PM calls meeting on Kashmir situation!
Indian Holocaust My Father`s Life and Time - Four Hundred SIX
PM calls meeting on Kashmir situation!
Unprecedented VIOLENCE Only Intensify the Monopolistic Aggression and Mass Destruction Killing the Nation, the People and the Democracy!Free Market banks on Maoist Menace Corporate Friendly as SuicidalSlawa Judum and Civil War Sponsored Brhaminically Arrange Countrywide Blood Bath, Bengal is NOT Far Behind!
An indefinite curfew was imposed on Wednesday in south Kashmir towns of Anantnag, Kulgam and Pulwama while it continued without any relaxation for the fifth day in Sopore.On the other hand,Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Raman Singh met top officials here Wednesday, a day after 26 security personnel were killed in a cold-blooded massacre by Maoists.
Dozens of Maoist rebels ambushed a security patrol in Chhattisgarh on Tuesday, killing at least 26 police, the latest attack in a growing insurgency that the government is struggling to control. A guard of honour was today given to the 26 CRPF jawans who were killed in a Naxal attack in Chhattisgarh''s Naryanpur district. The guard of honour was given in the presence of Governor Shekhar Dutt, Chief Minister Raman Singh, Leader of Opposition in the Assembly Ravindra Choubey, Home Minister Nanki Ram Kanwar, CRPF Director General Vikram Shrivastav and state DGP Vishwaranjan at the Parade Maidan in Mana where the bodies of the security men were kept draped in national tri-colour.
Later, the bodies would be sent to their native places. Maoists shot dead 26 CRPF personnel and wounded eight others in an ambush in a remote area of Narayanpur district yesterday.
- 26 Oct 2009 ... Media Maoist Menace - Contribute - MSNIndia. by Palash Biswas 24 Sep 2009. This story has been read 77 times. … Pulin Babu wanted to make me ...
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- 22 Sep 2009 ... Media Maoist Menace Inflict DEFACED Scribes!G20 to call for economy balance ... Troubled Galaxy Destroyed Dreams, Chapter 379. Palash Biswas ...
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- 4 Nov 2009 ... Why is SO RED the GULMOHAR Flower - View Palash Biswas Blogs. ... "India Must Check Maoist Menace", an editorial from the Gulf News, Oct. 2, ...
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- Media Maoist Menace - Contribute - MSNIndia ... Palash Biswas 24 Sep 2009 This story has been read 160 times. ... Brahmin Intelligentsia DON . ...
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- 8 Feb 2010 ... Available from: http://knol.google.com/k/palash-biswas/quota-politics- ..... We have also discussed the Maoist and Naxalite problem existing in the ..... also urgently necessary to deal with terrorism and border menace. ...
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- by Palash Biswas 22 Oct 2009 ... While Her Government ... India to ask US for Headley's extradition after chargesheet ... CPM has left Maoist menace to . ...
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- by Palash Biswas 20 Oct 2009 ... Now, she has no OBJECTION against Military Option, Zero tolerance and ALL Out OFFENSIVE agiant the Maoist Menace! ...
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- 23 Mar 2010 ... The naxal movement, which also spread its tentacles to some other parts of India, including Andhra Pradesh, was widely believed to have ...
- 31 May 2010 ... Karnataka to Announce Package for Naxals Surrender Jun 22, 2010 ... Senior Army Officers to Help in Anti-Naxal Ops Jun 22, 2010 ...
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26 CRPF men killed in Naxal ambush in Chhattisgarh
Raipur: At least 26 CRPF personnel were on Tuesday gunned down in a deadly Naxal ambush in Narayanpur district of Chhattisgarh.
The Maoists opened fire from a hilltop when the paramilitary men were returning from road opening duty on foot, CRPF Chief Vikram Srivastava said in New Delhi.
Acccording to preliminary information, four special police officers (SPOs) of Chhattisgarh Police along with some CRPF personnel were also injured in the attack. The condition of one of the SPOs is stated to be serious, officials said.
The troops were from the 39th battalion of the force and were a part of its 'E' and 'F' companies.
The troops were ambushed near Daurai Road area in the remote district, about 300 kms from Raipur.
This is the third major Naxal attack on the CRPF since the Maoist strike on a force contingent on April six in Dantewada killing 75 of its personnel and a Chattisgarh policeman.
On May 8, eight men of the paramilitary force were killed when naxals blew up a mine-proof vehicle also in Narayanpur district.
Following is the chronology of major recent Naxal attacks in the country.
June 29, 2008: Maoists attack a boat on Balimela reservoir in Orissa carrying four anti -- Naxalite police officials and 60 Greyhound commandos, killing 38 troops.
July 16, 2008: 21 policemen killed when a police van is blown up in a landmine blast in Malkangiri district of Orissa.
April 13, 2009: 10 paramilitary troops killed in eastern Orissa when Maoists attack a bauxite mine in Koraput district.
April 22, 2009: Maoists hijack a train with at least 300 people on board in Jharkhand and force it to Latehar district before fleeing.
May 22, 2009: Maoists kill 16 policemen in the jungles of Gadchiroli district in Maharashtra.
June 10, 2009: Nine policemen, including CRPF troops and officers, ambushed by Maoists during a routine patrol in Saranda jungles in Jharkhand.
June 13, 2009: Naxals launch two landmine and bomb attacks in a small town close to Bokaro, killing 10 policemen and injuring several others.
June 16, 2009: Maoists kill 11 police officers in a landmine attack followed by armed assault. In a separate attack, four policemen were killed and two others seriously injured when Maoists ambush them at Beherakhand in Palamau district.
June 23, 2009: A group of motorcycle-borne armed Naxal rebels open fire on Lakhisarai district court premises in Bihar and free four of their comrades including the self-style Zonal Commander of Ranchi.
July 18, 2009: Naxalites kill a villager in Bastar and in a separate incident torch a vehicle engaged in road construction work in Bijapur district of Chhattisgarh.
July 27, 2009: Six persons killed when Naxals trigger a landmine blast at Dantewada district in Chhattisgarh.
July 31, 2009: A special police officer and another person killed by Naxals in Bijapur district.
Sep 4, 2009: Naxals kill four villagers in a forest in Aaded village in Chhattisgarh's Bijapur district.
Sep 26, 2009: Naxals kill BJP MP from Balaghat Baliram Kashyap's sons at Pairaguda village in Jagdalpur (Chhattisgarh).
Sep 30, 2009: Naxalites set ablaze Gram Panchayat offices at Korchi and Belgaon in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra.
Oct 8, 2009: 17 policemen killed when Maoists ambushed them at Laheri police station in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra.
Feb 15, 2010: 24 personnel of the Eastern Frontier Rifles (EFR) killed as Maoists attack their camp in Silda in West Midnapore district of West Bengal.
April 4, 2010: Maoists trigger a landmine blast killing 11 security personnel of the elite anti-naxal force Special Operations Group (SOG) in Koraput district of Orrisa.
April 6, 2010: 75 CRPF personnel and a Chhattisgarh police official killed in a naxal attack in Dantewada district.
May 8, 2010: Eight CRPF jawans were killed when Naxals blow up a bullet-proof vehicle in Bijapur district of Chhhattisgarh.
June 29, 2010: At least 26 CRPF personnel killed in a Naxal ambush in Narayanpur district of Chhattisgarh.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has convened a high-level meeting on Wednesday evening to discuss the situation in Kashmir, which has seen unrest for the last four days.
The meeting will be attended by Union Home Minister P Chidambaram and senior officials of his ministry, Prime Minister's Office and from security agencies.
Chidambaram is expected to brief the meeting on his discussions with Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister Omar Abdullah.
The meeting is expected to take note of intelligence reports suggesting that certain elements from Pakistan were trying to foment trouble in the valley.
National Security Advisor Shiv Shankar Menon is also likely to attend the meeting.
Kashmir has been on the boil due to protests over killings of youth in alleged CRPF firing.
15 Naxalites possibly killed in retaliatory fire by CRPFRaipur Around 15 Naxalites were possibly killed when CRPF personnel retaliated during the Maoist ambush in a remote area of Chhattisgarh's Narayanpur district that left 26 jawans of the force dead, a top state police official said today.
Around 15 Maoists may have been killed in the encounter that followed the ambush but the bodies of the Naxalites have not been found, Chhattisgarh DGP Viswa Ranjan said
Naxalites are known to take away the bodies of their cadres killed in encounters with security forces.
A large number of heavily-armed Maoists, perched on a hilltop, had opened fire with automatic weapons on a 63-member security contingent which was returning on foot from road opening duty yesterday killing 26 CRPF personnel. The dead included a CRPF Assistant Commandant Jatin Gulati.
The attack, which also left eight personnel including four special police officers of Chhattisgarh Police injured, took place at Daurai Road area, about 300 km from here.
Combing operations have been launched in the district today even as the bodies of the victims were brought here for post-mortem. Six teams of doctors have been formed to conduct the post-mortem, a state official said.
The attack came nearly three months after the worst massacre by the Maoists which left 75 personnel of the force and one Chhattisgarh policeman dead in Dantewada district on April 6 this year.
The CRPF troops were from the 39th battalion of the force and were a part of its 'E' and 'F' companies, CRPF Director General Vikram Srivastava, who arrived here, said.
On May 8, eight men of the paramilitary force were killed when Naxals had blown up a vehicle in Narayanpur district.
Strongly condemning the Naxal attack, Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Raman Singh has said their sacrifices will not go in vain.
"The security personnel have laid down their lives to free the people from Naxal terror. Their sacrifice will not go in vain," the Chief Minister said.
"The Naxals have carried out a cowardly act. People and groups having faith in human rights should condemn this act of murder in once voice," he said, vowing to end the Maoist menace in the state.
"The extremists lack moral courage to engage in a direct fight with our brave security forces," he said, while conveying his condolences to members of the bereaved families.
Hunt for Naxals after attack; CRPF toll rises to 27Raipur Security personnel on Wednesday scoured the jungles in Chhattishgarh's Narayanpur district in the hunt for Naxals who killed 27 CRPF personnel in yet another deadly attack in a remote area.
Around 15 Naxals were also possibly killed when CRPF personnel retaliated during the Maoist ambush in a remote area, about 300 km from here, Chhattisgarh DGP Viswa Ranjan said.
The bodies of the Naxals have however not been found. Naxalites are known to take away the bodies of their cadres killed in encounters with security forces.
Around 100 Naxals who struck with automatic rifles were involved in the "major ambush" and the gunbattle lasted for two to three hours, police said.
The death toll in yesterday's third major Naxal attack on security personnel in Chhattisgarh in as many months rose to 27 after the body of a CRPF constable Neeraj Kumar who was missing was found by search parties today.
Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Raman Singh, who convened an emergency meeting to take stock of the situation, has said the sacrifices of the security personnel will not go in vain.
"The security personnel have laid down their lives to free the people from Naxal terror. Their sacrifice will not go in vain," Singh said.
"The Naxals have carried out a cowardly act. People and groups having faith in human rights should condemn this act of murder in once voice," he said, vowing to end the Maoist menace in the state.
"The extremists lack moral courage to engage in a direct fight with our brave security forces," he said, while conveying his condolences to members of the bereaved families.
The bodies of 26 CRPF personnel were brought here today after they were airlifted from the scene of the Maoist attack. After the postmortems, the bodies were sent to the police training institute in Mana near here where tributes were paid to the victims.
Search operations have begun in Naryanpur's Daurai Road and adjacent areas where the dastardly attack took place which also left eight personnel including four special officers of Chhattisgarh Police injured, Ranjan said.
CRPF Director General Vikram Srivastava and other top police officers have reached the spot to review the situation and operations.
A large number of heavily-armed Maoists, perched on a hilltop, had opened fire with automatic weapons on a 63-member security contingent which was returning on foot from road opening duty yesterday. The dead included a CRPF Assistant Commandant and two sub-inspectors.
The Maoists had massacred 76 policemen in Chhattisgarh in a similar assault on April 6. On May 17, a Maoist landmine attack on a bus killed 24 civilians and 11 policemen.
P Chidambaram said the govt is committed to maintain normalcy in J-K.Post Comments
Former CPI-M legislator shot dead in West Bengal
Filed under: News
The editor of Dalit Voice is a former Naxalite himself I think
This article should not be taken too seriously many of the accusations
made in this article are nothing more than passing rant's.
Manuwadi marxism ? hahaha….
Naxalism gets complicated with RSS & big business infiltration
On our first visit to study the naxalite problem in Chattisgarh (Sept.23-25, 2006), we were able to gather lot of information from the series of meetings we had at Raipur with journalists, Dalit and Tribal leaders, and some NGOs.
For the first time the Prime Minister himself in his Aug.15 "Independence Day" speech admitted the naxalite problem as a "national problem" and equated it with "terrorism". But we don't agree with his assessment. Naxalism is also terrorism and the two should not be separated but fought with equal determination.
Since India's ruling upper castes (15%) are mainly urban-based and "terrorism" is an urban problem, they are forcing the govt. to concentrate only on "terrorism" (read Muslims).
UPPER CASTE LEADERSHIP
However, not much importance is given to naxalism because the urban areas, where most upper castes live, are not affected. Urbanites are not interested in anything rural though naxalism is affecting a major portion of India and the Chattisgarh and AP states are the worst hit.
Both terrorism and naxalism are by-products of acute socio-cultural-economic deprivation which is affecting at least half the population of India. But the govt. is treating naxalism as a police problem.
The entire naxalite foot soldiers are our village-dwelling people — SC/ST/BCs, landless labourers or small farmers —who constitute over 65% of the country's population and the worst deprived lot. The upper castes having scented the deep discontentment within the SC/ST/BCs exploited these innocents and taken over their leadership.
Both the Peoples War Group (PWG) and the Moist Communist Centre (MCC), now merged and renamed Maoist Party, are headed by Brahminical upper castes. But those fighting and falling dead facing police bullets are our people. That is why we are deeply worried.
The defeat of the BJP in the last election has made the upper castes realise that it is difficult to fool the oppressed SC/ST/BCs in the name of religion (Hindutva). But it is easier to exploit the SC/ST/BCs in the name of "class" (naxalism). Give a gun to the angry, deprived SC/ST/BC and make him kill the "class enemy". And then the police, controlled by the same upper castes, are ready to rush and gun down the "naxalite killer".
Naxalism has offered a short-cut to establish Hindutva — better than dividing people on religious basis by dubbing Muslims as terrorists.
ROLE OF TATAS & RUIAS
Already the Salwa Judum is fully infiltrated by the Hindu terrorist party RSS cadres. The Tatas and the Marwari Ruias of the Essar Group, interested in mining, are financing the Salwa Judum. Both the Maoists and the Salwa Judum cadres are tribals and they are often made to clash and kill each other. The industrialists are interested in getting Tribal lands vacated to start their mining work.
Chattisgarh, particularly its capital Raipur, has suddenly started buzzing with industrialists interested in exploiting its mining wealth. The politicians are kept pleased with bribe. Its diamond mine has attracted the world's No.1 diamond magnates, the De Beers, a South African Jewish business house.
COURSE CHANGE FOR RSS-BJP
The RSS-BJP, which is an upper caste outfit, is exploiting the situation. But if it has to shift its focus on Salwa Judum naxalite activities, it will amount to a course change from religion (Hindutva) to "class struggle" which is totally strange to the double-distilled vaidiks controlling this Hindu terrorist party. But the RSS cadres are enthused. Big money is coming from big business and while mingling with innocent Tribals in remote forest areas they get the company of drinks and women. Since the Hindutva heroes do not attach any importance to ethics or morality as the end justifies the means, they are going at full speed.
We had a meeting with journalists at the Raipur Press Club and being mostly upper castes they complained about the naxalite violence and fully defended the role of Salwa Judum.
Already over a fifth of India is affected by this Manuwadi marxism of the naxalite brand. Almost the whole of Tribal-dominated Chattisgarh is affected. Right from Nepal down to Karnataka through Andhra Pradesh the Manuwadi Marxists are spreading their naxalite net.
We have nothing against the naxalite rank and file because they are all our own blood brothers as SC/ST/BCs. Our complaint is only against its upper caste leadership which is misleading them and making them easy victims of police bullets. The principal problem of India is caste system (Brahminism) resulting in socio-cultural-economic deprivation of SC/ST/BCs (65%), Muslim/Christian/Sikhs (20%). Instead of tackling this disease, the govt. is trying to cure the symptom (law and order problem). India is already sinking. The Manuwadi marxists will further push India to the bottom. We admit loopholes in the Salwa Judum which again treats it as a law and order problem. As days pass the rural India is sinking. If the existing police-problem-approach is not changed, the whole country will pass into the hands of Manuwadi marxists.
DV Aug.16, 2006 p. 16: "Caste war within naxal leadership" & "Naxalism enslaves Dalits better than Hindu nazis".
DV Edit May 16, 2006: "Red star over India: Danger of manuwadi marxists further enslaving starving Dalits".
DV June 16, 2005 p.6: "Manuwadis in naxalite garb" & "DV proves right on Naxalite natak companies".
DV Edit Aug.16, 2004: "Converting PWG into political party is fine but under Dalits, keeping Brahminical leaders out".
DV May 1, 2000 p.7: "If PWG is menace why upper caste rulers are soft on it?"
DV June 16, 1997 p.11: "How to rescue Gaddar drugged by marxism?"
DV May 1, 1997 p.11: "Whose hand behind shooting Gaddar?"
DV May 16, 1996 p.20: "Gaddar good-bye to marxism: PWG faces Dalit revolt".
DV Edit March 16, 1996: "Dalit doubts & fears on nationality question: Is it a bid to destroy growing caste consciousness?"
DV Nov.16, 1995 p.5: "PWG expels Dalit singer".
DV Edit Nov.1, 1991: "Three-month notice to nazi naxals: Hands of SC/ST/BCs, Hindu human rightswalas are warned".
DV Edit Sept.16, 1991: "Nazis in the garb of naxalites try to divert AP Dalits from Ambedkarism & destroy their identity".
DV Edit June 16, 1989: "Naxalites & Marxists join hands with NTR to crush AP Dalit Maha Sabha".
DV May 16, 1989 p.10: "Khamma bid to implicate AP Dalit Mahasabha".
DV Aug.15, 1981 p.5: "Caste prejudices among Naxalites".
DV Sept.1, 1981 p. 6: "What is Naxalism?"
Maoist International tributes to DV : Supports Dalit revolutionary party
Maoist International Movement (MIM), the American-based Black organisation with a world-wide sweep, has taken note of you and Dalit Voice. Its website says:
The Dalit Voice speaks for those known in the West as "Untouchables" in India. "Untouchable" is a social status acquired by birth in India's unique division of labor called the caste system — one of the most vexing problems in the world, difficult for people from other countries to relate to.
In that one acquires one's caste by birth, there is a parallel to race as it is seen in the United $tates. In fact, in India today, quotas for so-called Backward Castes are an issue quite parallel to affirmative action in the United $tates. As we speak, privileged medical students are protesting against quotas for so-called Backward Castes for admission to medical school.
MIM supports reservations by race and "we believe quotas are necessary and especially useful in aiding objective thinking".
"CLASS" IS "CASTE"
MIM after studying the DV website has understood that there are three upper castes including the Brahmins in India. But it has not fully grasped India's intricate caste system. However it has come to know that India's caste system is unique in the world.
"What we can say is that India has arranged class organization differently than the rest of the world. Yet, Mao believed that even race and nation are ultimately expressions of class; more so this is true of caste".
MIM says Dalit Voice has some good information on caste and other problems in India.
MIM has no sympathy for mechanical and individualist sociology but the question of whether entire organizations should be composed of Dalit caste people is legitimate. Such separate caste organisations if they form should work with all organizations of exploited people oppressed by U$ imperialism.
In other words, the MIM supports Dalits setting up their own revolutionary party. This should interest Gaddar, K.G. Satyamurthy and Anaimuthu.
ROLE OF BRAHMINS
According to the MIM, "On a theoretical basis it is not appropriate to say that caste is merely superstructural. (as Savarna Maoists claim). This is a big tribute to Dalit Voice. The Editor of Dalit Voice, V.T. Rajshekar, was once a marxist but he fell out of this manuwadi marxists when they refused to recognise "caste" as "class" under Indian condition.
It is likely that the DV family may find these two points positive.
Yet MIM is not correctly informed of the role played by Brahmins.
DV should convince the MIM that the savarna upper castes comprise the "middle class" as well as the rich. Not only that, DV has said how Banias helped the British East India Company with finance and supplies.
There are also instances like the Brahmin Peshwas joining hands with the Portuguese (or may be the British) to finish off Kanhoji Angre's (fisherman caste) Maratha navy. Yet other instance is when Brahmin Peshwas joined hands with the English to defeat the nationalist Tipu Sultan.
DV also has enough information about Bania comprador behaviour. So, only DV is well placed to take up the task of exposing today's fake Maoist parties.
EXPOSE SAVARNA MARIXSTS
Once DV exposes Banias and Brahmins as comporador traitors, any genuinely revolutionary Maoist party that Dalits form will be recognised at the global level by the MIM as well as several fraternal parties.
As things stand, the savarna maoists have already been accused of Trotskyism by the MIM. If DV can also get hold of the erstwhile PWG's literature boasting of how it distributed Pol pot badges, our savarna maoists will be totally exposed globally. This is a task worth taking.
If K.G. Satyamurthy, Gaddar and Anaimuthu form a new revolutionary maoist party led and run by Dalits, MIM is most likely to support it at the international level. This would be the final nail in the coffin of savarna maoism. (DV Edit May 16, 2006: "Red star over India: Danger of manuvadi marxists further enslaving starving Dalits").
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WORLD ON FIRE: HOW EXPORTING FREE MARKET DEMOCRACY BREEDS ETHNIC HATRED AND GLOBAL INSTABILITY. By Amy Chua. New York: Doubleday. 2003. Pp. ix, 340. $26.World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability, by Professor Amy Chua, (1) is an analytically complex narrative of contemporary ethnic violence in the current era of globalization. Although such violence has historical roots, according to Chua it has also been fueled by free-market forces and democratization.
Amy Chua's World on Fire comes at a time when democracy and economic reforms are being touted as the answer to the world's political, economic and social problems - not just by the Western intelligentsia but also by international institutions. Chua points out some flaws in this thinking and shows that a great deal of strife and conflict in the third world is the result of the combination of democracy with the free market. The recent opening up of the third world economies has created affluent minorities, while the rise of democracies in the same countries has resulted in majority rule. This gives rise to an incompatible equation with disproportionate wealth in the hands of a minority and the rule of the impoverished majority. Substitute wealthy minority by wealthy ethnic minority and you have the recipe for ethnic strife and violence on your hands.
Chua, a Yale school law professor is no stranger to this problem. Growing up in a wealthy Chinese-Filipino family that owned conglomerates in the Philippines, Chua saw firsthand the extreme deprivation of the Filipino population juxtaposed with the wealth of the minority flourishing Chinese business community. She also saw ethnic hatred take on an extreme form when her wealthy aunt was murdered by the family chauffeur. The police in the Philippines, comprising primarily poor ethnic Filipinos were unmotivated to solve the case, and the file was soon closed.
The Chinese ethnic minority stories do not end in Philippines. Across vast regions of Southeast Asia from Burma to Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam, the Chinese, though minorities, are economically powerful and dominate business and commerce at every level of society. With the liberalization and economic reforms of the last decade, this group has accumulated immense wealth. In contrast, a large chunk of the indigenous majority live under conditions of extreme poverty. With democracy, this suppressed majority gets political power that may often result in ethnic revenge, as was seen in the late nineties with the hounding of the Chinese from Indonesia. It was the same story with the Indians in East Africa, Lebanese in West Africa, whites in South Africa and Latin America and Jews in post-Communist Russia. In each case, Chua shows that democracy and free markets did not go hand in hand; far from it, this volatile combination had disastrous consequences in several third-world societies.
In most cases Chua has a valid point. But she is on shaky ground when she tries to stretch her theory to explain ethnic violence in general. Here she sounds no different from the school that touts the mantra of economic liberalization and democracy as the answer to all the world's ills. For instance, the conflicts in the Middle East, central Asia and parts of Africa have little to do with the free market-democracy combo and more to do with local issues of the region, religious, political or economic.
Toward the end of the book, the writer talks about how democracy in itself implying political empowerment of the majority is never sufficient if it cannot be stable and ensure grassroots development, growth of basic infrastructure, justice and dignity for all. While parts of Chua's book may make the reader wonder about whether democracy is an effective option after all for the third world where the impoverished electorate has no real voice, one should not forget the words of the Nobel laureate economist Amartya Sen. Talking about democracy and third world politics, Professor Sen had once remarked "A country does not become fit for democracy; it becomes fit through democracy." Perhaps then, free markets or no free markets, the real answer lies in democracy and democratization of political institutions of the third world.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|— Town/ CD Block —|
|Sex ratio||958 ♂/♀|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
• 24 m (79 ft)
Nanoor (also spelt Nanur, called Chandidas Nanoor) (Bengali: নানুর), is a town with a police station, a community development block and an assembly constituency in Bolpur subdivision of Birbhum district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Nanoor is the birthplace of 14th century lyric poet Chandidas of Vaishnava Padavali fame. It is developing as a craft centre with NGO support. With the massacres in 2000, Nannor was in intense media focus.
Nanoor is located at . It has an average elevation of 24 metres (79 ft).
Nanoor is located in the south-eastern corner of the district which is an alluvial plain between Ajay River and Mayurakshi River. It has hot and dry summers, spread over March – May, followed by the monsoon from June to September. 78 per cent of the rainfall occurs during this period.
Historical records talk of at least 13 droughts of severe intensity between the years 1799 and 1855. The drought of 1836-37 was particularly severe. Floods also wreak havoc. More than 15,000 people were affected and 7,000 mud houses were broken or damaged in Nanoor and three other blocks in 2004.
Nanoor block consists of the following gram panchayat: Bara Saota, Daskalgram–Kareya I, Chandidas Nanoor, Daskalgram–Kareya II, Kirnahar II, Kirnahar I, Thupsara, Uchkaran, Charkalgram, Jalundi, Nawanagar and Kadda.
 Archaeological finds
The archaeological department of Calcutta University organised an excavation programme in Nanoor in 1932 and 1957. At that time, some ancient icons were found but the area never got the status of an archaeological site.
A new archaeological site has been discovered at Jalundi village in Nanoor block in 2007 which according to the experts resembles the ruins of the ancient Pala or Sen Dynasties.
In the 2001 census, Nanoor community development block had a population of 193,788 out of which 98,983 were males and 94,805 were females.
Nanoor Block, comprising of 24 villages, is an economically backward area of artisan families living largely below the poverty line, bulk of them being Muslims, Scheduled Castes and Tribes. Lack of opportunities and ignorance had kept the talented population away from a decent source of sustainable livelihood. Many of them were migrating to the cities for unskilled work forsaking their generations-old invaluable craft skills. The Institute of International Social Development – an international NGO, based and headquartered in Kolkata, has started poverty eradication work through the creation of Self-Help Groups with Micro-Credit. The artisans interact with people from all over the world, who are visiting the cluster to experience the lives of the artisans, see the process of handicraft-making and plan international markets for them. Their income has increased three-fold in about one year. Design development workshops have been conducted by internationally renowned designers who made them use their kantha craft as value additions to small items of utility.
Traditionally, there used to be a weekly market, locally called hat. Apart from vegetables, such needs as pottery, wooden materials, iron materials, baskets, seeds etc. were available. With the passage of time the periodicity gradually increased till it became a daily market.
In the 2006 state assembly elections, Joydeb Hazara of Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) won the Nanoor (SC) seat defeating Gadadhar Hazara of All India Trinamool Congress (AITC). Ananda Gopal Das of CPI(M) defeated Krishnagopal Majhi of AITC in 2001, Sibkinkar Saha of Indian National Congress (INC) in 1996 and 1991, and Adhir Kumar Saha of INC in 1986. Banamali Das of CPI(M) defeated Sibkinkar Saha of INC in 1982 and Dulal Saha of INC in 1977.
Nanoor is described as the most politically disturbed area in Birbhum district. With acute poverty it has been a disturbed area for ages. According to historical records, in 1807 with a particularly severe drought, people in Nanoor were engaged in a bloody clash over the right of watering their lands from a particular tank. About 10 people were injured in a clash when one community planned a religious ceremony on a particular plot of land and another community fenced it off claiming it to be their burial ground in 2005. A boy was shot dead the same month following a quarrel over a cultural programme.
As per orders of the Delimitation Commission Nanoor assembly, No. 287, reserved for Scheduled castes (SC), constituency will be part of Bolpur (Lok Sabha constituency) and will be composed of the following: Nanoor CD Block and Bahiri Panchshowa, Kankalitala, Kasba, Sarpalehana Albandha, Sian Muluk and Singhee gram panchayats of Bolpur–Sriniketan CD Block.
 Nanoor massacreMain article – Nanoor massacre
On 27 July 2000, CPI(M) activists allegedly killed 11 landless agricultural labourers in Suchpur, near Nanoor and under Nanoor police station. Just after the massacre CPI(M) leaders said those killed were dacoits but a few days later they admitted that the dead were landless farmers and that they were killed over a land dispute. Two of the CPI(M)'s senior leaders, Anil Biswas and Biman Bose, both politburo members, condemned the Nanoor killings as well as the loss of lives in incidents of violence in the preceding weeks.
The Hindu wrote, "On a long term, the killings, symbolising the birth of a new theatre of violence after Keshpur in district Midnapore - where deaths and maiming in political clashes have become a bizarre routine - constitute an extremely disturbing augury for the society in Bengal."
The prime witness to the Nanoor killings was injured in an attack allegedly by CPI-M activists.The Statesman in an editorial wrote, "The sole purpose in attacking the prime witness in the gruesome Nanoor massacre of July 2000 in which 11 Trinamul Congress supporters were slaughtered by armed CPI(M) cadres was to shield those responsible and abort their trial, by hook or by crook. The irony is that although five years have elapsed since the occurrence of the horrendous killings by the Marxists, the trial of their 79 accused comrades has not yet begun. Repeated postponement of hearing (at least seven in the last two years) because of failure of the accused to turn up in court has made the outcome uncertain."
There is a temple dedicated to Devi Basuli at Nanoor. The Navaratna temple at Brahmandihi, Chand Roy temple and four Shiva temples at Uchkaran are amongst the state protected temples in the area. The renowned Navaratna temple was undertaken by the ASI but owing to lack of maintenance, it is now being destroyed The four Shiva temples have rare terra cotta sculptures on them and are unique in character. These also need immediate attention. In 2001, the invaluable and rare black-stone Saraswati idol went missing from the Bishalakshmi temple.
A fair is organized annually on the occasion of dol purnima (full moon) on the bank of the Dontapukur at Nanoor in memory of Dwija Chandidas and Rajakini Tami. It is called Chandidas Mela and was earlier organized near Bisalkshi temple.
Japeswar Shiva-Charturdashi Mela is organized at Japeswar in the Nanoor area. Local heresay traces back the history of the Shiva temple to 1000 BC.
 See also
- ^ a b c "Nanoor". Birbhum district administration. http://birbhum.gov.in/birtour2.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
- ^ a b "Nanoor". india9.com. http://www.india9.com/i9show/Nonoor-29557.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
- ^ "Nanur, India Page". West Bengal. Falling Rain Genomics. http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/28/Nanur.html. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
- ^ Choudhuri, Tapan, Unnayaner Alokey Birbhum, Paschim Banga , Birbhum Special Issue, February 2006, (Bengali), pp. 60-61, Information & Cultural Department, Government of West Bengal.
- ^ a b Gupta, Dr. Ranjan Kumar, The Economic Life of a Bengal District: Birbhum 1770 – 1857, p. 114, The University of Burdwan, 1984.
- ^ "Floods render 15,000 homeless". The Statesman, 25 September 2004. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=6&id=83549&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ "Directory of District, Sub division, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal, March 2008" (PDF). West Bengal. National Informatics Centre, India. 2008-03-19. http://wbdemo5.nic.in/writereaddata/Directoryof_District_Block_GPs(RevisedMarch-2008).doc. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- ^ "Census Data District Name: Birbhum(08) Block Name: Nanoor (0015)" (PDF). Government of West Bengal. http://www.wbphed.gov.in/applications/Phedweb/Block2Villpdf.php?State_Cd=19&Dist_Cd=08&Blk_Cd=0015. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- ^ "Admin Reports of NPP". Details of West Bengal till Village Panchayat Tier. Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India. http://panchayat.gov.in/adminreps/viewpansumr.asp?selstate=3217000000&pno=3&ptype=V. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
- ^ "Birbhum archaeological sites face extinction". The Statesman, 29 June 2002. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=6&id=26464&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ "Archaeological find at Nanoor". The Statesman, 20 February 2007. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=10&id=174039&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ "Census of India 2001". Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4. Census Commission of India. http://web.cmc.net.in/wbcensus/DataTables/02/Table4_8.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
- ^ "Institute of International Social Development (IISD)". Success Story. Election Commission of India. http://amrif.blogspot.com/2007/04/institute-of-international-social.html. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
- ^ a b c d e f Mukhopadhyay Aditya, Birbhumer Mela, Paschim Banga , Birbhum Special Issue, February 2006, (Bengali), pp. 203-214, Information & Cultural Department, Government of West Bengal.
- ^ "Partywise comparison since 1977". 283 – Nanur (SC) Assembly Constitiuency. Election Commission of India. http://archive.eci.gov.in/ElectionAnalysis/AE/S25/Partycomp283.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
- ^ a b "CPM brings terror charge against Trinamul". The Statesman, 23 April 2003. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=23&id=35824&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ "Fight over land brews communal tension". The Statesman, 3 November 2005. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=23&id=123205&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ "Life sentence for Nanoor accused". The Statesman, 30 November 2005. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=6&id=125743&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ a b "Delimitation Commission Order No. 18". Government of West Bengal. http://ceowestbengal.nic.in/news_pdf/gazette123.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-27.
- ^ a b "Editorial: Attack in Nanoor". Editorial. The Statesman, 20 May 2005. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=3&id=105625&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ a b "CPM ticket for Nanoor massacre accused". The Statesman, 18 April 2003. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=1&id=34635&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ a b "Landless in W. Bengal tilting towards Trinamool Congress". The Hindu, 30 July 2000. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/2000/07/30/stories/0230000l.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ "CPM goons attack Nanoor witness". The Statesman, 13 May 2005. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=1&id=104909&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ "Targeting the CBI". Editorial. The Statesman, 18 July 2007. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=3&id=190467&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ "List of State Protected Monuments & Sites". District Birbhum. Deptt of Information and Culture, Government of West Bengal. http://www.wbgov.com/e-gov/English/Departments/DeptDetails.asp?DPId=120&LinkId=6&Type=1. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
- ^ "Birbhum terra cotta temples cry for face-lift". The Statesman, 20 March 2004. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=23&id=67071&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ "Burglary boom in Bolpur". The Telegraph, 28 March 2004. http://www.telegraphindia.com/1040328/asp/nation/story_3055645.asp. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
|Suri Sadar subdivision|
|Cities and towns |
in other districts
SRINAGAR, India — It is summertime in Indian-controlled Kashmir and the streets are roiled by unrest. Young separatist protesters in jeans and bandanas hurl rocks at Indian troops, who respond with tear gas, baton charges and live ammunition.
At least 11 people have died in the past three weeks of street violence, and a round-the-clock curfew is in force. Shops, businesses, schools and government offices are shut. Authorities have postponed college examinations and have blocked text messages on cell phones in an attempt to prevent demonstrators from mobilizing.
It is the third summer in a row that deadly protests have erupted, a symptom of the tensions permeating this Muslim-dominated Himalayan region, which has long chafed under Indian rule and is patrolled by hundreds of thousands of troops.
A two-decade-long Islamic insurgency has waned but popular anger has not. Even moderate Kashmiris hoping for greater autonomy within India, which is predominantly Hindu, have been frustrated by the government.
"The unrest has become a cycle where what people are fighting for is not even acknowledged as a political issue by New Delhi," said Sheikh Showkat, a law professor at Kashmir University.
There is a long history of separatist movements in Kashmir, which has been divided between archrivals India and Pakistan since 1947. Most were peaceful until 1989, when the bloody armed insurgency erupted, demanding India's part of the region merge with Pakistan or get independence.
More than 68,000 people, most of them civilians, have been killed in the uprising and subsequent Indian crackdown, and the region remains a tinderbox waiting for a match to light.
The latest street violence erupted after a police probe in June found Indian army soldiers had killed three Kashmiri civilians in a staged gunbattle and then claimed their victims were militants in order to claim a reward. The army responded by suspending two officers.
In an anti-India protest following the incident, a teenager who was reportedly just passing by was killed when he was hit in the head by a tear gas grenade fired by police.
That killing sparked more violent demonstrations and a police crackdown that killed 10 more people, according to police and witness reports.
"Our fight is against Indian occupation and as long as this military occupation continues this place will continue to witness human rights violations," Masarat Alam, a top separatist politician, told reporters recently. According to police, Alam has gone underground to evade arrest.
In an effort to contain the violence, authorities Wednesday expanded a curfew to most parts of Srinagar, the main city in Indian Kashmir, and the key towns of Anantnag and Baramulla. Thousands of government forces also patrolled the troubled town of Sopore, under curfew for a sixth straight day. Police have arrested about 100 top separatist leaders and activists.
"This is not a simple law and order matter brought about by lack of good governance," Omar Abdullah, chief minister of Indian Kashmir, said after three people were killed Tuesday in a shooting blamed on troops. "It is a battle of ideologies in which various anti-national forces and vested interests have come together to create trouble."
India has an estimated 700,000 soldiers in Kashmir, even though police estimate only about 500 armed rebels remain in the fight.
Experts say extreme militarization and absence of movement in peace talks between India and Pakistan over Kashmir have become a constant source of anger among war-weary residents.
"The pervasive presence is that of the military and paramilitary, whose xenophobic and forceful infiltration into every aspect of economic and civic life is palpable," said Angana Chatterji, an anthropologist at San Francisco's California Institute of Integral Studies.
The insurgency has largely been replaced by street demonstrations, which gained traction in the summer of 2008, when residents protested the transfer of 100 acres (40 hectares) of land to a Hindu shrine in the Kashmir Himalayas. Public pressure forced the government to revoke the plan, which Kashmiris saw as an attempt to affect a demographic change in the only Muslim-majority region in India.
But the protests soon morphed into some of the biggest demonstrations against Indian rule since the early years of the 1989 uprising, and brought tens of thousands into the streets. Indian authorities launched a harsh crackdown that killed more than 60 protesters and wounded hundreds.
Last summer, protests broke out again after the alleged rape and murder of two young women by men in uniform. A federal investigation later said they weren't raped and died from drowning.
'Kashmir Under Militarized Governance'
"Indian-administered Kashmir is not a "problem" but a conflict zone. India's militarization is aimed at territorial control of Kashmir, and control over key economic and environmental resources in the region, including those of the Siachen glacier," the IPTK said in a statement.
"The Government of Kashmir is unable to prevail politically or exercise control over the Indian Armed Forces. India's political dominance hinges on its ability to possess Kashmir. Institutions of democracy -- the judiciary, educational institutions, media -- are neutralized by the Government of Jammu and Kashmir and the Indian Armed Forces as they function in tandem, continuing military governance," it said.
Pointing out that 25 civilians had been killed by the security forces between January and June this year, the Tribunal said that India does not admit to a conflict inside Kashmir.
"Yet, the Armed Forces have become increasingly more powerful and entrenched in Indian-administered Kashmir. Both New Delhi and the Omar Abdullah Government appear unwilling, or unable, to control the military and paramilitary," it said.
"Military-talk and dominant political speech state that the Indian Armed Forces are in Kashmir to protect citizens, and justify civilian suffering and killings as collateral damage in a war on terror. Akin to the George W. Bush era in the United States, this war of "good" against "evil" makes critique or dissent impossible without disagreement becoming affiliated with what is "evil," "dangerous," and "anti-national." There is no way out of the contradiction that India's military is the protector of Kashmiris who are also potential enemies, as long as military suppression of Kashmiris is understood as crucial to defending India," it said..
"India's militarization is portrayed as an 'internal' matter, refusing transparency, international scrutiny, and adherence to international humanitarian law of conflict and war. In the face of the Indian state's violations of international humanitarian law, of protocols and conventions, and perpetration of crimes against humanity, there is a deafening silence on the part of the international community," it said.
"The Kashmir conflict, like other international conflicts, requires urgent attention and resolution. There is, at present, no monitoring, no sustained visibility, no engagement that can produce ethical and viable results," it said.
"That Kashmiris must be an integral part of any resolution repeatedly escapes the international community, and India and Pakistan. If the current situation continues, and nonviolent dissent is systemically brutalized, might the Government of India force Kashmiri civilians to perhaps take up armed militancy once again, continuing the cycle of violence? Is the international community not accountable for averting this?" it asked.
Maoist Rebels in India Attack Security Forces
In India, Maoist rebels have inflicted another deadly blow on Indian security forces, killing 26 paramilitary soldiers in an attack. It is the latest in a series of daring attacks by the rebels ,who appear undeterred by a government operation to flush them out.
The violence blamed on Maoist rebels flared hours before the guerrillas had called for a two-day strike, starting Wednesday, across five eastern and central states.
Authorities say the soldiers were on an operation to clear a road ahead of the shutdown in Chattisgarh state when they were gunned down, Tuesday. Several soldiers were injured.
The inspector general of police in the state, Girdhari Naik, says about 150 rebels opened fire with automatic weapons from a hilltop.
Naik says fighting lasted for nearly an hour and a half. He calls it a "heavy ambush". He says reinforcements went from a nearby camp to rescue the soldiers.
The state's chief minister, Raman Singh, condemned the latest attack, saying the Maoists lacked the courage to engage in a direct fight with security forces. He also held a meeting to review strategy against the rebels.
Chattisgarh, one of India's poorest states, is among the regions worst affected by Maoist violence. In April, the rebels killed 76 soldiers in the same state. Last month, 30 bus passengers died in a land mine attack.
Tuesday' attack has reignited a debate on the reasons why a government offensive launched last year to take out the guerrillas is making virtually no progress.
Several independent security analysts say the anti-Maoist operation is not working because police and paramilitary forces do not have the training required to tackle the guerrillas, who operate from remote bases where there is virtually no government presence.
Bharat Karnad, a security analyst with the independent Center for Policy Research in New Delhi, is among those calling for specially trained forces to flush out the guerrillas.
"Is it not possible to have very military trained special forces that can go and live off the jungle for months at a time, to gather intelligence and deal with the guerrillas as they see fit. That is how you do it. You cannot have a long logistics line that goes into the jungle, because then you invariably make these forces vulnerable, vulnerable to the kind of attack we saw yesterday," he said.
The Maoists say they are fighting for the rights of millions of poor and landless people who are living in deep poverty in remote regions bypassed by the country's economic boom.
The government says what it believes are the root causes of the rebellion - lack of effective governance and development in some parts of the country - need attention.
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India bomb blast hurts eight policemen in Chhattisgarh
Page last updated at 12:26 GMT, Wednesday, 30 June 2010 13:26 UK
At least eight policemen in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh have been wounded by a Maoist bomb, police say.
They say that the incident happened in the Bijapur district of the state as they were defusing landmines.
Authorities in the state are meeting to review strategy after 26 policemen were killed on Tuesday by Maoist rebels.
The state chief minister has condemned the attack on the paramilitary Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) as an act of "cowardice and barbarism".
Few details of Wednesday's bomb blast are available, but the BBC's Salman Ravi in the state capital Raipur says that police believe they were lured into the area by Maoist rebels so that they could be easily targeted.
The rebels say they are fighting for the rights of the rural poor.
They have carried out a spate of deadly attacks in recent months. In April, 76 CRPF members were killed in the state's Dantewada district.
In May, 145 people died when a train crashed in West Bengal after Maoists, also known as Naxalites, allegedly sabotaged the rails.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has described their insurgency as India's biggest internal security challenge.
"The security personnel have laid down their lives to free the people from Naxal terror. Their sacrifice will not go in vain," the Press Trust of India news agency quoted Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Raman Singh as saying.
"The Naxals have carried out a cowardly act. People and groups having faith in human rights should condemn this act of murder in once voice," he said.
"The extremists lack moral courage to engage in a direct fight with our brave security forces," he added.
Mr Singh is meeting senior police and CRPF officials in Raipur on Wednesday morning.
Home ministry officials from Delhi are also meeting the chief minister to assess the situation.
The rebels began a two-day strike on Wednesday which has disrupted the states of Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Bihar.
Maoist spokesman Comrade Raju told the BBC that the strike was in protest over Delhi's decision to raise the prices of petroleum products and over central government "indifference" to the plight of victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy in 1984.Poor strategy
Tuesday's attack took place in Narayanpur district in the state's Bastar region on Tuesday evening, just 3km from a CRPF camp in Dhodai, 300km (190 miles) south of Raipur.
Correspondents say it was the third major Maoist attack on the security forces in the past three months and it puts the spotlight on the poor strategy of the security agencies.
According to reports, a group of nearly 70 troops had gone to clear roads of landmines.
They were attacked on their way back by a heavily armed group of about 200 rebels, officials said.
Police said the gun battle lasted three hours.
In May a Maoist landmine attack in Chhattisgarh destroyed a bus and killed more than 30 people, most of them civilians.
A government offensive against the rebels - widely referred to as Operation Green Hunt - began last October.
It involves 50,000 troops and is taking place across five states - West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa and Chhattisgarh.
Ministers in Delhi have always accepted that there is a need to tackle the root causes of the rebellion, such as poverty and the absence of effective local government.
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Paying tributes to the deceased security men, Raman Singh said their sacrifice would not go in vain. "Security personnel from across the country are here to fight the Naxal menace.
Such attacks are an attempt to demoralise them. Efforts would be made to ensure that their morale is not undermined," he said.
The attack took place in Narayanpur in Chhattisgarh, seen as the citadel of the Maoists. Police said the rebels fired from a hilltop on a party of about 70 security men patrolling on foot in a thickly forested region.
State Home Minister Nankiram Kanwar told reporters security forces returned fire and a gun battle raged for about three hours.
Maoist attacks have become bigger this year, especially after the government launched a coordinated security offensive involving tens of thousands of police trying to flush out the rebels from their jungle hideouts in central and eastern India.
There were two other incidents since April that testified to their strength - the killing of 76 police in an ambush and an attack on a bus that killed 35 people.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has called the Maoists India's gravest internal security threat. Last year was the worst ever for casualties at more than 1,000 deaths. Already 400 people have died this year in an insurgency simmering for four decades.
Maoists abducted and killed a local Congress leader in Jharkhand's Garhwa district ahead of their two-day bandh in five states today. Bardhan Kachhu, a 45-year-old local tribal leader of Garhwa, was kidnapped from Barkol village around 8 pm last night by the Maoists and shot dead, Garhwa Superintendent of Police Richard Lakra said.
The Left-wing guerrillas are observing a 2-day bandh beginning midnight last night in Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa, Chhatisgarh and Bihar against the alleged anti-people policies of the government. This is the fifth 48-hour bandh this year, affecting mining activity in the mineral-rich state.
Meanwhile, Trade unions are being roped in to lend their support to the nation-wide Bharat Bandh called by opposition parties on July 5 against fuel price hike. JD-U leader Sharad Yadav today talked to BJP chief Nitin Gadkari, CPI-M general secretary Prakash Karat and CPI leader A B Bardhan over the issue, sources said.
The leaders have agreed to appeal to trade unions apart from students and youth organizations to lend support to the Bandh. In a concerted effort by opposition parties to take on the government on the issue of fuel price hike, the BJP-led NDA and Left parties yesterday gave the call for Bharat Bandh.
The parties participating in the bandh are BJP, Samajwadi Party, JD-U, CPI-M, CPI, Forward Block, RSP, AIADMK, TDP, BJD, JD(S) and INLD. Most of these political parties have their affilliated trade unions, which are expected to join the nation-wide bandh. All essential services like supply of water, milk, electricity, hospital and emergency services will be exempt from the purview of the bandh.
Several opposition parties have already declared that they would raise the issue vociferously in Parliament with the Monsoon Session expected to commence by July-end. "Check prices or leave the chair (Dam roko ya gaddi chhoro), price rise affects all communities (Hindu Muslim Sikh, Isai, sabke ghar me hai mahangai)," will be some of the Opposition''s slogans during the agitation.
An effort for a joint protest by the Opposition over fuel price hike was made during the Budget Session of Parliament in March this year, but it could not materialise then.
Raman Singh discusses anti-Naxal strategies
A day after 26 CRPF personnel were killed in a Naxal ambush in Chhattisgarh's Narayanpur district, Chief Minister Raman Singh on Wednesday called an emergency meeting to discuss anti-Naxal strategies.
The meeting, apart from reviewing Tuesday's deadly attack, discussed strategies to modernise police forces and equip them with better tools to fight the outlaws, State officials said.
The meeting, which lasted for an hour and a half, was attended by Union Home Ministry and senior State officials including State Home Minister Nanki Ram Kanwar, Chief Secretary P J Ummain, State DGP Vishwaranjan, CRPF chief Vikram Shrivastav, and senior Union Home Ministry official BM Nair.
Additional Director General of Police Ramnivas said Chhattisgarh police and paramilitary forces were jointly tackling the Naxal menace in the State.
He said that around 15 Naxalites were possibly killed when security personnel retaliated on Tuesday during the attack, as blood marks and signs of bodies being dragged were seen on the massacre site.
A large number of heavily-armed Maoists, perched on a hilltop, had opened fire with automatic weapons on a 63-member security contingent which was returning on foot from road opening duty on Tuesday killing 26 CRPF personnel and injuring eight others.
The Hindu - 1 hour ago
PTI AP Central Reserve Police Force personnel receive the body of a slain colleague in Jagdalpur on Wednesday. The death toll in Tuesday's Naxal attack rose to 27 after the body of a missing CRPF constable was found on Wednesday. ...
Voice of America - - 3 hours ago
In India, Maoist rebels have inflicted another deadly blow on Indian security forces, killing 26 paramilitary soldiers in an attack. It is the latest in a series of daring attacks by the rebels ,who appear undeterred by a government operation to flush ...
Hindustan Times - 1 hour ago
PTI A day after 26 CRPF personnel were killed in a Naxal ambush in Chhattisgarh's Narayanpur district, Chief Minister Raman Singh on Wednesday called an emergency meeting to discuss anti-Naxal strategies. The meeting, apart from reviewing Tuesday's ...
Sify - 1 hour ago
Raipur: He survived the latest Naxal ambush on CRPF men in Chattisgarh and got injured but has not lost his nerve and is raring to return to the jungles to avenge the death of his fellow security men. As questions were raised whether there was any ...
Press Trust of India - 54 minutes ago
New Delhi, Jun 30 (PTI) Condemning the "mindless" killing of 27 CRPF jawans by Maoists, the CPI today asked the extremists to desist from such acts saying the "heinous massacres" would be "self-defeating". "We would like to remind the Maoists that this ...
Press Trust of India - 54 minutes ago
Raipur, Jun 30 (PTI) A guard of honour was today given to the 26 CRPF jawans who were killed in a Naxal attack in Chhattisgarh's Naryanpur district. The guard of honour was given in the presence of Governor Shekhar Dutt, Chief Minister Raman Singh, ...
Expressindia.com - 1 hour ago
A day after 26 CRPF personnel were killed in a Naxal ambush in Chhattisgarh's Narayanpur district, Chief Minister Raman Singh today called an emergency meeting to discuss anti-Naxal strategies. These have not really succeeded in stemming the violence ...
BBC News - 8 hours ago
At least eight policemen in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh have been wounded by a Maoist bomb, police say. They say that the incident happened in the Bijapur district of the state as they were defusing landmines. Authorities in the state are meeting ...
AFP - - 9 hours ago
RAIPUR, India — Paramilitary commandos in central India launched an operation Wednesday to flush out a group of Maoist rebels who killed 26 police officers in a jungle ambush. "The security forces have entered the jungle on a manhunt for the outlawed ...
BBC News - 22 hours ago
At least 26 policemen have been killed in a Maoist attack in the central Indian state of Chhattisgarh, police have told the BBC. Those killed in the latest attack were members of the paramilitary Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF). ...
Timeline of articles
Number of sources covering this story
World on Fire
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|World on Fire|
|Subject(s)||international economic relations, globalization, ethnic conflict|
Anchor Books (paperback)
|Publication date||2003 (hardcover)|
|Media type||hardcover, paperback|
|Dewey Decimal||303.6 21|
|LC Classification||HF1359 .C524 2004|
World On Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability is a 2002 book published by Yale Law School professor Amy Chua. It is an academic study into ethnic and sociological divisions in regard to economic and governmental systems in various societies.
In the Philippines, Chua explains, the ethnic-Chinese minority has far greater wealth than the indigenous majority, with the result being envy and bitterness on the part of the majority against the Chinese minority -- in other words, an ethnic conflict. She believes that democratization can increase ethnic conflicts when an ethnic minority is disproportionately wealthy. "When free market democracy is pursued in the presence of a market-dominant minority, the almost invariable result is backlash. This backlash typically takes one of three forms. The first is a backlash against markets, targeting the market-dominant minority's wealth. The second is a backlash against democracy by forces favorable to the market-dominant minority. The third is violence, sometimes genocidal, directed against the market-dominant minority itself.". Also, "overnight democracy will empower the poor, indigenous majority. What happens is that under those circumstances, democracy doesn't do what we expect it to do -- that is, reinforce markets. [Instead,] democracy leads to the emergence of manipulative politicians and demagogues who find that the best way to get votes is by scapegoating the minorities." 
According to Chua, other examples of ethnic market-dominant minorities include Chinese people in Southeast Asia; "whites" in Latin America; Jews in Russia; Croats in the former Yugoslavia; and Ibos, Kikuyus, Tutsis, Indians and Lebanese, among others, in Africa .
In her book, Chua discusses different reasons for the market dominance of different groups. Some groups achieve market dominance because of colonial oppression or apartheid. In other cases, it may be due to the culture and family networks of these groups. For many groups there is no clear single explanation. 
Americans can also be seen as a global market-dominant minority, which particularly when combined with using military might and flaunting political domination, cause resentment. 
Chua states that she is a "big fan of trying to promote markets and democracy globally," but that it should be accompanied by attempts to "redistribute the wealth, whether it's property title and giving poor people property, land reform .... Redistributive mechanisms are tough to have if you have so much corruption." 
- Selected one of The Economist Best Books of the Year 2003
Amy Chua's thesis and her conclusions have been disputed by George Leef  of the John Locke Foundation, who proposes that many other factors may account for ethnic violence, including the most simple motivation of pure racism . Leef concludes his review:
All that World on Fire proves in the end is that governments cannot be depended upon to prevent violence against people who have been, for whatever reason, demonized by others. That's nothing new.
Andreas Wimmer and Brian Min, criticizing the book state:
By contrast, our analysis shows that what has been observed in recent decades may simply be more of the same old story. Although history never repeats itself, the same process patterns may be operating at different times and in different historical contexts (cf. Collier and Mazzuca 2006). The dismemberment of empire and the formation of the nation-state have led to wars since the time of Napoleon. The patterns of warfare in the Caucasus and the Balkans in the 1990s resemble those on the Indian sub-continent in the 1940s, those of Eastern Europe during and after the World War I, and so on. The return of the "Macedonian syndrome," as Myron Weiner (1971) has called the intermingling of ethnic conflict and irredentist wars, explains such recurrent patterns of war much better than any variant of globalization theory. To treat them as a fundamentally new phenomenon, brought about by the end of the Cold War or increased globalization, represents yet another example of the widespread tendency among social scientists to perceive their own times as unique and exceptionally dynamic (on "chrono- centrism," see Fowles 1974).
They also note that several studies support the a variant of the democratic peace theory, which argues that more democracy causes a general decrease in systematic violence, at least for the most democratic nations. However, intermediately democratic nations do have a higher tendency for conflicts such as civil war than autocracies.
 See also
- Dominant minority
- Yuri Slezkine's book The Jewish Century (2004)
- Ethnic elite
 External links
- Salon.com review By Michelle Goldberg
- The Guardian review By Martin Jacques
- Collected reviews
- Review by George Leef
- Booknotes interview with Chua on World on Fire, February 9, 2003.
The Hindu - 2 hours agoPeople and groups having faith in human rights should condemn this act of murder in one voice," he said, vowing to end the Maoist menace in the State. ...Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Raman Singh discusses anti-Naxal ... - Hindustan Times
Naxals butcher 26 CRPF men in Chhattisgarh - Economic Times
Guard of honour given to CRPF jawans - Press Trust of India
all 576 news articles »
samay live - 13 Jun 2010"The BJP takes it as inept handling of the growing menace of Naxalites in India. In fact, India can't afford to lose the battle against the Maoists whose ...Advani criticises UPA on corruption, Maoist violence - Sify
Resolution on the expansion of Maoist activities passed in BJP ... - Orissadiary.com
UPA government a super flop show: Gadkari - Mangalorean.com
all 149 news articles »
Oneindia - 4 days ago... the government should take concrete measures to curtail the Maoist menace. ... The Maoists have been active in rural areas of central and eastern India ...
Daily News & Analysis - 6 days agoHowever, having discovered the importance of development to fight the Maoist menace, the government has a much larger task on hand. ...
Expressindia.com - 6 days agoNew Delhi Maoists' destructive capabilities extend wider than of mere terror and includes some very vital to the economy sectors. The threat of Maoist ...
Huffington Post (blog) - 1 day agoThey are a menace in Eastern India, having been involved in bombings, kidnappings, and assassinations. Even Amnesty International lists them as "Maoist ...
Buzz 7 - 2 days ago... the Maoist menace by deploying paramilitary forces in the affected zones. ... The Maoists have been active in rural areas of central and eastern India ...
The Hindu - 5 Jun 2010SINGAPORE: India on Saturday dispelled unusual apprehensions about its nuclear ... On the Maoist menace, Mr. Menon said: "We will combat it [Left-wing ...
Livemint - 6 Jun 2010Calling on the army to fight Maoists signals powerlessness. ... be called in to tackle the Maoist/Naxalite menace afflicting various states in the country. ...Combating Maoist terror - Daily Pioneer
all 163 news articles »
IBNLive.com - 9 Jun 2010Is Manipur not a part of India, is North Eastern sates irrelevant in National TV? ... The problem with Maoists is that they are so well blended with the ...WSJI FLASH DEBATE: Should the Army Fight Naxalites? - Wall Street Journal (blog)
all 67 news articles »
Maoists kill Congress leader, contractor in JharkhandIn two separate incidents, Maoists have killed a Congress leader and a building contractor as their two-day strike began in Jharkhand Wednesday, police said.
Maoists killed contractor Kedar Munda in Khuti district, around 65 Km from Ranchi, after abducting him from his Salehatu village Wednesday morning. His body was recovered from nearby jungle, police said.
In the other incident, rebels killed a local Congress leader, Bardhan Kachhu, in Garwah district. He was abducted from his Barkol village Tuesday night. His body was recovered Wednesday.
Maoists in many districts have asked Congress leaders to quit the party. They blame the Congress for the current security offensive against them.
Rail and road services were hit in Jharkhand Wednesday on the first day of a two-day strike in five states, officials said. The national highways wore a deserted look as trucks were stranded at many places and long-route buses did not ply.
This is the second two-day strike called by the Communist Party of India-Maoist in June. It covers Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal.
No rules for CIC selection : KejariwalEven five years after the implementation of the RTI Act, Government has failed to frame rules for the selection of Chief Information Commissioners across the country which has resulted in "arbitrary selection" of these officials, a leading activist has alleged. Presenting a series of documents accessed under the transparency law, Magsaysay award winner Arvind Kejariwal said the PM-led selection committee for Information Commissioners has become an "endorsement committee" of candidates finalised by the Department of Personnel and Training.
"The names which made it to agenda note of selection committee chaired by the PM and who were finally selected, never applied nor were they every recommended by anyone as per records of DOPT and PMO," he said. He cited an interesting case of the then Secretary, DOPT Satyananda Mishra who framed the agenda for the selection committee and put his own name as shortlisted candidate for the post.
Mishra was subsequently selected for the post of Information Commissioner at the CIC. Section 27 of the Right to Information Act mandates the government to frame selection of the Information Commissioners at the CIC and State Information Commissioners. "The DOPT has not framed any rules in this regard even after five years.
Had they done so, their supremacy in arbitrary selection would have been over," Kejariwal said. The activists also cited case of advisor to Finance Minister Omita Paul who was made Information Commissioner after the General Elections were announced and resigned from the post to join previous post after elections were over and UPA again came to power.
The activists cited several names like Ravi Shanker Singh, Sudhanshu Ranajan and Krishna Kabir Antony which were recommended by several eminent persons but were not put before the selection committee. They also cited names like Satyananada Mishra, Annapurna Dixit, M L Sharma which were put before the selection committee by the DOPT without any recommendation or application in their favour.
"Who in DOPT finalises the names to be sent before the Selection Committee. PM is hardly given a choice to select by the DOPT. For example S N Mishra was the then DOPT Secretary.
He included his own name in the agenda note and excluded those of others," Kejariwal said. Chief Information Commissioner and Information Commissioners are selected by a committee chaired by Prime Minister and comprising Leader of Opposition and a Cabinet Minister.The DOPT has a secretarial role to receive and shortlist candidates to be put in agenda note of the meeting
Marriage, dowry, relationships, family, marital discord: it's a potent mix of human emotions and failings and nowhere is this more in evidence than in the misuse of the Dowry Prohibition Act (DPA).
Pushkar Singh, 34 Vineeta, 30 Mumbai
Singh, a teacher, committed suicide after his wife allegedly implicated him in a false case for which he had to spend four months in jail. He hanged himself after his release, blaming his in-laws for his plight. He leaves behind a minor child and his ailing, aged mother.
All in the Family
Brijesh Awasthi, 34 Sunita Awasthi, 33, Mumbai
Brijesh claims that his brother-in-law borrowed money which he did not want to repay and in turn told his sister that Awasthi was planning to remarry secretly. Sunita committed suicide and his in-laws charged him with dowry killing. He is now bringing up his two daughters.
An incredible 9,000 husbands and their relatives (10 per cent of the total jail population) are languishing in Uttar Pradesh prisons under the provisions of the Act. Parents of estranged brides are increasingly lodging cases against their in-laws under the Act to "punish the husbands" and to also conceal the actual cause of the dispute between the couple.
"After murder cases, if there is any other crime sending the greatest number of people to jail, it is the Dowry Prohibition Act," says senior IPS officer and Inspector General of UP Jails Sulkhan Singh. What that proves is that an Act meant to protect victims of dowry has become a weapon of vengeance and a mockery of the judicial system.
Indraneil Bhattacharya, a senior executive in a Lucknow-based private company, was married to Mausami Chatterji in 2002 and within five months their relations deteriorated. But they sustained their togetherness and had two children by 2008. "I requested her not to spend too much money on herself but she refused and finally filed a case under DPA as revenge," says Indraneil.
"We have lost all our money in courts and police stations. Mausami and her kin have driven us out of our house. My parents, who had built the house with their hard-earned money, are now living in a rented house," recalls Indraneil, who is now socially ostracised and economically broken.
The Act has caused so much trauma that Pushkar Singh, a teacher, even ended his life. Implicated under the Act, Singh was sent to jail for four months. He came back, wrote a letter blaming his wife and in-laws for implicating him in a false case of dowry and ruining his life. "I cannot face the society so I am ending my life" were his last words as Singh hanged himself. He left behind his aged and ailing mother and a child.
Another victim, Vikas Parihar, says his wife was a journalist who had illicit relations with the owner of a magazine, and when he protested she filed a case under the DPA. "I have lost my job, my money, my status in society and my family. My day ends running after police personnel and advocates. I have no money now. If I don't contest the case, I would be convicted and sent to jail for a crime that I did not commit. But if I challenge it, I lose everything and may soon turn a beggar. What is the use of such a life?" says an emotional Parihar.
In an unusual case in Barabanki district, Saroj of Belia village was married to Ram Saran of Bhaisupur in 2006. One morning she was found missing from her in-laws house. Her father charged Ram Saran and his family with killing his daughter for dowry and disposing of her body.
The sessions court pronounced rigorous life imprisonment for Ram Saran and his family. But during the high court proceedings, the "dead" Saroj presented herself before the court, saying that she had eloped with her paramour and her father had out of vendetta filed a case against her husband and in-laws under the dpa.
There are, however, larger social and judicial issues here. Between 2000 and 2007, 795 minor girls and 1,300 minor boys were also booked under the Act. "In most cases the bride's family lodges a complaint under the dpa against the husband and his family.
Instead of investigating the case, the police immediately arrests the accused. This is ridiculous. How can minor boys and girls be involved in a dowry case? They may not even know what dowry is," says a senior government official who himself faced such a case. While the situation in Uttar Pradesh is scary, chaos reigns across the country over the provisions of the Act.
National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB) figures reveal that in the five years between 2004 and 2008, no less than 3,36,842 cases were registered under the Act and 94 per cent of the accused were absolved of the charges. The figures show that the DPA is being grossly misused by the bride's family.
The misuse has now triggered off counter activism with many organisations like Patni Pidit Sangathan, Save Family, All-India Male Welfare Association, Hyderabad MASA (Mother and Sister Initiative) and Forgotten Women coming up across the country. Salem in Tamil Nadu hosts a national-level meeting of victims of the wife in August every year.
"I have no hesitation in saying the Act has become a money-making machine for the police and lawyers," says Vikas Parihar, another victim. Swarup Sarkar, founding member of the Save Indian Family Campaign, said over 2,000 NGOs are working all over the country for women's welfare, but not a single one for the welfare of men.
Sarkar added that most dowry cases are registered against economically sound families and then a gang of police personnel and advocates start extorting from the groom's family. "How can a mere verbal statement by a woman be made the ground for the arrest of an entire family, including minors and elders without an investigation? This is unconstitutional and illegal. Even the Supreme Court has issued directives to first investigate DPA-related complaints and then make arrests," says Sarkar.
In view of a growing number of dowry-related cases, the Lucknow Bench of the Allahabad High Court has constituted a Mediation and Conciliation Centre in the court campus.
Senior lawyer I.B. Singh, chairman of the centre, said that in the last eight months, 622 cases were referred to the centre, out of which 500 cases were dowry related but there was not a single case in which dowry was the real cause of dispute. Shabnam Siddiqui, a member of the centre said: "The misuse is increasing in the middle and upper middle classes with a good economic and educational background."
After murder cases, if there is any other crime sending the largest number of people to the jails, it is the Dowry Prohibition Act.- Sulkhan Singh, IG Uttar Pradesh Jails
Even the President, the Supreme Court and a number of high courts have expressed their concern over the misuse of the Act. The apex court has even described the phenomenon as "legal terrorism."
Lucknow's Nari Bandi Niketan holds 151 elderly women. "Most of them have to serve life terms," says a senior jail official. Many of them cannot walk independently or perform their daily chores.
Most have been abandoned by their own relatives. A senior jail official said of these 151 inmates, 105 had no visitors in the last one year. The remaining 46 had just three visitors despite the fact that the jail manual allows 12 meetings. "These inmates are like our family members and we take care of them," says the official.
Indeed, it is common to see women and men between the ages of 65 and 70 years serving a life term. Apart from the mothers-in-law, sisters-in-law too were in jails with their children.
Now the All India Mother-In-Law Protection Forum has come up to fight for their rights. Parihar says that the Act is taking a heavy toll on men, adding that more than two lakh married men committed suicide between 2005 and 2008 while the number of housewives was much less.
Now, men are uniting across the country and demanding a review of the Act. That will be little consolation to the thousands of victims of vengeance and greed, stuck behind bars with their future in tatters.
Reproduced From India Today. Â© 2010. LMIL. All rights reserved.Wednesday, June 30, 2010
Competing ideologies: G20 v U.S. social forum
By Stephen Lendman
Established in 1999, G20 finance ministers, central bank governors, and, at times, heads of state meet semi-annually to "discuss key issues in the global economy," the initial 1999 meeting in Berlin, hosted by German and Canadian finance ministers.
G20.org calls its itself "the premier forum for our international economic development that promotes open and constructive discussion between industrial and emerging-market countries on key issues related to global economic stability," saying it "support(s) growth and development across the globe," or does it?
The reality suggests otherwise about a political power elite gathering to review past achievements, challenges, and prospects for greater exploitation of world markets, resources, and people everywhere. In other words, to support power and privilege over beneficial social change, a consideration not addressed, discussed, or thought about, except with regard to instituting policies leading to the disintegration and elimination of social democracies, replacing them with the worst elements of developing world harshness, tolerating no opposition.
What economist Michael Hudson suggested in his recent article titled, "Europe's Fiscal Dystopia: The 'New Austerity' Road to Financial Serfdom," saying:
"Europe is committing fiscal suicide - and will have little trouble finding allies at this weekend's G-20 meetings," attendees "calling for cutbacks in public spending" when economic recovery requires stimulus, job creation, and public investment, not global wars, banker bailouts, or other counterproductive measures.
Hudson called the meeting "a carefully orchestrated financial war against the 'real' economy," initiated in America, Obama having "stacked his White House Deficit Commission....with the same brand of neoliberal ideologues who comprised the notorious 1982 Greenspan Commission on Social Security 'reform,' " a topic this writer addressed earlier in a "maestro of misery" article about a man who wrecked the lives of millions for the rich, now cashing in big late in life, claiming no responsibility for decades of harm, a legacy others won't let him forget.
Now it's going global, why Hudson sees Europe "dying....succumb(ing) to a financial coup d'etat rolling back the past three centuries of Enlightenment social philosophy." In lock step, America is erasing its New Deal and Great Society gains, planning mass impoverishment, human misery, and fascist harshness, the hidden G20 agenda not reported in the mainstream, sticking to its party line propaganda, the usual rubbish top officials preach to conceal their real plans from hell.
The G20 - An Explanation
Comprising 85% of global GDP, 80% of world trade, and two-thirds of its population, participating countries include America, Canada, Germany, France, Britain, Italy, Spain (a permanent guest), China, Japan, India, South Korea, Indonesia, Russia, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Turkey, Australia, South Africa, and Saudi Arabia as well as EU Council and Commission Presidents.
Other attendees include:
-- the IMF's managing director and chairman;
-- the World Bank's president;
-- the international Monetary and Financial Committee (IMFC); and
-- chairman of the IMF/World Bank Development Committee.
Even though they rank higher economically than some members, excluded are Switzerland, Norway, Taiwan, Iran and Venezuela. Included only as part of the EU are Spain, Netherlands, Poland, Belgium, Sweden, Austria, Greece and Denmark.
The G20 superseded the G33 that replaced the G22. The year 1975 inaugurated the G6 comprised of America, France, Germany, Britain, Italy and Japan. Adding Canada in 1976 made it the G7, then G8 by including Russia in 1997, the EU also included, but it doesn't host or chair.
On June 26 and 27, 2010, G20 officials met inside the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Toronto, Canada. Thousands of protestors filled city streets outside, Reuters reporting over 600 arrested, many in a so-called "free speech zone," police spokeswoman Michelle Murphy calling it "quite a messy protest" on Saturday, continuing on Sunday, accusing "masked anarchists" of smashing store and bank windows, then torching two or more police cars.
Prime Minister Stephen Harper said "Free speech is a principle of our democracy, but thugs (provocateurs he dispatched) that prompted violence earlier today represent in no way, shape or form the Canadian way of life," he and his government have been systematically destroying in league with Washington.
Against peaceful activists were more than six KM of barriers topped with concertina wire, thousands of newly installed surveillance cameras, patrolling helicopters, the Canadian Armed Forces at undisclosed locations, and over 7,000 police, plain clothes officers, mounted patrols, snipers on rooftops, US Navy Seals (trained killers), about 1,000 private security guards, and planted ("Black Bloc") provocateurs. More on them below.
Police, acting as hooligans, used tear gas, pepper spray, rubber bullets, bean bag guns, batons, and other intimidations, a security operation costing Canada a reported $1.2 billion, the Harper government's communications director, Dimitri Soudas, calling protestors "a bunch of thugs who pretend to have a difference of opinions and instead choose violence in order to express" them, adding that police were "ensuring these thugs don't rampage across the city and create even more damage."
In fact, protestors were peaceful, but not police, independent reports saying they exhibited extreme brutality, including against journalists (men and women), beating and punching them, injuring others, and arresting hundreds, some before the summit convened to intimidate others.
Protest organizer, Niki Thorne, reported that 20 police raided her house and arrested four people, saying:
"Police forcibly detained and cuffed a number of people, and refused to allow those in the house to call for legal advice. Without showing warrants, asking consent, or giving notice, (they) did an illegal cursory search of some of the people on the premises as well as the house itself."
According to the Toronto Globe and Mail, those arrested were charged with conspiracy to commit mischief, police alleging they were "planning to break off from peaceful protest and launch violent attacks," with no corroborating evidence.
In fact, quite the opposite, according to reports, video, and other evidence exposing undercover police violence, posing as "street thugs," hooded and dressed in black (the so-called "Black Bloc"), instigating disorder and brutishness, destroying public property, smashing windows, burning police cars, blamed on protestors - an old story in Canada, America, and other global venues to blame state crimes on peaceful activists, the major media reporting it without question, independent journalists kept away to suppress it, public perceptions manipulated by misinformation.
This is how a police state operates, Ameri/Canadian fascism, making false accusations and arrests, employing hooligan tactics against peaceful protestors, and refusing non-mainstream reporters entry into Canada, others arrested to prevent their coverage - violating Section 2(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, a constitutional bill of rights, affirming:
"freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media communication (as well as) freedom of peaceful assembly (and) freedom of association."
The US Social Forum (USSF) - Another World is Possible
Evolving from the World Social Forum's (WSF) alternative vision, the USSF first met in Atlanta in mid-2007, this year in Detroit for activists, organizers, minorities, labor, the poor, indigenous peoples and others wanting social justice and a better world, mirror-opposite of the G20 agenda - supporting privilege over the common good, plotting to extinguished those old-fashioned notions, forcibly when necessary.
On its web site (ussf2010.org), USSF headlines "Another World is Possible, Another US Is Necessary," calling itself:
"a movement building process. It is not a conference but is a space to come up with the peoples' solutions to the economic and ecological crisis. (It's) the next important step in our struggle to build a powerful multi-racial, multi-sectoral, inter-generational, diverse, inclusive, internationalist movement that transforms this country and changes history."
"We must declare what we want our world to look like and we must start planning the path to get there. The USSF provides spaces to learn from each other's experiences and struggles, share our analysis of the problems our communities face, build relationships, and align with our international brothers and sisters to strategize how to reclaim our world."
No wonder, the major media ignore it, instead supporting power and privilege, corporate interests, imperial wars, democracy for the few, sham elections, and street thuggery hooliganism. At the same time, social justice concerns are suppressed, ones affecting most people everywhere, their voices never heard, their issues unaddressed, their struggles disregarded and spurned.
But not in Detroit from June 22 - 26, ground zero for the failed economy and counterproductive measures causing it, over 20,000 attending in solidarity for a better world, one that can't come a moment too soon, that won't happen without mass grassroots support no longer tolerating official policies preventing it - in Toronto, Washington, or other global cities where governments deny their own people justice. What better time for change than now, USSF's agenda an inspirational call for it.
Stephen Lendman lives in Chicago and can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org. Also visit his blog site at sjlendman.blogspot.com and listen to cutting-edge discussions with distinguished guests on the Progressive Radio News Hour on the Progressive Radio Network Thursdays at 10AM U.S. Central time and Saturdays and Sundays at noon. All programs are archived for easy listening.
Photo: Canadian Police stand guard during the G8/G20 as protesters approach, June 26, 2010 in Toronto. Thousands of people marched against the G8/G20 summits to protest for jobs and social causes. (Getty Images)
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The Associated Press - - 36 minutes ago
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Times of India - 1 hour ago
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Street violence hits Indian Kashmir for 3rd summer The Associated Press
Security forces told to go soft on stone pelters: PC Indian Express
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The Hindu - 2 hours ago
PTI AP Central Reserve Police Force personnel receive the body of a slain colleague in Jagdalpur on Wednesday. The death toll in Tuesday's Naxal attack rose to 27 after the body of a missing CRPF constable was found on Wednesday.
Maoist Rebels in India Attack Security Forces Voice of America
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NetIndian - 54 minutes ago
The Central Government has withheld in full on a permanent basis the pension of former Haryana Director General of Police SPS Rathore, who has been sentenced to 18 months in prison for molesting teenager Ruchika Girhotra nearly 20 years ago.
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Times of India - 2 hours ago
NEW DELHI: JD(U) on Wednesday made it clear that its alliance with BJP would remain intact despite recent bickerings, saying it was a "necessity" for the two parties to remain together.
BJP will not field Modi during Bihar poll campaign Economic Times
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Times of India - 2 hours ago
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NDTV.com - 44 minutes ago
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Times of India - 4 hours ago
NEW DELHI: The ongoing tussle between veteran Socialist leader George Fernandes' estranged wife Leila Kabir and his brothers Richard and Michael led to an uproarious scene on Wednesday outside the leader's official residence in the capital.
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The Sindhi community in Pakistan has urged India and Pakistan to included "visa reforms" in their agenda during the forthcoming foreign minister-level talks in Islamabad on July 15 and 16.
India repatriates four Pakistani prisoners Punjab Newsline
India repatriates four Pakistani prisoners. Press Trust of India
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New Delhi: The railways ministry on Wednesday sought help of the home ministry to crack down on increasing incidents of thefts and passengers being drugged in trains.
Home Ministry help sought in tackling theft in trains Hindustan Times
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Economic Times - 2 hours ago
RANCHI: In two separate incidents, Maoists have killed a Congress leader and a building contractor as their two-day strike began in Jharkhand on Wednesday, police said.
Rail, road services hit in Jharkhand Hindustan Times
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Hindustan Times - 1 hour ago
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Times of India - 4 hours ago
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Times of India - 2 hours ago
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Accused in Brazilian woman rape case remanded to one day police custody Daily News & Analysis
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Hindustan Times - 1 hour ago
A fast track court in Orissa on Wednesday sentenced two people to six years rigorous imprisonment for the murder of a man during the communal riots in Kandhamal district in 2008.
BJP MLA jailed for Kandhamal riots Times of India
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Livemint - - 26 minutes ago
New Delhi: A clutch of activists questioned the manner in which government went about choosing information commissioners,or the authorities tasked with facilitating public inquiry under the Right To Information (RTI) Act.
RAW, IB deny information in cases of sexual harassment Press Trust of India
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Times of India - 16 hours ago
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Expressindia.com - 46 minutes ago
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Daily News & Analysis - 2 hours ago
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In criminology, subcultural theory emerged from the work of the Chicago School on gangs and developed through the symbolic interactionism school into a set of theories arguing that certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence. The primary focus is on juvenile delinquency because theorists believe that if this pattern of offending can be understood and controlled, it will break the transition from teenage offender into habitual criminal. Some of the theories are functionalist assuming that criminal activity is motivated by economic needs, while others posit a social class rationale for deviance.
Culture represents the norms, customs and values which both guide behaviour and act as a framework from which behaviour is judged by the majority. It is transmitted socially rather than biologically. A subculture is a distinctive culture within a culture, so its norms and values differ from the majority culture but do not necessarily represent a culture deemed deviant by the majority. A subculture is distinguished from a counterculture which operates in direct opposition to the majority culture. Cultural Transmission Theory and Social Disorganization Theory posit that, in the poorest zones of a city, certain forms of behavior become the cultural norm transmitted from one generation to the next, as part of the normal socialization process. Successful criminals are role models for the young, demonstrating both the possibilities of success through crime, and its normality. See Shaw (1930) who describes the social pressure to engage in criminality. Subcultural Theory proposes that those living in an urban setting are able to find ways of creating a sense of community despite the prevailing alienation and anonymity. The cultural structure is dominated by the majority norms, which forces individuals to form communities in new and different ways. More recently, Fischer (1995) proposed that the size, population, and heterogeneity of cities actually strengthens social groups, and encourages the formation of subcultures, which are much more diverse in nature compared to the general culture. Fischer defines a subculture as, "...a large set of people who share a defining trait, associate with one another, are members of institutions associated with their defining trait, adhere to a distinct set of values, share a set of cultural tools and take part in a common way of life" (Fischer: 544). In less densely populated and less diverse environments, the creation of such subcultures would be nearly impossible. But ethnic minorities, professionals, the artistic avant-garde, displaced agricultural families, etc. come to live in cities and their lifestyles come to typify cities.
 Frederic M. Thrasher
Frederic M. Thrasher (1927: 46) studied gangs in a systematic way, analyzing gang activity and behavior. He defined gangs by the process they go through to form a group:"The gang is an interstitial group originally formed spontaneously, and then integrated through conflict. It is characterized by the following types of behavior: meeting face to face, milling, movement through space as a unit, conflict, and planning. The result of this collective behavior is the development of tradition, unreflective internal structure, esprit de corps, solidarity, morale, group awareness, and attachment to a local territory."
Thrasher maintained that gangs originate naturally during the adolescent years from spontaneous play groups which get into various kinds of mischief. They become gangs when they excite disapproval and opposition, thus acquiring a more definite group-consciousness. Like Durkheim and Merton, Thrasher described how the environment can be conducive to delinquent behavior, that gang subcultures arose in the cracks, or "interstices," of urban neglect combined with the inner cracks of identity that occur in the turbulent years of adolescence. Shaw (1930) also described delinquency as a group activity which was transmitted from older to younger boys with the streets and jails of Chicago as their classrooms. Thrasher confirmed the work of the others in the School, finding the most gangs in the zone of transition with the highest incidence of single-parent families, unemployment, multiple family dwellings, welfare cases, and low levels of education. These were the slums, the ghetto, and the barrios and he found evidence of at least 1,313 gangs with an estimated 25,000 members who found a different way to acquire an identity and status. The gangs became a youth's reference group where main values, beliefs, and goals were formed and, in a sense, also became a family, offering a sense of belonging and self-esteem.
 E. Franklin Frazier
In the earliest stages of the Chicago School and their investigation of human ecology, one of the key tropes was the concept of disorganization which contributed to the emergence of an underclass. Analysts have viewed the ghetto as symptomatic of poverty and disorganization, measuring the extent to which it diverges from middle-class values, representing it as a place of disorder, anomie and immorality. As the first African-American chair at Chicago, E. Franklin Frazier (1931) stressed the marital disruption, decadence, destitution, crime, and vice into which "Negroes" inevitably sank when migrating into the urban environment, using family structures as the determining feature of disorganization. Two subcultural issues have emerged:
- Frazier (1932) was interested to determine whether any West African customs survived in the U.S. According to the Creolists, the U.S. slave population and their descendants did not share a common culture and their customs, religious beliefs, dialects, and social structures varied too greatly to influence ethnic and cultural cohesiveness. Frazier who was of an extremely conservative creolist persuasion expounded that all cultural remnants of the indigenous culture had been destroyed in the melee of slavery and, in effect, the West African heritage had little or nothing to do with the present African American population in the U.S. Others of a revisionist persuasion, emphasized a continuity in African history and argued that there is a layering of cultures representing the diaspora populations in the New World.
- Frazier (1957) continued the discussion on social distance and what he terms the "common moral order", chronicling the growing social class distinctions between moneyed African-Americans who mimic whites, and their less fortunate brethren. Frazier (1932) had noted in his history of slavery that where human relationships were established between masters and slaves, both were less likely to engage in cruelty toward each other. It is also known that debtor slaves were as a rule treated with more consideration than were foreign slaves obtained by capture and trade. This system of protective patronage continued in the relationship between white culture and the new black bourgeoisie.
Finally, Frazier discussed the question of whether the African American population was "over-churched" as a distinctive social structure. He identified five attributes of black families from a matriarchal perspective including strong achievement orientation, strong work orientation, flexible family roles, strong kinship bonds, and strong religious orientation which potentially introduced a gender bias into the subculture.
 Albert K. Cohen
Albert K. Cohen (1955) did not look at the economically oriented career criminal, but looked at the delinquency subculture, focusing on gang delinquency among working class youth in slum areas which developed a distinctive culture as a response to their perceived lack of economic and social opportunity within U.S. society. He was a student of Edwin Sutherland (Differential Association Theory and Social Transmission Theory) and Merton's (Strain Theory). The features of this subculture were:
- anti-utilitarian: in many cases, there was no profit motive in thefts or other crimes. The main intention was to foster peer bonding through sharing the experience of breaking the laws.
- collective reaction formation: the gang inverted the values of the majority culture, deliberately pursuing the mirror image of the American Dream.
- malice: many acts of vandalism and property damage were motivated by spite, contempt, and personal intention to injure.
- short-termism: the gang lived for the moment, looking for instant gratification.
- group autonomy: everything was aimed at consolidating group loyalty.
Cohen (1958) explained this in terms similar to Strain Theory, (i.e. as a form of rebellion) in that education taught the young to strive for social status through academic achievement but, when most of the working class failed, this promoted "status frustration" or reaction formation, inverting middle-class values to strike back at the system that had let them down. Middle class values stress independence, success, academic achievement, delayed gratification, control of aggression, and respect for property. Lower class parents encourage different values in their children (i.e. different socialization). In lower class families ambition and planning must give way to pressing issues of the moment. They depend more on others, and have more of a group orientation, "watching each others backs".
 Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin
Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin made reference to R. K. Merton's Strain Theory, while taking a further step in how the Subculture was 'Parallel' in their opportunities: the Criminal subculture had the same rules and level. It was, henceforth, a 'Illegitimate Opportunity Structure', which is parallel, yet still a polarization of the legitimate.
Cloward and Ohlin suggested that the route to delinquency involved one of three subcultures:
- Criminal: this represents Merton's 'innovators' in his Anomie Theory in which adolescents use crime for material gain. This subculture usually forms in areas where there is an established organization of adult crime that provides an "illegitimate opportunity structure" for youths to learn the "tricks of the trade".
- Conflict: this represents Merton's 'rebels' in his Anomie Theory, when an illegitimate opportunity structure is not available, delinquents often form conflicting gangs out of frustration at the lack of any available opportunity structures.
- Retreatist: this represents Merton's 'retreatists' in his Anomie Theory, this involves drug use and hustling, behaviour generally found among the "double failures" - those that cannot find acceptance in either legitimate groups or the two other subcultures.
 Walter Miller
Miller (1958, 1959) agreed with Cohen that there was a delinquency subculture, but argued that it arose entirely from the lower class way of life. There was a clear distinction in values between the two social classes. Whereas the middle class is achievement and social goal oriented, Miller thought that lower class parents were more concerned with ensuring that their children stayed out of trouble, e.g. sons avoiding fights and daughters avoiding pregnancy. Boys were expected to be tough and street-smart which gave them an incentive to join a gang. Given that their ordinary lives were boring, the excitement of crime was a welcome relief, bringing a sense of autonomy by denying the social controls imposed by the state. For the middle class, the most important institutions are family, work, and (for the child) school. For the lower class another institution plays a crucial role – the same sex peer group or gang is more important than family, work or school because it offers a sense of belonging, and a way to achieve status that they cannot easily achieve in mainstream society. Thus, delinquency was not a reaction against middle class values but rather a means of living up to their own cultural expectations for toughness and smartness. Indeed, the gang only recruited the most "able" members, so membership of a gang confirmed high status. It was simply unfortunate that the state had decided that many gang activities were criminals.
 David Matza
David Matza (1964) argued that, rather than being committed to delinquency, young people drifted between conventional and unconventional behavior. The initial socialization did introduce an understanding of social expectations and a sense of guilt if those expectations were not met, but that individuals developed techniques of neutralization to avoid feeling guilty. To some extent, society also helped to neutralize the guilt by blaming the parents for failing properly to supervise their children. Matza also argued that the search for excitement was classless. It was simply that working class youth had fewer opportunities for legitimate activities. Nevertheless, deviancy can be fun for everyone. There is a certain excitement in exercising free will and breaking rules knowing that there is little chance of being caught. This implies a degree of rational choice within structural constraints. The offenders are individuals who feel powerless. They are tired of being pushed around and simply feel like defying the system. If they are caught and come before a court, they appear victimized among their peer group and gain status.
 P. Cohen
Phil Cohen (1972) studied the youth of East London in the early 1970s. He examined the immediate and the wider context to determine how two different youth subcultures reacted to the changes occurring in their community. He suggested that the Mod reaction was to the new ideology of affluence. They wanted to show that they had money and knew how to spend it. In contrast, skinheads looked back to the more traditional working class community. Each generation tries to find employment or adapts to unemployment. But the 1920s had very different economic circumstances to later decades. Cohen argued that youth develop a cultural style as a means of coping with their particular circumstances and of resisting the dominant values of society. This casts working class youth as the standard bearers of class struggle. There is little in real terms that youth can do to change society, but resistance offers subjective satisfaction which can be shown through style: the clothes, haircuts, music and language of the different youth cultures. Cohen argued that these styles are not meaningless, but are deeply layered in meaning. This is an application of Marxist Subcultural Theory which synthesised the structuralism of Marxism with the Labelling Theory. The approach matched that of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at Birmingham University (see Crow: 1997). This approach places emphasis on the contents of youth culture and on the differences produced by class background. The assumption is that a capitalist society attempts to achieve hegemony by using the cultural values of society for their own benefit. The domination of the adults is enforced through the system of mortgages, credit cards, and family commitments, and they are seduced into accepting the relative security of capitalism. But the youth are relatively free of long term commitment or responsibility for a family and, with many unemployed, the youth are the weakest point in the structure of hegemony.
- Cohen, Albert K. (1955). Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang, Glencoe. IL: Free Press.
- Cohen, Albert & Short, James, (1958), "Research in Delinquent Subcultures", Journal of Social Issues, pp20-37.
- Cohen, P. (1972). Sub-cultural Conflict and Working Class Community. Working Papers in Cultural Studies. No.2. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
- Crow, Thomas. (1997). "Substance over style - artist Phil Cohen's Rethinking the Youth Question". ArtForum XXXVI, Oct. pp15-16. 
- Fischer, Claude. (1995). "The Subcultural Theory of Urbanism: A Twentieth Year Assessment". American Journal of Sociology 101(3), 543--577.
- Frazier, Edward Franklin (1931) The Negro Family in Chicago. Revised and abridged edition: 1967. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
- Frazier, Edward Franklin. (1932). The Free Negro Family, Arno Press.
- Frazier, Edward Franklin. (1949). The Negro in the United States. New York: Macmillan.
- Frazier, E. Franklin. (1957). The Black Bourgeoisie. Free Press paperback edition: 1997. ISBN 0-684-83241-0
- Frazier, E. Franklin. (1957). Race and Culture Contacts in the Modern World. New York: Alfred Knopf.
- Kaminski, Marek M. (2004) Games Prisoners Play. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11721-7 http://webfiles.uci.edu/mkaminsk/www/book.html
- Matza, David. (1964). Delinquency and Drift. Reprint edition: 1990.Transaction Press. ISBN 0-88738-804-3
- Miller, Walter. (1958). "Lower Class Culture as a Generating Milieu of Gang Delinquency". Journal of Social Issues. Vol. 14, 5-20.
- Miller, Walter. (1959). "Implications of Urban Lower-Class Culture For Social Work". The Social Service Review. Vol. 33, 219-236.
- Shaw, Clifford (1030). The Jackroller: A Delinquent Boy's Own Story. Reprint edition: 1966. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
- Thrasher, F.M. (1927). The Gang. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Thrasher, F.M. (1933). "Juvenile Delinquency and Crime Prevention". Journal of Educational Sociology, 6, 500-509.
Religious violence in India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Religious violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting. Hinduism, the largest religion in India, accounts for 80% of the population; Islam, the second largest religion, accounts for 13% of the population; Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism taken together account for 3% of the population; and Christianity accounts for 2.40% of the population. Other religions such as Zoroastrianism and Judaism, although not popular, have a centuries long history in India. Religious fundamentalism is considered a major driver; with Hindu nationalism, Sikh separatism, Christian Evangelism, and Islamic fundamentalism acting as catalysts or as primary forces for outbreaks of violence.
Despite India's secular and religiously tolerant constitution, broad religious representation in various aspects of society including the government, the active role played by autonomous bodies such as National Human Rights Commission of India and National Commission for Minorities, and the ground-level work being carried out by Non-governmental organizations, sporadic and sometimes serious acts of religious violence tend to occur as the root causes of religious violence often run deep in history, religious activities, and politics of India.
Along with domestic organizations, international human rights organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch publish reports  on acts of religious violence in India. Foreign government organizations such as United States Department of State have also published similar, but controversial, reports which have largely been dismissed in India as interference in internal affairs.
 Ancient India
Ancient India has no history of large scale religious violence where opponents were put to the sword. However, King Pusyamitra of Sunga Empire is linked in legend with the persecution of Buddhists. There is some doubt as to whether he did or did not persecute Buddhists actively.
The Divyavadana ascribes to him the razing of stupas and viharas built by Ashoka, the placing of a bounty of 100 dinaras upon the heads of Buddhist monks (bhiksus) and describes him as one who wanted to undo the work of Ashoka. This account has however been described as "exaggerated". Archaeological evidence is scarce and uncertain. However to many scholars, Sunga kings were seen as more amenable to Buddhism and as having contributed to the building of the stupa at Bharhut.
With the possible exception of reign of King Pusyamitra, Buddhism and Hinduism seem to have co-existed peacefully with almost all Buddhist temples, including the once at Ajanta Caves, being built under the rule and patronage of Hindu kings.
 Medieval India
 Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim, during his conquest of Sindh (in present day Pakistan), assaulted the town of Debal and destroyed its great temple while freeing both the captured women and the prisoners of a previous failed expedition. He then built a mosque over the remains of the original temple at Debal and later in towns of Nerun and Sadusan (Sehwan) After each battle all fighting men were executed and their wives and children enslaved. One fifth of the booty and slaves were dispatched back to Hajjaj and the Caliph. Chach Nama also records instances of conversion of stupas to mosques such as at Nerun.
After the conquest, Muhammad bin Qasim adopted a conciliatory policy, asking for acceptance of Islamic Sharia law, in return for non-interference in their religious practice,. No mass conversions were attempted and the destruction of temples such as the Sun Temple at Multan was forbidden.
 Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni was a Sultan who invaded the Indian subcontinent from present-day Afghanistan during the early 11th century. His campaigns across the gangetic plains are often cited for their iconoclastic plundering and destruction of Hindu temples such as those at Mathura, Dwarka, and others. In 1024 AD, Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and destroyed the third Somnath temple killing over 50,000 and personally destroying the Shiva lingam after stripping it of its gold..
Aurangzeb cherished the ambition of converting India into a land of Islam and his reign was particularly brutal. Aurangzeb banned Hindu festival of Diwali, placed a jizya (tax) on non-Muslims and killed the ninth Sikh guru Tegh Bahadur.
 Colonial Era
 Goa Inquisition
The first inquisitors, Aleixo Dias Falcão and Francisco Marques, established themselves in what was formerly the raja of Goa's palace, forcing the Portuguese viceroy to relocate to a smaller residence. The inquisitor's first act was forbidding Hindus from the public practice of their faith through fear of death. Sephardic Jews living in Goa, many of whom had fled the Iberian Peninsula to escape the excesses of the Spanish Inquisition to begin with, were also persecuted. During the Goa Inquisition, described as "contrary to humanity" by Voltaire , conversions to Catholicism occurred by force and many native Goans were executed by the Portuguese. The adverse effects of the inquisition were tempered somewhat by the fact that Hindus were able to escape Portuguese hegemony by migrating to other parts of the subcontinent. Though officially repressed in 1774, it was reinstated by Queen Maria I in 1778. The last vestiges of the Goa Inquisition were finally swept away when the British occupied the city in 1812.
 Indian Rebellion of 1857
In 1813, East India Company charter was amended to allow for missionary activity across British India. The missionaries soon spread almost everywhere and started denigrating Hinduism and Islam, besides promoting Christianity, in order to seek converts. Many officers of the British East India Company, such as Herbert Edwardes and Colonel S.G. Wheeler, openly preached to the Sepoys. Such activities caused a great deal of resentment and fear of forced conversions among Indian soldiers of the Company and civilians alike. The perception that the company was trying to convert Hindus and Muslims to Christianity is often cited as one of the causes of the revolt. The revolt is considered by some historians as a semi-national and religious war seeking freedom from English bondage  though others question this interpretation . The revolt started, among the Indian soldiers of British East India Company, when the British introduced new rifle cartridges, rumored to be greased with pig and cow fat - an abhorrent concept to Muslim and Hindu soldiers, respectively, for religious reasons. However, in the aftermath of the revolt, British reprisals were particularly severe with hundreds of thousands being killed. While the death toll is often debated by historians with figures ranging between one hundred thousand and one million, it is usually agreed that several hundred thousands were killed.
 Moplah Rebellion
Moplah Rebellion was an Anti Hindu rebellion conducted by the Muslim Mappila community (Moplah is a British spelling) of Kerala in 1921. Inspired by the Khilafat movement and the Karachi resolution; Muslims murdered, raped, and forcibly converted thousands of Hindus. 100,000 Hindus were driven away from their homes forcing to leave their property behind, which were later took over by Mappilas. This greatly changed the demographics of the area, being the major cause behind today's Malappuram district being a Muslim majority district in Kerala. According to one view, the reasons for the Moplah rebellion was religious revivalism among the Muslim Mappilas, and hostility towards the landlord Hindu Nair, Nambudiri Jenmi community and the British administration that supported the latter. Adhering to view, British records call it a British-Muslim revolt. The initial focus was on the government, but when the limited presence of the government was eliminated, Moplahs turned their full attention on attacking Hindus. Mohommed Haji was proclaimed the Caliph of the Moplah Khilafat and flags of Islamic Caliphate were flown. Ernad and Walluvanad were declared Khilafat kingdoms.
Annie Besant wrote about the riots: "They Moplahs murdered and plundered abundantly, and killed or drove away all Hindus who would not apostatise. Somewhere about a lakh (100,000) of people were driven from their homes with nothing but their clothes they had on, stripped of everything. Malabar has taught us what Islamic rule still means, and we do not want to see another specimen of the Khilafat Raj in India."
 Partition of British India
After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British followed a divide-and-rule policy, exploiting differences between communities, in order to prevent similar revolts from taking place. In that respect, Indian Muslims were encouraged to forge a cultural and political identity separate from the Hindus. In the years leading up to Independence, Mohammad Ali Jinnah became increasingly concerned about minority position of Muslim in an independent India largely composed of a Hindu majority. Although a partition plan was accepted, no large population movements were contemplated. As India and Pakistan become independent, 14.5 million people crossed borders to ensure their safety in an increasingly lawless and communal environment. While the British authority was gone, the newly formed governments were completely unequipped to deal with migrations of such staggering magnitude, and massive violence and slaughter occurred on both sides of the border along communal lines. Estimates of the number of deaths range around roughly 500,000, with low estimates at 200,000 and high estimates at 1,000,000.
 Modern India
Constitutionally India is a secular state,  but large-scale violence have periodically occurred in India since independence. In recent decades, communal tensions and religion-based politics have become more prominent,  coinciding with a rise in Islamic terrorism. Although India is generally known for religious pluralism,  the Hindutva ideology propagates that India belongs to the Hindus, and the Christians and the Muslims are "aliens",  and many proponents of this ideology portray violence against Muslims and Christians as a form of "self-defence" against "invaders".  The Hindutva ideology is at the core of Sangh Parivar politics and its expression in violence against religious minority.  Throughout the history of post-Independence India, both Muslim and Christian communities have faced repeated attacks from Hindu activists.  As the Hindutva ideology has grown more powerful over the years, many Hindutva activists have partaken in riots against minority communities.  Over the last decade, religious violence in India has increasingly become what academics believe to be organized pogroms to eliminate minority communities.    Some state governments in India have been accused of not effectively prosecuting those who attack religious minorities. 
 Punjab militancy and 1984 Anti-Sikh Riots
Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, the leader of the Damdami Taksal, a Sikh religious group based in India, had heavy influence among many Sikhs in Punjab. Bhindranwale initially tried to spread the original values of Sikhism and persuaded young people to follow the original rules and tenets of the religion, and later became a militant leader supporting the creation of the proposed Sikhism-based theocratic state of Khalistan. A reign of terror was unleashed in Punjab by the militants who killed anyone opposed to them irrespective of whether they were Sikhs, Hindus, or any other religion.[chronology source needed] Bhindranwale and other militants occupied the Golden Temple complex, in Amritsar from where they planned and organized terror attacks. He was killed in Operation Blue Star in June 1984 by the Indian Army, which had orders from Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to kill the militants holed up inside the temple. In the process Akal Takht inside the Golden temple was heavily damaged. This inflamed Sikh sentiments and greatly deepened the insurgency. In one major case of violence in 1987, 32 Hindus were pulled out of a bus and shot near Lalru in Punjab by Sikh militants; however, Sikhs were more frequently targeted. Human Rights Watch stressed that "In the beginning on the 1980s, Sikh separatists in Punjab committed serious human rights abuses, including the massacre of civilians, attacks upon non-Sikhs in the state, and indiscriminate bomb attacks in crowded places.
Indira Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October 1984 by two of her Sikh guards in retaliation to the storming of the Golden temple. After the assassination the 1984 anti-Sikh riots took place in Delhi where the main perpetrators were led by supporters of the Indian National Congress and the Nehru-Gandhi Dynasty. The riots started on 1 November and continued till 3 November 1984. The killings, that were not driven by any religious motives, were led by activists and sympathizers of Indian National Congress. The first killing of a Sikh reported from east Delhi in the early hours of 1 November. About 9 am, armed mobs took over the streets of Delhi and launched a massacre. Everywhere the first targets were Gurdwaras – to prevent Sikhs from collecting there and putting up a combined defence. The then Congress government was widely criticized for doing very little at the time, possibly acting as a conspirator, especially since voting lists were used to identify Sikh families. The reactions seemed politically managed and confined to the Congress party .
 Ayodhya and Babri Mosque
During the almost 800 years of Muslim conquest and rule in India, Islamic invaders and rulers destroyed and replaced many Hindu temples with mosques. In more recent times, Hindu groups such as Vishva Hindu Parishad are attempting to reclaim some of these sites, which include some of the most sacred sites such as Ram Janmabhoomi and Krishna-janma-bhoomi. This attempt to reclaim such sites has often led to tensions between Hindu and Muslim communities in India and has led to several major incidences of religious violence such as Bombay riots, 1993 Bombay bombings, Godhra Train Burning, and 2002 Gujarat violence.
In his slim yet insightful booklet, Communal History and Rama's Ayodhya, Professor Ram Sharan Sharma writes, "Ayodhya seems to have emerged as a place of religious pilgrimage in medieval times. Although chapter 85 of the Vishnu Smriti lists as many as fifty-two places of pilgrimage, including towns, lakes, rivers, mountains, etc., it does not include Ayodhya in this list." Sharma also notes that Tulsidas, who wrote the Ramcharitmanas in 1574 at Ayodhya, does not mention it as a place of pilgrimage. After the demolition of Babri masjid, Professor Ram Sharan Sharma along with Historians Suraj Bhan, M.Athar Ali and Dwijendra Narayan Jha came up with the Historian's report to the nation on how the communalists were mistaken in their assumption that there was a temple at the disputed site and how it was sheer vandalism in bringing down the mosque and the book has been translated into all the Indian languages.
On 6 December 1992, members of the Vishva Hindu Parishad and the Bajrang Dal destroyed the 430 year old Babri Mosque in Ayodhya, allegedly built over the birthplace of the Hindu deity Rama. This action caused great anger in the Muslim community. The resulting religious riots caused at least 1200 deaths. Reprisals against Hindu minorities also occurred in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Since then the Government of India has blocked off or heavily increased security at these disputed sites while encouraging attempts to resolve these disputes through court cases and negotiations.
In the aftermatch of the destruction of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya by Hindu nationalists on 6 December 1992, roiting took place between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Mumbai. 500 people died in the resulting violence of the worst civil unrest in India since the partition. Four people died in a fire in the Asalpha timber mart at Ghatkopar, five were killed in the burning of Bainganwadi; shacks along the harbor line track between Sewri and Cotton Green stations were gutted; and a couple was pulled out of a rickshaw in Asalpha village and burnt to death. The riots changed the demographics of Mumbai greatly, as Hindus moved to Hindu-majority areas and Muslims moved to Muslim-majority areas. It is estimated that almost 200,000 people moved location in the aftermath of the riots.
After the riots the 1993 Bombay bombings occurred, where a series of thirteen bomb explosions took place in Mumbai (then Bombay) on 12 March 1993. The coordinated attacks were the most destructive bomb explosions in Indian history. The single-day attacks resulted in over 250 civilian fatalities and 700 injuries. The attacks are believed to have been coordinated by Dawood Ibrahim, don of the organized crime syndicate named D-Company, which had operated as a terrorist organization. It is believed that the attacks were carried out in retaliation for the destruction of Babri Mosque. There were fears that the attacks would restart the rioting, but this did not occur.
Later on 27 February 2002, the Godhra train burning incident occurred in the town of Godhra in the Indian state of Gujarat, One of the coaches (Coach #S6) of a train named the "Sabarmati Express" was set on fire right after it left the train station. The coach was occupied by Hindu religious pilgrims called Kar Sevaks who were returning from Ayodhya. 58 Hindu pilgrims (23 men, 15 women and 20 children) who were inside, were burnt alive, and the coach was completely gutted by the fire. The fire was alleged at the time to have been started during an attack by a Muslim mob following an altercation between the Hindu pilgrims and local Muslims when the train was in platform, however an investigative panel led by Justice U C Banerjee claimed that the fire was an accident, not a deliberate act.
The Godhra train burning incident led to the 2002 Gujarat riots in which mosly Muslims were killed in an obvious act of retaliation. According to the death toll given to the parliament on 11 May 2005 by the government, 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed, and another 2,548 injured. 223 people are missing. The report placed the number of riot widows at 919 and 606 children were declared orphaned. According to human rights groups, the death tolls were up to 2000. According to the Congressional Research Service, up to 2000 people, mostly Muslim were killed in the violence. Tens of thousands were displaced from their homes because of the violence. The large-scale, collective violence has been described by some as a "massacre" and an attempted pogrom or genocide of the Muslim population. According to New York Times reporter Celia Williams Dugger, witnesses were "dismayed by the lack of intervention from local police", who often "watched the events taking place and took no action against the attacks on Muslims and their property". Sangh leaders as well as the Gujarat government maintain that the violence was rioting or inter-communal clashes - spontaneous and uncontrollable reaction to the Godhra train burning.
 Ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Pandits
In the Kashmir region, approximately 300 Kashmiri Pandits were killed between September 1989 to 1990 in various incidents. In early 1990, local Urdu newspapers Aftab and Al Safa called upon Kashmiris to wage jihad against India and ordered the expulsion of all Hindus choosing to remain in Kashmir. In the following days masked men ran in the streets with AK-47 shooting to kill Hindus who would not leave. Notices were placed on the houses of all Hindus, telling them to leave within 24 hours or die.
Since March 1990, estimates of between 250,000 to 300,000 pandits have migrated outside Kashmir due to persecution by Islamic fundamentalists in the largest case of ethnic cleansing since the partition of India. The proportion of Kashmiri Pandits in the Kashmir valley has declined from about 15% in 1947 to, by some estimates, less than 0.1% since the insurgency in Kashmir took on a religious and sectarian flavor.
Many Kashmiri Pandits have been killed by Islamist militants in incidents such as the Wandhama massacre and the 2000 Amarnath pilgrimage massacre. The incidents of massacring and forced eviction have been termed ethnic cleansing by some observers.
 Anti-Christian violence
In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in violent attacks on Christians in India, often perpetrated by Hindu Nationalists. Between 1964 and 1996, thirty-eight incidents of violence against Christians were reported. In 1997, twenty-four such incidents were reported. In 1998, it went up to ninety. Between January 1998 and February 1999 alone, there were one hundred and sixteen attacks against Christians in India. Between 1 January and 30 July 2000, more than fifty-seven attacks on Christians were reported. These acts of violence include arson of churches, forcible reconversion of converted Christians back to Hinduism, distribution of threatening literature, burning of Bibles, murder of Christian priests and destruction of Christian schools, colleges, and cemeteries.,. The attacks are often accompanied by large amounts of anti-Christian hate literature..
The rise of anti-Christian violence has been directly linked to the ascendancy of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Human Rights Watch pins the responsibility for much of the violence on the Sangh Parivar; an umbrella group for the three principal Hindu Nationalist organizations, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. HRW also points to the involvement of the Sangh Parivar, as well as the local media, for promoting anti-Christian propaganda in the BJP controlled state of Gujarat. In addition to Gujarat, anti-Christian violence has been the most prevalent in the states of Orissa, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and New Delhi, all of which have had administrations lead by the BJP. However at the same time there is an active dialogue between the Sangh Parivar and the Christian community in general to resolve such issues amicably.
In some cases, anti-Christian violence has been co-ordinated, involving multiple attacks. In Orissa, starting December 2007, Christians have been attacked in Kandhamal and other districts, resulting in the deaths of two Hindus and one Christian, and the destruction of houses and churches. Twenty people were arrested following the attacks on churches.. Similarly, starting 14 September 2008, there were numerous incidents of violence against the Christian community in Karnataka. These were ignited by the New Light Church's distributing offensive literature that portrayed incorrect and demeaning interpretation of Hindu gods.
Foreign Christian missionaries have also been targets of attacks. In a well-publicised case Graham Staines, an Australian missionary, was burnt to death while he was sleeping with his two sons Timothy (aged 9) and Philip (aged 7) in his station wagon at Manoharpur village in Keonjhar district in Orissa in January 1999. In 2003, Dara Singh was convicted of leading the gang responsible. According to Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the Nation, "Conversion nowadays has become a matter of business, like any other. India (Hindus) is in no need of conversion of this kind. Conversion in the sense of self-purification, self-realization is the crying need of the times. That however is never what is meant by proselytization. To those who would convert India (Hindus), might it not be said, "Physician, heal yourself." (Young India: 23 April 1931)
In its annual human rights reports for 1999, the United States Department of State criticised India for "increasing societal violence against Christians." The report listed over 90 incidents of anti-Christian violence, ranging from damage of religious property to violence against Christian pilgrims.
In 2007 and 2008 there was a further flare up of tensions in Orissa, the first following the Christians' putting up a Pandhal in land traditionally used by Hindus and the second after the unprovoked murder of a Hindu Guru and four of his disciples while observing Janmashtami puja. This was followed by an attack on a 150-year-old church in Madhya Pradesh, and more attacks in Karnataka, where the archbishop, Bernard Moras, met the CM BS Yeddyurappa after he had taken a decision to invoke the provisions of Goonda Act against those nabbed for vandalising churches as part of its strategy to salvage its image and to instill confidence. The Bajrang Dal convenor was arrested after the incidents of church burning in Mangalore. In light of these events there were national calls to ban the Bajrang Dal.
The violence apparently spread to Chattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh (which had a Christian CM). More sign of trouble erupted on 27 September as the attacks spread to the least communal states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, where there was desecration of a statue of the baby Jesus and Indian Orthodox Churches were stoned, respectively and the Police took two Christians into custody. However, in Kerala where the population is around one-fifth Christians, around one-fourth Muslim and live with a population of around 50 % Hindus, there has been calm .
 Religious involvement in North-East India Militancy
The separatist group National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT) seeks to convert all tribals in the state of Tripura, who are mostly Hindu or Buddhist, to Christianity. It has proclaimed bans on Hindu worship and has attacked animist Reangs and Hindu Jamatia tribesmen who resisted. Some resisting tribal leaders have been killed and their womenfolk raped. The RSS has attempted to counter Christian separatist groups by backing Reang and Jamatia tribals, and has called for the central government to help arm and fund them.
Hindu nationalists, upset with the rapid spread of Chistianity in the region, link the overt Christian religiosity of the groups and the local churches' liberation theology-based doctrine to allege church support for ethnic separatism. Vatsala Vedantam identifies statements from the American Baptist Churches USA as endorsing the Naga separatist cause.
According to The Government of Tripura, the Baptist Church of Tripura is involved in supporting the NLFT and arrested two church officials in 2000, one of them for possessing explosives.. In late 2004, the National Liberation Front of Tripura banned all Hindu celebrations of Durga Puja and Saraswati Puja. The Naga insurgency, ethnic separtism reinforced in their identity by Christianity, has been repeatedly involved in violence against Hindus in the region.
 More recent anti-Hindu violence
There have been a number of more recent attacks on Hindu temples and Hindus by Muslim militants. Prominent among them are the 1998 Chamba massacre, the 2002 fidayeen attacks on Raghunath temple, the 2002 Akshardham Temple attack allegedly perpetrated by Islamic terrorist outfit Lashkar-e-Toiba and the 2006 Varanasi bombings (supposedly perpetrated by Lashkar-e-Toiba), resulting in many deaths and injuries. Recent attacks on Hindus my Muslim mobs include Marad massacre, Godhra train burning etc.
In September 2008, Swami Laxmanananda, a popular regional Hindu Guru was murdered along with four of his disciples by unknown assailants (though a Maoist organization later claimed responsibility for that), allegedly due to the Guru's provocative opposition of Christians' conversion activities and Missionary propaganda. Later the police arrested three Christians in connection with the murder . Congress MP Radhakant Nayak has also been named as a suspected person in the murder, with some Hindu leaders calling for his arrest.
 Lesser incidents
Lesser incidents of religious violence happen in many towns and villages in India. In October 2005, five people were killed in Mau in Uttar Pradesh during Hindu-Muslim rioting, which was triggered by the proposed celebration of a Hindu festival.
On 2 May 2003, eight Hindus were killed by a Muslim mob, in what is believed to be a sequel to the earlier incident. One of the attackers, Mohammed Ashker was killed during the chaos. The National Development Front (NDF), a right-wing militant Islamist organization, was suspected as the perpetrator of the Marad Massacre.
 International Human Rights Reports
- The 2007 United States Department of State International Religious Freedom Report noted The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the National Government generally respected this right in practice. However, some state and local governments limited this freedom in practice. 
- The 2008 Human Rights Watch report notes: India claims an abiding commitment to human rights, but its record is marred by continuing violations by security forces in counterinsurgency operations and by government failure to rigorously implement laws and policies to protect marginalized communities. A vibrant media and civil society continue to press for improvements, but without tangible signs of success in 2007. 
- The 2007 Amnesty International report listed several issues concern in India and noted Justice and rehabilitation continued to evade most victims of the 2002 Gujarat communal violence.
- The 2007 United States Department of State Human Rights Report  noted that the government generally respected the rights of its citizens; however, numerous serious problems remained. The report which has received a lot of controversy internationally, as it does not include human rights violations of United States and its allies, has generally been rejected by political parties in India as interference in internal affairs, including in the Lower House of Parliament.
 In film and literature
Religious violence in India have been a topic of various films and novels.
- Firaaq a film set in the aftermath of the 2002 Gujarat riots.
- Garam Hawa a film by M. S. Sathyu based on a story on partition written by Ismat Chugtai.
- Gandhi - a 1983 film which included portrayal of the Direct Action Day and Partition riots.
- Tamas A film on partion based on a book by Bhisham Sahni
- Bombay - a 1995 film centred on events during the period of December 1992 to January 1993 in India, and the controversy surrounding the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya.
- Maachis a film by Gulzar about Punjab terrorism
- Earth - a 1998 film portraying Partition violence in Lahore.
- Fiza - a 2000 film, plot setup amidst Bombay riots.
- Hey Ram - a 2002 film with a semi-fictional plot centres around Partition of India and related religious violence.
- Mr. and Mrs. Iyer - a 2002 film. The story revolves around the relationship between two lead characters Meenakshi Iyer and Raja amidst Hindu-Muslim riots in India.
- Final Solution - a 2003 documentary film about the 2002 Gujarat violence, banned in India.
- Hawayein - a 2003 film about the struggles of Sikhs during the 1984 anti-Sikh riots.
- Black Friday - a Hindi film on the 1993 serial bomb blasts in Mumbai, directed by Anurag Kashyap.
- Amu - An award-winning film about a girl orphaned during the 1984 Anti-Sikh riots.
- Parzania - a 2007 film about the riots in Gujarat in 2002. The film was purposely not released in Gujarat. Cinema owners and distributors in Gujarat refused to screen the film out of fear of retaliation by Hindu activists. Hindutva groups in Gujarat threatened to attack theaters that showed the film.
- Train to Pakistan, a novel by Khushwant Singh set during the Partition of India and a movie based on the book-Train to Pakistan (film)
- Toba Tek Singh, a satire by the writer Saadat Hasan Manto set during the Partition of India.
 See also
- Caste-related violence in India
- Communalism (South Asia)
- Hindu Taliban
- List of riots
- Religion in India
- Persecution of Muslims
- Persecution of Hindus
- ^ "Census of India: Population by religious communities". 2001. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_data_finder/C_Series/Population_by_religious_communities.htm.
- ^ Rao, Prabhakar (12 2007). "Should religions try to convert others?". http://faithcommons.org/should_religions_try_to_convert_others.
- ^ "Teachings of religious tolerance and intolerance in world religions". http://www.religioustolerance.org/tomek22.htm.
- ^ Subrahmaniam, Vidya (2003-11-06). "Ayodhya: India's endless curse". http://www.opendemocracy.net/faith-india_pakistan/article_1568.jsp.
- ^ "A new breed of missionary". 2--5-04-01. http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0401/p01s04-wosc.html?s=widep.
- ^ a b "India:Events of 2007". http://hrw.org/englishwr2k8/docs/2008/01/31/india17605.htm.
- ^ a b "ANNUAL U.S. HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT GARNERS CRITICISM/PRAISE, EXPOSES U.S. 'DOUBLE STANDARD'". "US Office of Research & Media Reaction. 1999-03-05. http://www.fas.org/irp/news/1999/03/wwwh905m.htm.
- ^ a b ANDRES OPPENHEIMER (2006-03-13). "U.S. Rights Report Should Include U.S. Abuses". Salt Lake Tribune. http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2006/US-Rights-Report13mar06.htm.
- ^ a b "US human rights report spares allies". The Age. 2006-03-10. http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/us-human-rights-report-spares-allies/2006/03/09/1141701632884.html.
- ^ a b "U.S. rights report shows double standards: Russia". Reuters. 2008-03-12. http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSL1245705620080312.
- ^ a b "International Religious Freedom Report 2007 - India". 2007. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90228.htm.
- ^ a b "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices". http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/. "The government generally respected the rights of its citizens; however, numerous serious problems remained"
- ^ a b "CPI(M) terms US report on West Bengal 'interference' in India". http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=6948f41e-ff69-4fac-a27b-0c82b1e751e0&MatchID1=4680&TeamID1=6&TeamID2=3&MatchType1=1&SeriesID1=1179&PrimaryID=4680&Headline=CPI-M+irked+at+US+'interference'.
- ^ a b "India not bound by Bush administration: Lok Sabha". ExpressIndia. 2008-03-14. http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/India-not-bound-by-Bush-administration--Lok-Sabha/284393/. "Responding to the point made by Dasgupta, Speaker Somnath Chatterjee observed the report should be 'ignored with contempt it deserves'. "We are not bound by the Bush administration," he said."
- ^ "Who was responsible for the wanton destruction of the original brick stupa of Asoka and when precisely the great work of reconstruction was carried out is not known, but it seems probable that the author of the former was Pushyamitra, the first of the Sunga kings (184-148 BCE), who was notorious for his hostility to Buddhism, and that the restoration was affected by Agnimitra or his immediate successor." in John Marshall, A Guide to Sanchi, p. 38. Calcutta: Superintendent, Government Printing (1918).
- ^ Goel, Madan (2007-08-14). "Pluralism, Dissent and Democracy in India" (DOC). University of West Florida. http://www.uwf.edu/govt/faculty/documents/PluralismDissentandDemocracyinIndia.doc. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
- ^ Sarvastivada pg 38-39
- ^ a b Ashok, pg 91-93
- ^ Article on Deokothar Stupas possibly being targeted by Pushyamitra
- ^ Akira Hirakawa, Paul Groner, A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayan, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1996, ISBN 8120809556, p. 223
- ^ O'Neill, Tom (January 2008). India's Ancient Art. Benoy K. Behl. National Geographic Magazine. http://www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=4,5605,0,0,1,0. "The flow between faiths was such that for hundreds of years, almost all Buddhist temples, including the ones at Ajanta, were built under the rule and patronage of Hindu kings."
- ^ a b c d Wink (2004) pg 201-205
- ^ Keay pg. 184
- ^ Appleby. pg. 291-292
- ^ Keay, J. India a History, HarperCollinsPublishers London, pg. 209
- ^ Voltaire, Lettres sur l'origine des sciences et sur celle des peuples de l'Asie (first published Paris, 1777), letter of 15 December 1775
- ^ Salomon, H. P. and Sassoon, I. S. D., in Saraiva, Antonio Jose. The Marrano Factory. The Portuguese Inquisition and Its New Christians, 1536-1765 (Brill, 2001), pp. 345-7.
- ^ Hunter, William W, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Trubner & Co, 1886
- ^ Shirodhkar, P. P., Socio-Cultural life in Goa during the 16th century, p. 123
- ^ Seth, Vijay. "Secular Enlightenment and Christian Conversion: Missionaries and Education in Colonial India" (PDF). p. 28. http://www.ilng.in/pdf/educ_soc.pdf.
- ^ a b Mahajan, V D. Modern Indian History. p. 188. ISBN 812190935X.
- ^ A. N. Wilson (2003). The Victorians. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 202. ISBN 0393049744.
- ^ Hukum Chand. History of Medieval India. Anmol Publications PVT LTD.. p. 424,433. ISBN 8126123133. ""It was a semi-national and a religious war which had for its object freedom from English bondage and establishment of Mughal Empire with Empror Bahadur Shah as the head although the latter objective was not so common as the former."
- ^ Stephen Neill (2002). A history of Christianity in India. Cambridge University Press. p. 471. ISBN 0521893321. ""What began as a fight for religion ended as a war of independence"
- ^ The Indian Mutiny, Saul David, Viking 2002, page398
- ^ Ramesh, Randeep (2007-08-27). "Millions died in Indian Mutiny of 1857". http://www.kuwaittimes.net/read_news.php?newsid=MTEyOTEzMTI2MQ==.
- ^ Hindu culture during and after Muslim rule: survival and subsequent challenges
- ^ http://www.rediff.com/news/2003/may/09rajeev.htm
- ^ a b Besant, Annie. The Future Of Indian Politics: A Contribution To The Understanding Of Present-Day Problems P252. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1428626050.
- ^ O P Ralhan (1996). Encyclopaedia of Political Parties: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh : National, Regional, Local. Anmol Publications PVT . LTD.. p. 297.
- ^ Wavell to Pethick Lawrence, 21 August 1946, Mansergh, Transfer of Power, Vol. VIII, P.274
- ^ Lal, Vinay. "The Partition of India". http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/History/Independent/partition.html.
- ^ Death toll in the partition
- ^ Preamble of the Constitution
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- ^ Paul Brass, The Production of Hindu-Muslim Violence in Contemporary India, University of Washington Press, 2003: p1144.
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- ^ Human Rights Watch; Time for India to Deliver Justice in Punjab]
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- ^ Remembering 1984
- ^ a b The Context of Anti-Christian Violence
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- ^ http://uc-banerjee-news.newslib.com/story/3357-1433258/
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- ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1437742.cms
- ^ Gujarat riot death toll revealed,BBC
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- ^ Human Rights Watch 2006, p. 265.
- ^ "Talibanization" and "Saffronization" in India,hir.harvard.edu
- ^ Why is Narendra Modi in Wembley?,The Guardian
- ^ India Shining, Communal Darkness,pucl.org
- ^ India's Calculated Ethnic Violence
- ^ Communal violence and nuclear stand-off
- ^ India in crisis
- ^ India-U.S. Relations
- ^ Ram Puniyani (2003). Communal Politics: Facts Versus Myths. SAGE. pp. 282. ISBN 0761996672.
- ^ Tamara Sonn (2004). A Brief History of Islam. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 371. ISBN 1405109009.
- ^ Dugger, Celia W. Hindu Rioters Kill 60 Muslims in India New York Times. New York, N.Y.:1 March 2002.
- ^ ""People Wanted Revenge And Got It"". Outlook. 18 March 2002.
- ^ "Muslim forum flays RSS resolution". The Hindu. 19 March 2002. http://www.hindu.com/2002/03/19/stories/2002031902691300.htm.
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- ^ "NGO says Gujarat riots were planned". BBC News Online. 19 March 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1881497.stm. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- ^ Brass (2005), pp. 387
- ^ a b c d e When Kashmiri pandits fled Islamic Terror
- ^ "Kashmiri Pandits in Nandimarg decide to leave Valley". Outlook. 30 March 2003. http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=131481. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- ^ Kashmir: The scarred and the beautiful. New York Review of Books, 1 May 2008, p. 14.
- ^ "'I heard the cries of my mother and sisters'". Rediff. 27 January 1998. http://www.rediff.com/news/1998/jan/27kash.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- ^ "Migrant Pandits voted for end of terror in valley". The Tribune. 27 April 2004]. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2004/20040428/j&k.htm#1. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- ^ "At least 58 dead in 2 attacks in Kashmir". CNN. 2 August 2000. http://archives.cnn.com/2000/ASIANOW/south/08/01/india.kashmir.massacre/. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- ^ "City shocked at killing of Kashmiri Pandits". The Times of India. 25 March 2003. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/41306901.cms. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- ^ Phil Reeves (25 March 2003). "Islamic militants kill 24 Hindus in Kashmir massacre". The Independent. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-99139517.html. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- ^ a b c d e "Anti-Christian Violence on the Rise in India". http://hrw.org/english/docs/1999/09/30/india1626.htm.
- ^ a b c d e "Anti-Christian Violence in India". http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/History/Current_Affairs/Current_affairs.html.
- ^ Ram Puniyani (2003). Communal Politics: Facts Versus Myths. SAGE. pp. p167. ISBN 0761996672.
- ^ Indian Christians are victims of a 'concerted campaign'
- ^ a b Violence against Christians continues
- ^ "Orissa carnage: Christian group demands CBI probe". http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Orissa_carnage_Christian_group_demands_CBI_probe/articleshow/2662231.cms.
- ^ "India: Stop Hindu-Christian Violence in Orissa". http://hrw.org/english/docs/2007/12/28/india17668.htm.
- ^ "Stop the hate crime". http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=a27e3098-23f8-4d39-8e4a-ee44f31c4cf5&&Headline=Stop+the+hate+crime.
- ^ a b "Fresh violence in Orissa, curfew continues". http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20070036914&ch=12/26/2007%2010:06:00%20AM.
- ^ "Church Attack: Indefinite curfew in Orissa". http://www.financialexpress.com/news/Church-Attack-Indefinite-curfew-in-Orissa/254439/.
- ^ Catholic priest killed in Mathura
- ^ INDIA
- ^ The Staines case verdict V. Venkatesan, Frontline Magazine, Oct 11-23, 2003
- ^ "Foreign News: Ex-Butterfly". Time. 6 June 1932. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,789287,00.html. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=fbf5c6e5-48ea-48c5-9949-7e95d318eacf&&Headline=His+faith%2C+our+faith
- ^ a b "US rights report slams India for anti-Christian violence". 1999-02-27. http://www.expressindia.com/news/ie/daily/19990227/ige27064.html. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
- ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/150-yr-old_church_set_afire_in_Madhya_Pradesh/articleshow/3501987.cms
- ^ http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/uncategorized/protest-in-delhi-over-violence-against-christians_100100429.html
- ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=52f4a9cd-b459-4b3b-9f71-be329f169618&ParentID=b0abd3c0-c5b7-4c09-aee8-7754ffc67491&&Headline=Christians+in+K'taka+hurt%3a+Archbishop
- ^ Karnataka Bajrang Dal head gets bail, refuses it
- ^ http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080066855&ch=9/27/2008%2012:00:00%20PM
- ^ http://catholicnewsagency.com/new.php?n=13916
- ^ churches face mob fury in TN. times of india, 27 September 2008.
- ^ Fernandes, Edna (2006). "Part II: The Crusaders, Chapter 11: 'Nagaland for Christ'". Holy Warriors: A Journey Into the Heart of Indian Fundamentalism. Penguin Global. ISBN 978-0670058709.
- ^ a b c Subir Bhaumik (May 2004). "Ethnicity, Ideology and Religion: Separatist Movements in India's Northeast". Religious Radicalism and Security in South Asia. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. http://www.apcss.org/Publications/Edited%20Volumes/ReligiousRadicalism/PagesfromReligiousRadicalismandSecurityinSouthAsiach10.pdf
- ^ Anatomy of an Insurgency Ethnicity & Identity in Nagaland
- ^ Vatsala Vedantam (14 April 1999). Privilege and resentment: Religious conflict in India. Christian Century. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1058/is_12_116/ai_54467481/pg_3
- ^ "Church backing Tripura rebels". BBC. 18 April 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/717775.stm. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- ^ 'Church backing Tripura rebels' BBC News - 18 April 2000
- ^ Parratt (2003). "Christianity, ethnicity and structural violence: The north-east India case". Kangla Online. http://www.kanglaonline.com/index.php?template=kshow&kid=8&. Retrieved 2008-03-10. "... it is clear that the Naga insurgency movements in India ... have to a degree a Christian ideological base... It is significant the Rev Michael Scott, one of the members of the earlier abortive Peace Mission, was widely perceived as being the Nagas' spokesman. Phizo (the first Naga independence leader) was a convinced Baptist. In the earlier period a substantial number of pastors joined the underground. The insurgents did not fight on Sundays unless attacked (Horam 1988:76-77). The slogan "Nagaland for Christ" was a recognised rallying cry, and to some extent still is. Overtly Christian elements have appeared in official statements. The Constitution of the Federal Government of Nagaland, while it guaranteed free profession and practice of any religion, declared that Christianity would be the religion of the Naga state (Horam 1988:61). It was not averse to using religion as propaganda tool either, when it claimed that the "Hindu government" of India had adopted a policy of stopping Nagas eating meat. In the earlier days of the movement (Phanjoubam 1993:125) volunteer gospel teams preached under armed guard (one might almost say gun in one hand Bible in the other), and the conduct of the jungle camps was (and to some extent remains, like those in Myanmar) ordered by Christian spiritual activities. As with the non-Christian Meitei movements, the NSCN tended towards puritannical life style, banning alcohol and drugs, and discouraging sexual immorality. Provision of social amenities, like schools and clinics, goes hand in hand with religious teaching."
- ^ Horam, B (1988) Naga Insurgency (New Delhi)
- ^ Horam, B (1977) Social and cultural life of the Nagas (New Delhi)
- ^ Phanjoubam, Tarapot (1993) Insurgency Movement in North Eastern India (New Delhi 1993)
- ^ Bajrang Dal launches campaign,The Tribune
- ^ The Times of India (6 October 2008). "We killed Swami, Maoists say again". Press release. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/We_killed_Swami_Maoists_say_again/articleshow/3562518.cms. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
- ^ 'Majority of Maoist supporters in Orissa are Christians' The Hindu - 5 October 2008
- ^ 3 arrested in Laxmanananda murder case Indian Express - 7 October 2008
- ^ Net closes in on Cong MP for Orissa swami's murder Indian Express - 27 December 2008
- ^ Human Rights Watch World Report 2006
- ^ "Kerala Communal Clashes: 62 get life for killing 8". The Tribune. 15 January 2009. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2009/20090116/nation.htm. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
- ^ a b Marad can yet be retrieved
- ^ IMC India - 8 Hindus hacked to death by muslim mob in kerala
- ^ NDF behind Marad massacre?
- ^ "http://thereport.amnesty.org/document/15". 2007. http://thereport.amnesty.org/document/15.
- ^ Bumbai (1995) IMDB
- ^ Earth (1998) IMDB
- ^ Fiza (2000) IMDB
- ^ Hey Ram (2000) IMDB
- ^ Mr. and Mrs. Iyer (2002) IMDB
- ^ Final Solution (2003) IMDB
- ^ Black Friday (2004) IMDB
- ^ Parzania (2005) IMDB
- ^ Parzania not screened in Gujarat
- ^ Cinema at its very best... and then some not quite so at all
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- Violence against Christians continues
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Caste-related violence in India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
According to a report by Human Rights Watch, "Dalits and indigenous peoples (known as Scheduled Tribes or adivasis) continue to face discrimination, exclusion, and acts of communal violence. Laws and policies adopted by the Indian government provide a strong basis for protection, but are not being faithfully implemented by local authorities."
 Phoolan Devi
Phoolan Devi (1963 – 2001) was an Indian dacoit (bandit), who later turned politician. Born in a lower-caste Mallaah family, she was mistreated and abandoned by her husband. She was later kidnapped by a gang of dacoits. The upper-caste Thakur leader of the gang tried to rape her, but she was protected by the deputy leader Vikram, who belonged to her caste. Later, an upper-caste Thakur friend of Vikram killed him, abducted Phoolan, and locked her up in the Behmai village. Phoolan was raped in the village by Thakur men, until she managed to escape after three weeks.
Phoolan Devi then formed a gang of Mallahs, which carried out a series of violent robberies in north and central India, mainly targeting upper-caste people. Some say that Phoolan Devi targeted only the upper-caste people and shared the loot with the lower-caste people, but the Indian authorities insist this is a myth. Seventeen months after her escape from Behmai, Phoolan returned to the village, to take her revenge. On February 14, 1981, her gang massacred twenty-two Thakur men in the village, only two of which were involved in her kidnapping or rape. Phoolan Devi later surrendered and served eleven years in prison, after which she became a politician. During her election campaign, she was criticized by the women widowed in the Behmai massacre. Kshatriya Swabhimaan Andolan Samanvay Committee (KSASC), a Kshatriya organization, held a statewide campaign to protest against her. She was elected a Member of Parliament twice.
On July 25, 2001, Phoolan Devi was shot dead by unknown assassins. Later, a man called Sher Singh Rana confessed to the murder, saying he was avenging the deaths of 22 Kshatriyas at Behmai. Although the police were skeptical of his claims, he was arrested. Rana escaped from Tihar Jail in 2004. In 2006, KSASC decided to honor Rana for "upholding the dignity of the Thakur community" and "drying the tears of the widows of Behmai."
 Andhra Pradesh
This state is considered to be one of the least caste-crime infested places of India which has not had many Dalit Massacres.
 Ranvir Sena
Ranvir Sena is an caste-supremacist fringe paramilitary group based in Bihar. The group is based amongst the forward-caste landlord, and carries out actions against the outlawed naxals in rural areas. It has committed violent acts against Dalits and other members of the scheduled caste community in an effort to scuttle reform movements aimed at their emancipation.
 Tamil Nadu
The state of Tamil Nadu has witnessed several caste-based incidents both against Dalits and Brahmins. In 2000, three young men belonging to the Dalit undercaste were killed in the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu. This fuelled some localized violence in the caste-sensitive region, which has seen numerous caste-related incidents in which the majority of the victims have been Dalits. Six of the killings have been registered as murders under the Indian Penal Code and others as "Deaths under suspicious circumstances". No arrests have been made in these cases.
However, several Dalits have been arrested as goondas (hoodlums). The Chief minister of Tamil-Nadu, M. Karunanidhi, has been accused of having an "anti-Dalit" bias by the radical organization "Dalit Panthers of India". Theories concerning these crimes against Dalits range from "alcohol bootleggers opposing prohibition movements among Dalits" to "inter-caste relations between an Vanniya boy and a Dalit girl". Political parties sympathetic to the Dalits have protested against these incidents and have alleged systemic biases against Dalits in several parts of the country.
 Bant Singh case of Punjab
On the evening of January 5, 2006 Bant Singh, a poor Sikh Dalit, was attacked by unknown assailants. His injuries necessitated medical amputation. He alleges that this was in retaliation for actively working to secure justice for his daughter, who was gang raped by upper caste members of his village in Punjab five years earlier.
A 55-year-old Dalit Sikh woman, Sawinder Kaur has been tortured, stripped and tied to a tree in Ram Duali village of Punjab because her nephew eloped with a girl from the same community. The police arrested four persons for allegedly committing the crime on 9 September 2007.
In January, 1999 four members of the village panchayat of Bhungar Khera village in Abohar paraded a handicapped Dalit woman naked through the village. No action was taken by the police, despite local Dalit protests. It was only on July 20 that the four pancha yat members were arrested, after the State Home Department was compelled to order an inquiry into the incident.
A Dalit Sikh woman, Sukhwinder Kaur of Sumel Kheri village was molested and beaten up by an octroi contractor of Malaudh when she resisted his attempt to sexually exploit her.
 Kherlanji massacre
On September 29, 2006, four members of the Bhotmange family belonging to the Dalit underclass were slaughtered in Kherlanji, a small village in Bhandara district of Maharashtra. The women of the family, Surekha and Priyanka, were paraded naked in public, then allegedly gang-raped before being murdered . Although initially ascribed by the media and by the Human Rights Watch to upper castes, the criminal act was actually carried out by Kunbi caste (classified as Other Backward Classes by Government of India) farmers for having opposed the requisition of the Dalit land to have a road built over it.
On November 23, 2006, several members of the Dalit community in the nearby district of Chandrapur staged a protest regarding this incident.The protesters allegedly turned violent and pelted stones. The police had to resort to baton charging to control the situation. Dalit leaders, however, denied that they had sparked the violence and that they were "protesting in peace".
 2006 Dalit protests in Maharashtra
In November-December 2006, the desecration of a Ambedkar statue in Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) triggered off violent protests by Dalits in Maharashtra. Several people remarked that the protests were fueled by the Kherlanji Massacre. During the violent protests, the Dalit protestors set three trains on fire, damaged over 100 buses and clashed with police. At least four deaths and many more injuries were reported.
Later, the Kanpur Police arrested a Dalit youth Arun Kumar Balmiki for desecrating the Ambedkar statue. According to the police, the youth had "admitted to having damaged the statue in a drunken state along with two friends". Earlier in a similar case, a Dalit youth was held for desecrating an Ambedkar statue in Gulbarga, Karnataka.
In response to these protests, Raj Thackeray drew attention to another incident in Kherlanji, in which a Dalit allegedly raped a girl and killed her. Thackeray demanded action on those responsible for the rape and the subsequent death of the girl, and also remarked that nobody helped the girl's family.
In the Indian province of Rajasthan, between the years 1999 and 2002, crimes against Dalits average at about 5024 a year, with 46 killings and 138 cases of rape. In January 2007, a Jat girl was thrown into a canal near the border with Haryana for marrying a Dalit boy, although she swam to shore and was rescued by strangers.
On 25 May 2009, violence and rioting broke out when thousands of protesters took to the streets in almost all major towns and cities in the Indian state of Punjab after a dalit preacher, Sant Ramanand, was attacked in a temple in Vienna, Austria. He was among 16 people injured, including another preacher Sant Nirajnan Dass, and later died in hospital. Both the preachers were from a low-caste Sikh sect which has a large following in parts of Punjab and had travelled to Vienna to conduct a special service. Several high-caste Sikh groups had apparently opposed his presence and threatened violence. This happened after the preacher had reportedly made remarks about the Sikh groups.
 Other incidents
On September 1, 2007 some Yadavs poured steaming dal on a Dalit woman and her infant daughter, and beat up several other Dalits, for allowing their children to play in the premises of a temple at Shivayalay Mushari, on the outskirts of Patna.
 See also
- ^ "India Events of 2007". Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/legacy/englishwr2k8/docs/2008/01/31/india17605.htm.
- ^ "Phoolan Devi: Champion of the poor". BBC News. 2001-07-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1456441.stm. Retrieved 2006-12-11.
- ^ "Kshatriya Samaj to honour Phoolan's killer". The Tribune, Chandigarh. 2006-05-21. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2006/20060501/nation.htm#5. Retrieved 2006-12-11.
- ^ Victims of bias,The Hindu
- ^ Paying a price for securing justice for his daughter, The Hindu
- ^ Bant Singh can still sing, Tehalka Magazine
- ^ Dalit woman tied naked to a tree
- ^ Down and out in Punjab By Praveen Swami
- ^ Dalit woman molested, beaten up Malaudh (Ahmedgarh), April 27
- ^ "Dalit blood on village square". Frontline. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=20061201004713000.htm&date=fl2323/&prd=fline&. Retrieved 2006-12-10.
- ^ "Age old rivalry behind Khairlanji violence". NDTV. http://origin.ndtv.com/morenews/showmorestory.asp?slug=Age+old+rivalry+behind+Khairlanji+violence&id=96718&category=National. Retrieved 2006-12-10.
- ^ "Khairlanji to Kanpur". The Indian Express. 2006-12-02. http://www.indianexpress.com/story/17707.html. Retrieved 2006-12-02.
- ^ "Maharashtra: Dalit anger leaves 4 dead, 60 injured". Rediff.com. 2006-11-30. http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/nov/30statue.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-02.
- ^ "Dalits force police to let off suspect in Kanpur". Business Standard. 2006-12-01. http://www.business-standard.com/common/storypage_c_online.php?leftnm=11&bKeyFlag=IN&autono=18172. Retrieved 2006-12-02.
- ^ "Dalit youth held for desecrating Ambedkar statue". Deccan Herald. 2006-09-26. http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/Sep222006/district1711462006921.asp. Retrieved 2006-12-02.
- ^ "Situation in Mumbai, state back to normal". The Times of India. 2006-12-02. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/Mumbai/Situation_in_Mumbai_state_back_to_normal/articleshow/678044.cms. Retrieved 2006-12-02.
- ^ http://www.indiatogether.org/dalit/articles/bidwai1002.htm
- ^ "Dalits in conversion ceremony". BBC News. 2006-10-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6050408.stm. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- ^ (Hindi)CNN/IBN Video
- ^ "Punjab riots after Vienna killing". BBC News. 2009-05-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/8066783.stm. Retrieved 2010-04-28.