. a b Religion and Social Conflict in South Asia. BRILL. ISBN 9789004045101. Retrieved 2007-08-08.
    3. ^ Bhaskar, B.R.P. (2004-08-29). "The Sree Narayana effect"Kerala News (Chennai, India: The Hindu). Retrieved 2008-03-10.
    4. ^ "Narayana Guru- The Social Philosopher of Kerala"Sathya Bai Sivadas, P. Prabhakara Rao. Bhavans Books. Retrieved 2007-08-08.
    5. ^ "Probe Sreekumar's assets, says Vellappally". Indian Express.
    6. ^ "Rs 100 cr missing from SN Trust fund: M.B.Sreekumar". Indian Express.
    7. ^ "SNDP in the grips of liquor barons: Azhikode". Chennai, India: Indian Express. 2000-11-03.
    8. ^ "Guru and Mahatma Gandhi"Sree Narayana Kendra, Delhi. Retrieved 2008-02-10.

    [edit]Bibliography / References

    • Sree Narayana Guruswamikalude jeeva charithram– Moorkothu kumaran-(The official biography as approved by Sivagiri mutt.) Published by SNDS Trust Sivagiri Mutt, Varkala-695141,Kerala,India.
    • Sree Narayana Gurudeva Krithikal – Sampoorna Vyakyanam – G Balakrishnan Nair- (Works of Sree Narayana Guru with Complete Interpretations – ten parts compiled in two volumes) published by The State Institute of Languages, Kerala.
    • The Word of the Guru : The Life and Teaching of Guru Narayana : Nataraja Guru, D.K. Printworld, 2003, New Delhi, ISBN 81-246-0241-7
    • Guru - Kumaranasante Drushtiyil : DC Books, Kottayam, Kerala
    • Srinarayana Guruvinte Sampoorna Kruthikal (Complete Works of Sri Narayana Guru): Mathrubhoomi Publishers, Kozhikode, Kerala
    • Sri Narayana Guruvinte Mathavum Sivagiriyum (Sivagiri and the Religion of Sri Narayana Guru): K. Maheshwaran Nair
    • Sri Narayana Guru - Jeevitham, Darsanum, Kruthikal: Editor: K.N.Shaji, Current Books, Trissur, Kerala
    • Narayanaguru- Editor: P.K.Balakrishnan (A collection of essays in Malayalam):March 2000, (First Edition 1954), Kerala Sahitya Academi,Trichur, Kerala.
    • Narayanam: Perumpadavom Sreedharan (Biographical novel on Sree Narayana Guru published in 2004): Distributors: Current Books. ISBN 81-240-1427-2
    • The Philosophy of Narayana Guru: Swami Muni Narayana Prasad, D.K. Printworld, 2003, New Delhi, ISBN 81-246-0236-0.
    • Yukthirekha August 2004 (Special issue commemorating the 150th Birth Anniversary of Sri Narayana Guru) - Dhanuvachapuram Post,Trivandrum-695503, Kerala.
    • Charithrathe Aghadhamakkiya Guru : K.P.Appan -DC Books, Kottayam -686001 (ISBN 81-264-1025-6)
    • Sreenarayanaguruswamy Jeevacharithram by K. Damodaran, 2nd ed., 2003. Publisher: Kaumudi Public Relations. (in Malayalam)
    • Maharshi Sreenarayanaduru by Dr. T. Bhaskaran. Publisher: Cultural Publication Department, Govt of Kerala, Trivandrum-14 (in Malayalam)
    • Sreenarayanaguru by Koyikkal Jacob, MA. (in Malayalam)

    [edit]External links


    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    A Statue of Ayyankali at Thiruvanathapuram City

    Ayyankali (1863–1941) was a leader of the Indian lower caste Dalits known as the Untouchables. He pioneered many reforms to improve the lives of the Dalits. In 1937 he was praised by Mahatma Gandhi when he visited Venganoor, Ayyankali's home town. In November 1980, Indira Gandhiunveiled sculptor Ezra David's commorative statue of Ayyankali at Kowdiar square, inTrivandrum.[1]


    Ayyankali was born in 1863 in Venganoor, TrivandrumTravancore. He was one of seven children born to a pulaya family. He was illiterate as were all Dalits at that time. In those days Dalits were not allowed to walk along public roads. The Dalit women were not allowed to cover their breasts in public places. Ayyankali organized Dalits and fought against these discriminations.

    He was in the forefront of movements against casteism. He passed through the public roads of Venganoor on a bullock cart which was not allowed for the Dalits. Enraged by his boldness, the caste Hindus physically attacked him. Ayyankali led the movement and defeated them. Ayyankali demanded right for Dalit children to study in school, which was not granted. He started a school to teach dalit children at Venganoor which was set ablaze by caste Hindus. In response to this, in 1907 he led a strike at Venganoor which lasted for more than a year. He called for boycott of agricultural work raising certain demands. His demands included (a) stoppage of the practice of not giving tea in tea shops to Dalits who were given tea till then in coconut shells; (b) right to education for the Dalit children; (c) resting time for workers during work hours; and (d) replacement of the system of wages in kind by payment of cash. Initially the [2]( Members of the Nair caste which was one of the upper caste in Kerala) and other caste Hindus did not take it seriously. They tried many means and methods to defeat the workers. However they realized that their families would starve to death if Ayyankali's demands were not met with. They, therefore, were forced to concede the demands of Ayyankali and his supporters.

    The significance of Ayyankali lies in the fact that he could spearhead a struggle for human rights of the untouchables raising demands which find expressions in various international human rights documents well before their adoption. He pioneered a movement for democratizing public places and asserting the rights of workers even before the formation of any workers organisation in Kerala. The most amazing part of it is that he did all this in spite of his illiteracy. No wonder that Ayyankali was later nominated to the assembly of Travancore namely, Sri Moolam Legislative Assembly, in 1910 by the then rulers in recognition of his leadership ability. In his efforts Ayyankali also received the support of his great contemporary Sree Narayana Guruand other social reformers. By 1900 Dalits were given the freedom to walk on the public roads, and by 1914, Dalit children were allowed to join schools. Also, Dalit women were allowed to cover their nakedness in public through his efforts.[1]

    He is such a dynamic person that he could gather support for his cause even from the members of upper caste community as well as some prominent land lords who were members of Praja Sabha during his time.

    Elders of Pulaya community in Kuttanadu still cherish the memory of "the Panthi Bhojanam" organized by a prominent land lord and the then member of Praja Sabha from Kuttanad, Pallithanam Luca Matthai (Pallithanathu Matthaichen).During those times Lukka Mathai was fondly referred to by the local flock as the Kayal Raja of Kuttanadu.Though he belonged to an aristocratic and orthodox syrian christian family, Luka Mathai actively supported Ayyankali in his efforts in eradicating the social inequalities that were prevalent in the Kerala society.

    He received Ayyankali and his followers, with a grant procession of snake boats and hundreds of other boats to his Nalukettu Tharavad and had lunch with them. Many other prominent people from the upper castes also participated in that function proclaiming their protest against casteism.

    Ayyankali founded the Sadhujana Paripalana Sangham (Association for the Welfare of the Poor) in 1905, which succeeded in obtaining a six-day week for agricultural laborers. Ayyankali died on June 18, 1941.

    A tribute website for his work and life SreeAyyanKaali Website

    [edit]Contribution and influence in Society

    The thoughts of Ayyyankali has influenced different sects of the society. The Chief Minister of Kerala had remarked his contribution and has compared with Narayana Guru [3]. He is specially remembered on his birth anniversary [4] by different sections of the society.


    1. a b "Ayyankali (1863–1914)". Retrieved 2007-03-20.
    2. ^ Nairs
    3. ^ Left following ideals of Guru, Ayyankali:VS
    4. ^ Tributes paid to Ayyankali
    5. ^ Ayyankali - A Dalit Leader of Organic Protest By M.Nisar

    [edit]External links

    K. Karunakaran

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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    K. Karunakaran
    കെ. കരുണാകരന്‍

    Born5 July 1918
    Died23 December 2010(aged 92)
    Political partyIndian National Congress
    Spouse(s)Kalyanikutty Amma (Late)
    ChildrenK. Muraleedharan andPadmaja Venugopal
    ReligionHindu Marar

    Kannoth Karunakaran (Malayalamകെ. കരുണാകരന്‍; July 5, 1918 - December 23, 2010)[1]was a senior politician from KeralaIndia belonging to Congress party. He was a former Chief Minister of Kerala, Home minister of Government of Kerala, and Minister for Industries ofGovernment of India. He was affectionately called "Leader" by Congress activists. He was often criticized for apparent nepotism.[citation needed]



    [edit]Early life.

    Karunakaran with M. G. Ramachandran (left) and Panruti Ramachandran (right).

    Karunakaran gave up his school education and started his political career through the Indian National Congress. A staunch patriot, he had zealously participated in the freedom struggle as well as in trade union activities, right from the beginning of his political career, and was arrested and jailed on many occasions. His political life was seldom peaceful.He rose to the top in politics and has been acclaimed as the senior most Leader of the Indian National Congress.) at May, 1947. It becomes one of the largest trade union in India having over 4 million membership today.

    He Karunakaran is the founder of United Democratic Front (UDF) in 1970. He evinced utmost care in ensuring cordiality, unity and understanding among the constituent parties, and he commanded absolute control and due respect from them.

    His closeness to the Nehru family begins from Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and culminated and pinnacled during the tenure of Smt. Indira Gandhi and Shri. Rajiv Gandhi. Karunakaran played the role of King Maker in finding out a successor to Rajiv Gandhi. Being the senior mostensuing elections of 1977.

    Karunakaran has been the Chief Minister of Kerala four times. He took charge as Chief Minister for the first time on 25-3-1977. However he tendered his resignation on 25-4-1977, immediately following certain references by the Kerala High Court in what came to be known as Rajan case.

    He took charge as Chief Minister again on December 28, 1981. However, this ministry did not last long. He resigned on 17 March 1982, following the withdrawal of support by a member of the Kerala Congress (M). Midterm elections to the 7th Kerala Legislative Assembly was held on May 19, 1982. The Ministry with Shri. K.Karunakaran as Chief Minister assumed office on 24 May 1982 and continued till 1987. On June 24, 1991, Shri.K.Karunakaran took charge again as Chief Minister of Kerala for the fourth term, and resigned on March 16, 1995, making way for A.K.Antony to take up the Chief Ministership. After A. K. Antony was elected as Kerala chief minister in 2001, Karunakaran was on the warpath with the Government led by his own party and the party high command. After a series of unsuccessful attempts to regain supremacy in the Kerala wing of the Indian National Congress, the dissidents led by him landed up in the bad books of the Congress high command. With the sharp increase in factional meetings held all over Kerala, mostly led by his sonK. Muraleedharan, Indian National Congress suspended Muraleedharan from the party. As a veteran Parliamentarian, whose career stretches over five decades, Karunakaran has been elected three times to Rajya Sabha and to Lok Sabha twice. He was a member of Rajya Sabha during 1995-97, 1997–98 and 2004-2005. He has been elected to Lok Sabha from Thiruvananthapuram in 1998 and from Mukundapuram Constituency in 1999. Karunakaran served as the Minister for Industries in the Union Cabinet for one year in 1995.

    With Muraleedharan being pushed to the verge of political orphanage, Karunakaran left his party and formed a new political outfit with him as the President. Thus, on 1 May 2005, Karunakaran formed a new party in Kerala National Congress (Indira). Later, the new party was renamed to Democratic Indira Congress (Karunakaran). Later, Karunakaran merged his party with the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), despite opposition from many senior leaders like T. M. Jacob who has since left the party. K Karunakaran and his daughter Padmaja returned to their parent party (Indian National Congress) following a spilt . However his son Muraleedharan dissociated himself from his father and continued in NCP.

    K. Karunakaran was ailing for quite sometime. He was admitted to a private hospital in Thiruvananthapuram on 10th December with complaints of fever and breathlessness. He was put on a ventilator and other life supporting systems. He had shown some signs of recovery, but suffered a stroke on 22nd. He died at 05:32 PM on 23rd December 2010 in Thiruvananthapuram.


    K. Karunakaran was the home minister of Kerala during the emergency period. After the Emergency, the Rajan case rocked Kerala politics like no other issue before and Karunakaran was forced to step down as the case attracted national attention. It was a habeas corpus petition filed by T.V. Eachara Warrier seeking the state machinery produce his son Rajan (a student of Regional Engineering College ,Calicut who actively participated in protests against the emergency declared by Smt.Indira government) in court. Rajan was allegedly killed by the police at Kakkayam police camp.


    1. The first Biography on him titled 'K.Karunakaran' was written by Vrindavanam Venugopalan. Published by Islamiya Books, Aluva in 1992*Chief Ministers of Kerala


    [edit]External links

    Preceded by
    C. Achutha Menon
    Chief Minister of Kerala
    1977– 1977
    Succeeded by
    A. K. Antony
    Preceded by
    E.K. Nayanar
    Chief Minister of Kerala
    1981– 1987
    Succeeded by
    E.K. Nayanar
    Preceded by
    E.K. Nayanar
    Chief Minister of Kerala
    1991– 1995
    Succeeded by
    A. K. Antony


    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Malayalam is written in a non-Latin script. Malayalam text used in this article is transliterated into the Latin script according to the ISO 15919standard.


    God's Own Country -- ൈദവത്തിന്റെ സ്വന്തം നാട്
    —  state  —

    Location of Kerala in India
    Coordinates 8.5074°N 76.972°ECoordinates8.5074°N 76.972°E
    Country  India
    Region South India
    District(s) 14
    Established 1 November 1956.
    Capital Thiruvananthapuram(Trivandrum)
    Largest city Thiruvananthapuram
    Governor R. S. Gavai
    Chief Minister V. S. Achuthanandan
    Legislature(seats) Unicameral (141 seats:
    140 elected, 1 nominated)

    • Density

    31,841,374[1] (12th) (2001)

    • 819 /km2 (2,121 /sq mi)

    HDI (2005) increase
    0.814 (high) (1st)
    Literacy 94.59[2][3]% (1st)
    Official languages Malayalam
    Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
    Area 38863 km2 (15005 sq mi)
    ISO 3166-2 IN-KL
    Portal PortalKerala  

    Kerala (MalayalamകേരളംAbout this sound Kēraḷam (help·info)) is a state in India. It is located on the south-western region of the country. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of theStates Reorganisation Act bringing together the areas where Malayalam was the dominant language.

    The state has an area of 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi) and is bordered by Karnataka to the north,Tamil Nadu to the south and the east and the Lakshadweep Sea

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