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Saturday, June 26, 2010

Krishna, My Oceanology Dream struck Niece Knows Not Where to Get Admission in Zoology as the Dept Seems to be Wiped out Making Way for It and BBA!

Krishna, My Oceanology Dream struck  Niece Knows Not Where to Get Admission in Zoology as the Dept Seems to be Wiped out Making Way for It and BBA!

Why the Bengali Ruling Brahaminical Hegemony Defends La Marts!

Indian Holocaust My Father`s Life and Time - Four Hundred THREE

Palash Biswas

Krishna, My Oceanology Dream struck  Niece Knows Not Where to Get Admission in Zoology as the Dept Seems to be Wiped out Making Way for It and BBA!

In India, Oceanology is not taught at Graduation level as far as we Know. We have marine Engineering which has nothing to do with Underwater Resources which have attracted our girl from Childhood. We do not study River Technology either. Now it seems, Indian knowledge economy has DELETED Zoology also! Krishna has to read Zoology in Graduation to get admission in Oceanology at Post Graduation Level. I suggested her to get admission in Life science in JNU, but she says that it is not eligible for studies in Oceanology. The Girl has passed her Class Twelve last year and waited a full year for Zoology and it seems that we may not help her anyway. She has not enough percentage to get admission in those colleges where  the Zoology department survives like an Extinct Specie. Neither we have the Caste Certificate to get admission thanks to Reservation or quota. She has passed Twelve under All India Secondary board and many Universities as Meerut does not admit the students belonging the All India Board! My brothers Padmalochan and Panchanan have tried their best to manage the admission all over in UP and Uttarakhand as Krishna failed to get Admission in Delhi University. She is not interested in other science subjects nor she is ready for either Bsc IT or BBA!

Krishna and her father ARUN, my Couisn, the only son of my Jethamoshai and Jethima visited us for two days as Krishna has applied for admission in Scottish Church College in kolkata. Travelling by Kalka mail they landed in the Metro in the Morning and shifted to my another cousin, CHOTOKAKA`s son Subhash`s place. My nephew TOTAN escorted them to the College where they found Not the name of Krishna in the list. Some students have to be admitted in SC, St and OBC quota but we refugees resettled outside Bengal have been deprived of Reservation as Mother Tongue. The Next day , they shifted in our Home at Sodepur and I could just manage a return ticket of DURANTO Express in waiting at Number Two and Three and that too in AC First Class. They returned Next day meaning last day and the tickets were confirmed by luck!

I am helpless as I persuaded her NOt to go to Australia last year while she was adamant. She only shared her dream with me since her childhood as a little schoolgirl and I may not help her to pursue her dream at home! I may not stop her now to go abroad this time!

I knew that Students in general are opting for Vocational courses and specifically for Bsc IT and BBA, but Krishna informed me that so much so hyped Foreign Universities have also opened doors for only Vocational disciplines and they have Nothing to do with Higher studies in traditional subjects, research and development.I have been interacting with IIT and IIM students and faculty who are worried that the Knowledge Economy has completely wiped out Higher studies and research and development and has focused on just Campus Recruitment and Placement and thus, Information Technology has wiped out all other disciplines. Civil Engineering, Mining, Mechanical Engineering and mathematics are the most neglected genres. But I NEVER could think that the subjects like Zoology are so neglected. Anatomy has be taught in Medical Colleges only! Pharmacy MNCs have captured Indian Market and Medicine as well as CURE being so dearly, I am afraid the discontinuity in the field of Higher studies and Research would make us land in the World of Pandemics without any Chance of medical care which we would not be able to afford at all in the Health Tour Environment!

It is learnt that Calcutta University is also going to give up Honours in zoology. While,some teachers as well as students informed me that the willing students have no chance to get admission and obliged to opt for either IT or BBA!simply Horrible!

La Marts sends report to HRD, files complaint as the Ruling Bengali Brahaminical Hegemony Defends the Erring school Management! Authorities of La Martinere for Boys school today faxed a detailed report to the HRD ministry and lodged a police complaint about the unauthorised visit by a team, which claimed to represent the ministry for probing the death of a student.

"Seeing media reports about the visit ostensibly by an HRD team to the La Martinere, Joint Secretary in the HRD ministry, S C Khantia, contacted us this morning and sought a detailed report," secretary of the school's Board of Governors Supriyo Dhar said.

Dhar said a copy of the report was submitted to the Deputy Commissioner of Police (south) and the Shakespeare Sarani police station in the city.

"We also intimated the joint secretary of what these visitors did yesterday in the name of visiting our school, what they discussed with our principal and me. They informed us that they represented the HRD ministry as a fact-finding team," he said.

Three persons, who claimed to represent the HRD team, created a flutter yesterday when they visited the school in connection with the suicide of class VIII student Rouvanjit Rawla days after he was caned by his principal, but HRD Minister Kapil Sibal denied having authorised anybody to probe the death.

Meanwhile, the HRD Ministry has initiated an inquiry to ascertain how the three unauthorised persons visited the school. The ministry is contemplating legal action against the trio.

Indian Express reports:

There seems to be no end to La Martiniere's woes. The "HRD ministry representative" who barged into the school on Wednesday to "probe" the circumstances of Rouvanjit Rawla's death, has turned out to be a member of Rashtriya Sanskrit Parishad, who considered investigating the matter his "moral responsibility".

Accompanied by two others, Ramesh Bhattacharjee visited the school at 3.30 pm, met the principal and school secretary and sought a report on the incident.

The school, which is under scrutiny from various agencies including Kolkata Police, National Commission for Protection of Child Rights and Council for School Certificate Examinations in India, readily agreed to submit a report by the end of the week.

On its way out, the "team" also spoke to reporters waiting at the gates and said they would visit the parents of the deceased child and neutrally look into the issue.

On Thursday, the school authorities were taken aback when they received a call from the director of the HRD Ministry in New Delhi's Shastri Bhavan, asking for a report on the "team" and what had transpired that day. The HRD minister, Kapil Sibal, denied sending any team.

"The desired information has been sent to the ministry," said an official release from the school.

"We also sent a copy of our report to the DC South and OC, Shakespeare Sarani police station, for information and necessary action," said Supriya Dhar, secretary of the school.

When questioned, two members of the "team" — Dilip Dutta, (Retd) deputy secretary of Higher Education Department, West Bengal and Anthony Arun Biswas, a representative of Anglo Indian Community — said they had only accompanied Bhattacharjee, who is associated with the ministry "in some way". contd.

Oceanography is the application of all sciences to the study of the ocean. It is also sometimes called Oceanology. Modern Oceanography is divided into four main parts. They are Biological Oceanography, Chemical Oceanography and Physical Oceanography.

The biological oceanographer studies the occourence of living organisms in the ocean. The Chemical Oceanographer studies the chemical prospects of sea water. The geological oceanographers study the sediments and rocks present on the bottom of the ocean. The physical oceanographer deals with the physical movements of the sea water. Though oceanography is divided into four branches, they are closely related.

Most important oceanographic instrument is the research vessel. It is the oceanographer's working platform. It carries the oceanographers and many kinds of instruments used in the study of the ocean. Modern oceanographic ships perform different tasks. In addition to these surface ships, the oceanographer also has underwater vesels called submersibles.

Modern oceanographic research is generally cosndiered to have begun with the Challenger Expedition (1872-76) under the direction of Sir. C. Wyville Thomson.
The challenger was a 260 foot 2300 ton steamship. She covered 111,000 km and carried out many different kindsof biological, chemical and geological studies. In 1893, the Norwegian Expedition under Fridtjot Nasen allowed the wooden ship Fram to be frozen in the ice of the Arctic ocean and drifted across the North Pole. Nansen thus collected valuable meteorological, astronomic, and oceanographic data. From 1925 to 1927 the German Ship Meteor collected temperatures, water samples and deep-sea sediments from the South Atlantic. Other expeditions on famous ships carried out oceanographic studies in various parts of the oceans.

After World War II the oceaonographic activity increased. As no single country could hope to carry out the work along, co-operative reasearch programmes for oceonographic surveys had started. One such programme was the International Indian Ocean Expedition (1962-65). This multinational expedition involveed fourteen nations and its purpose was to study the Indian Ocean. Systematic oceanographic surveys in India began with its expedition. Studies in Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were carried out by Indian oceanographers on the ship Kistna. After the IIOE was completed the Indian Government established the National Institute of Oceonography.

Right to Education Act will show results: Sibal

PUNE: Minister for human resource development (HRD) Kapil Sibal has said that people ought to give enough time for the Right to Education (RTE) Act to roll out and show the desired effect in some years down the line.

The RTE Act, which was passed by the Parliament in August last year and came into force from April 1 this year, provides for free and compulsory education as a fundamental right of every child in the 6-14 age group. It is touted as the Congress-led UPA government's most ambitious initiatives towards transforming education at the primary level.

Sibal dismissed the suggestion that the government was only making plain announcements vis-à-vis implementation of the act ever since it came into force. "The act itself says, in terms of physical infrastructure, three years time is given for states to develop schools and five years time for improving quality of teaching. So, you can not expect the RTE to be rolled out in a few months and start showing results," he said.

According to Sibal, announcements were bound to happen as a chain of measures like framing of guidelines and getting the states to bring their systems in line with the RTE objectives, etc have to be completed and this takes time. "Nobody said, from April 1 the entire structure of India will change," he said and added, "You will see the results some years down the line."

Asked whether the provision of not allowing education boards to fail any student up to Std VIII was good, Sibal said, "This is the will of Parliament."

On the remedial teaching for lagging in their studies, Sibal insisted, "Let us see how the act unfolds. This is not a science laboratory where we are conducting a litmus test. We are dealing with human beings."
Sibal maintained that he was getting apt cooperation from the education ministers of states and described the implementation part as a 'collaborative effort.'

Referring to the National Commission for Higher Education and Research (NCHER), which is positioned to serve as a single overarching body to regulate higher and professional education in the country, Sibal said, "The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) endorsed the commission proposal at its meeting last week. The state governments have now been given four months' time to give their suggestions on the proposed commission and the same will be evaluated by the task force dealing with the issue. Once we get the task force's report, the government will take the final call on setting up the commission."

Sibal said his prime mandate was to lay the groundwork for long-term transformation of the education sector. This includes smoother implementation of the RTE Act and taking the gross enrolment ratio (GER) i.e., the percentage of students in age group 17 to 23 accessing higher education in the country, from the present 12.4 per cent to 30 per cent by 2020. "In numbers, this translates into existing 14 million to 40 million, for which we will required three times the number of existing colleges in the country," he said.

Sibal referred to new legislations which the HRD ministry has moved, including those banning capitation fee and unfair practices by educational institutions, and accreditation of institutions, besides allowing institutions to run independently with greater autonomy as other priorities. He said, "The larger issue also is about bringing in huge investment in the education sector."

On Foreign Education Providers (FEP) bill, Sibal said too much focus was going to the aspect as to when foreign universities would come to India whereas the larger issue is about the investment that foreign institutions would bring in sectors, which do not grant degrees such as skill-oriented education, he said.

"Foreign institutions like Schultz, Virginia Tech, Essex University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have already started working in collaboration with Indian institutes," he pointed out.
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Scheme launched for students in India and abroad
Higher education made affordable for poor students
New Delhi, June 24, DHNS

The UPA Government has launched an education loan scheme for poor students pursuing higher education.

This was done apparently to ward off criticism that the government's reforms were turning education into a costly affair.

The scheme would be available from this academic session to students whose annual family income would be less than Rs 4.5 lakh. They could avail of a loan from any of the commercial banks after securing admission to professional courses in India or abroad through merit-based selection process.

The HRD Ministry has finalised the modalities in consultation with the Indian Banks' Association.

For studies in India, the courses for which students could apply for loan included graduation, postgraduation and PhD and also professional courses like Engineering, Medical, Agriculture, Veterinary, Law, Dental, Management, Computer and also ICWA, CA and CFA.

Courses conducted by IIM, IIT, IISc, XLRI and NIFT would also come within the ambit of this education loan.

Expenses which would be considered for loan include fee payable to college and hostel; examination/ library/ laboratory fee and also cost of purchasing books, equipment and uniform.

Travel expenses or passage money for studies abroad would also be considered for the loan along with the cost of purchasing computers, if that is essential for completion of the course.

While a maximum amount of Rs 10 lakh would be given for studies in India, it would be Rs 20 lakh for that in a foreign country. Up to Rs 4 lakh, no interest would be charged.

For studies in India and for a loan amount more than Rs 4 lakh, 5 per cent interest would be charged. For those studying abroad the rate would be 15 per cent. Under the scheme, proof of income is required to be certified by authorities to be designated by the state governments. 

The HRD Ministry has written to all chief secretaries of states/union territories to intimate the designated authority so that banking authorities at the branch level where students would be approaching for availing of the benefit of the scheme would be aware of the same.

The benefits

* Students whose annual family income is below Rs 4.5 lakh eligible
* Courses include graduation, post-graduation, PhD and professional courses
* College, hostel fees; exam, laboratory and library fees can be counted as expenses
* Travel expenses for studies abroad, along with cost of computers also will be considered for loans
* Students studying in India entitled for a maximum amount of Rs 10 lakh, while those going abroad will get Rs 20 lakh

  Entrance Exams
News & Notifications


Education in India is seen as one of the ways to upward social mobility. Good education is seen as a stepping stone to a high flying career. Education System in India currently represents a great paradox. On the one hand we have IIMs & IITs that rank among the best institutes in the world and on the other hand there are number of schools in the country that don't even have the basic infrastructure. Even after more than 50 years after independence we are far away from the goal of universal literacy. But on a positive note, Indian professionals are considered among the best in the world are in great demand. This signifies the inherent strength of Indian education system.

The Educational structure in India which operates at all conceivable levels from pre-school to post doctoral is of monumental proportions. According to a World Bank report there are more than 7,40,000 formal schools; more than 3.6 million teachers are working on full time basis; there are more than 175 Universities offering under graduate and post graduate courses and about 6000 colleges affiliated to these universities.

The educational structure in India is generally referred to as the Ten + Two + Three (10+2+3) pattern. The first ten years provide undifferentiated general education for all students. The +2 stage, also known as the higher secondary or senior secondary, provides for differentiation into academic and vocational streams and marks the end of school education. In +3 stage, which involves college education, the student goes for higher studies in his chosen field of subject.This is a comprehensive website on education in India. It gives detailed information on education and career options in India.


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Admission Procedure into Foreign Universities PDF Print E-mail
Written by Admin   
Thursday, 24 June 2010 20:52

Breaking News: Foreign universities remained a dream for Indian students. Most Indian students are going abroad to pursue higher studies. Here are the admission procedures to get into the Universities in the USA and UK.

UK Universities Admission Process


Under Graduation Courses


British students undergo thirteen years of pre-university academics when compared to twelve of Indian students.


Students from India are required to either outperform in their class XII exams or undergo a course called the bridging course or foundation course or access course to enter into any college in Britain for under graduation. This is compulsory for entry into Oxford, London or Cambridge universities.


To avoid the one-year course, students can also write an examination called the 'A' level examination in India itself. These exams are conducted twice a year and require early enrolment. Excellent written and spoken English is essential; exam syllabus can be obtained from the nearest British council.


A score of six is the minimum requirement in this exam and the exam can be written in the nearest British council itself and will cost approximately Rs. 3000.


Applications for all colleges are available from Universities and College Admission Services (UCAS). By completing a single form, students are eligible to try admissions in six colleges. Applications are available at the British council offices.


Filled UCAS applications must be submitted by 15th of December the preceding year, applications will be processed till June 30th after which forms are handled by a system called the 'clearing process'. For admissions into the


Oxford or Cambridge universities, filled forms have to be submitted before the 15th of October the preceding year and a student cannot apply for both the universities for the same academic year. Application forms are different for these universities are different from the rest of the universities


Post Graduation Courses


For entry into post graduation courses, a three year degree in any stream in the Indian universities is sufficient and is recognized in Britain as equivalent to their British Bachelor (ordinary) degree.


For admission into few postgraduate courses in Britain, a four year degree much like a B.E., B.Tech etc is required and this recognized as equivalent to their British Bachelor (Honors) degree. Completion of post graduate degree like M.A., M.Sc etc from any Indian university is also accepted.

Post graduate degrees such as M.Tech, M.E. from institutes such as IIT are considered as equivalent to their British Master's degree.


Admission forms can be obtained from the university web site by downloading them or by filling and sending them online.


US Universities Admission Process:


After choosing a list of colleges you want to apply-you can look at the application procedures.


1) Collect the Address and E-mail ID of the chosen colleges. Contact for more information, application forms and financial aids at least a year (between June and August) before you plan to enter.


2) Register for all the required admission tests such as TOEFL, SAT and ACT (in U.S only) for a Bachelor's programme or Undergraduate study; and TOEFL, GRE and GMAT for a masters or doctoral programme (Graduate study and research.) These tests are standardized and have centers around the world.


You can arrange with the testing agencies to send your test scores directly to the colleges and universities you are applying.


3) Keep all your academic records including an official credential evaluation of the 'marks card' (known as Transcripts in USA) ready. These records should include certificates of achievement in co-curricular and extracurricular activities.


4) Approach at least 3 of your teachers in school or professors who have taught you in college for reference letters. Teachers who know you thoroughly can provide a balanced reference of your ability to pursue advanced studies. Keep these letters ready.


5) Make a list of at least four courses you want to take up. Check whether these courses are available in India's colleges or Internet study option. If they are not available it is a good reason for convincing the Visa officer to give you a Visa.


6) Get a passport.


Application Forms


After you receive the application form, scrutinize all the admission requirements and financial requirements. The application forms usually ask for personal information, your certified mark sheets or transcripts, your admission test scores, certificates of extracurricular activities, letters of reference from your teachers, about your education plan-i.e. your course of study, career goals and research plan and why you chose this particular school etc.


The application fee may be between $30 to $50 payable by cheque. It will not be refunded if you do not attend the school.


The applications should be duly completed and send much before the deadline mentioned in the application forms. Usually, for most Universities and colleges the academic year begins in late August or early September and ends in May or June.


Acceptance Letter


The admission office of the university will inform whether you are accepted or rejected by sending an acceptance letter around April- June period.

If you are accepted you may be required to pay a deposit usually of one semester or a full year's tuition fee for reserving seat, before a certain date.


By Priyesh Ranjan

News from Australia for Students in India

The headline on an Australian government release Wednesday sounded universally positive for Indian students thinking about studying Down Under:

"Changes to International Education Sector to Provide Added Security for International Students."

EPAThen Australian Deputy PM Julia Gillard smiles as she addresses Indian students at the Lady Shri Ram College in New Delhi, August 31, 2009

The statement, released by the Australian High Commission in New Delhi late Wednesday morning, quoted the then Australian Minister for Education and now Prime Minister Julia Gillard as saying the changes "will provide additional support for international students and will make sure their experiences studying in our country are positive."

But it bears a closer look.

First, the background: Australia has been trying to repair its image to sustain its education industry after a spate of attacks on Indian students, including the January murder of Nitin Garg, who was walking in West Footscray in Melbourne when he was killed.

Last Thursday, the police in Victoria state charged a 15-year-old boy with murder for the fatal stabbing of 21-year-old Indian student Nitin Garg. On Friday, they charged another 16-year-old boy "with accessory to" Mr. Garg's murder, Radio Australia reported.

The news Wednesday sounded as if it would offer better protection against Indians becoming targets. Maybe more police? A special security force? Government-subsidized student housing in better neighborhoods than many Indians live in? Multicultural sensitivity training?

Er, not exactly.

Rather the release talked about proposed changes to a 2000 law that governs the international education sector. The proposed legislative changes are less about ensuring physical security of foreign students than the country's efforts to strengthen its regulation of the universities, colleges, training institutes and individuals involved in  providing educational courses and training to the overseas students. In other words, protecting students by protecting the reputation of the industry that attracts them.

The proposed changes include strengthening the education or training provider's "registration criteria to certify the viability of businesses," "risk-based monitoring which shifts the regulatory burden to those providers that present the greatest risk to the integrity of the sector" and "publishing of industry targets and reporting of regulatory activities," among other changes, according to the statement.

In all, these and other new regulations already introduced may only result in increased caution among education providers in accepting and admitting foreign students.

In fact, Ms. Gillard also said Wednesday that the government has begun consultations about changing student recruitment practices both "onshore and offshore." That might include added scrutiny in granting of student visas and "setting of appropriate English language entry levels," Ms. Gillard indicated in the statement.
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We are R & D organization !
We offer opprtunities to students who wish undertake ocean related dissertations/internships. NIO often receives requests for admissions to academic courses in oceanography. NIO does not offer any UG/PG/Diploma courses at this institute nor conduct any regular on-job-training courses.

We do not charge any fees for dissertation or summer interns programs
. All the laboratory expenses involved in students programs are met by NIO funds. Students have to arrange for their travel and living expenses. Free medical consultancy in case of any emergency is available at our dispensary, but hospitalisation and other treatment expenditures to be met by the student

Opportunities for the students:

  • Summer Internships (May to July of every year)
  • Dissertation projects (Any time during the year except May to July)

Besides this, there are other opportunities for other levels of students from Goa and other places:

  • Student workshops (for school children of Goa)
  • Educational visits (for all students)

Summer-internship (Applications are entertained only during January and February of the internship year. The internship is strictly for a maximum of three months starting from 1 May and ending on 31 July)

Dissertation Project (Applications for dissertation programme can be sent any-time of the year, but period of dissertation should not cover any part of 1 May to 31 July)

The summer internships/dissertation programs are meant for the students to acquaint themselves with the oceanographic studies and research methods in any branch of oceanography (note that oceanography is a multidisciplinary subject). To apply for these programmes, follow the procedure given below:

1. Interested student should visits project and other pages and acquaint with the work being carried out at this institute. Establish a contact with suitable scientist/s with expression of interest in working for a short project/training under his/her guidance (the links to concerned scientists' biodata are available from their project pages), and obtain consent of the scientist in any written form (e-mail, post, fax). Click here to view the titles of the projects completed by earlier students.

2. The HoD/ Dean / Principal / Placement officer of the student's institution should send a request letter addressed to Director, NIO, indicating student's interest in a specific branch of oceanography along with (i) brief CV of the student, and (ii) copy of the communication between the student and scientist at NIO. (Sample request letter)

  • Application with all above documents to be sent by POST ONLY to The In-charge, HRM-Students Wing, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula-403 004, Goa.
  • Applications without consent of the NIO-scientist should not be sent as they have least opportunity of getting placement. Placement letter will be sent to the Departments/College, not directly to the student. Normally the placement letters are sent within 8 weeks after receiving the application at HRM. Therefore, the students should keep in touch with their department/institutions for placement letter. Preserve the placement letter carefully as without it a student cannot join for the project.
  • Above (in box) time-schedules to be strictly adhared while applying and to be noted carefully while planning for dissertation or summer internship programs. We do not entertain any requests where there is overlap of timing between these two programs. DISSERTATION is for a student whose project should be more than THREE months and should form the part of student's course-curriculam. INTERNSHIP is for a student who wish to know more about oceans and get exposed to the R & D activity. This may or may not form the part of course curriculam. The duration of internship should be less than three months. We also conduct a short course of two weeks in "Fundamentals of Oceanography" for summer interns. Up to thirty interested students are admitted to this course on first-cum-first basis. They can register for this course in advance through their supervisors at NIO. The course normally starts at mid-May.
  • Request letters for both programs (on official letterhead only, having all contact details) should be from HoD/Dean/Principal/Placement Officer and to be addressed to DIRECTOR. Just forwarding the request letter written by the student will not be considered.
  • Time-overlapping in the above two programs is not permitted. Therefore, Dissertation students should plan their stay at NIO avoiding May-July. Summer interns will not be allowed to extend their stay beyond July. Clubbing both programs in one application is not permitted.
Student Workshops

Oceans are dearer to all of us. Knowledge of the seas around us is a must for every young student. This website provides ample opportunities to have such knowledge (visit outreach for example). As a routine programme, NIO organizes two-days workshop on oceanography for the students from Goa who ranked in first 120 in their SSC or CBSE exams. The invitations are sent directly to the individuals as and when such programmes are organized.

Educational Visits

NIO does provide an opportunity to the students from outside Goa to visit us and understand about oceanographic studies that we carry out. While you are welcome during any working day to visit this institute, we would organize your visit better if an advance intimation is sent and the consent is sought

Facilities and responsibilities of the visiting student
  • A student accommodation is normally provided (at the residential campus of the institute) to the ones arriving for summer internships and dissertation projects, on sharing basis for a nominal fee of Rs.10.00 per day. The student has to approach HRM for the same on earlier day of his/her programme. The accommodation facility is provided on first come first basis, hence no advance booking is entertained.
  • If your placement letter has a statement "Accommodation to be arranged by students only", then student(s) MUST make their own arrangements and then report at NIO. If the student can not make such arrangement, it is advisable not to report but rather inform us for cancellation of placement (so that seat could be given to other students who can make such arrangement of their stay). Note that the accommodation in the hostel will not be provided and Goa being a tourist place, this arrangement on arrival is equal to impossible. Student(s) are likely to land in trouble.
  • Food and snacks at subsidized rates are available during working days at the institutes canteen.
  • On reporting at NIO, the studnets have to produce at HRM-Secretariat (a) Valid student ID card of the college (b) Two passport size photos (c) Copy of placement letter and (d) Consent from college/univeristy and supervisor, if there is a change in dates of internship/dissertation. Without these they will not be registered.
  • Maintiaining discipline in hostel and laboratory campus is mandatory and zero tolerance is observed towards violating students.
  • Students are not expected to venture in to the sea for swimming any time during their stay at NIO.
  • They are also not expected to leave the station without prior permission of their supervisor.
  • Students failing to abide by above will be asked to quit the campus premature with notification to their parents and department.
  • Every student has to pay for the accommodation and submit e-copy of the work report/ dissertation before they wind-up their stay at NIO


Contact Address

For Summer and dissertation programmes :

Dr.V.K. Banakar
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70 percent weightage to class 12 score for IIT admissions
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Posted On: 25-Jun-2010 05:45:04 By: Gitika Khurana Font Size:
70 percent weightage to class 12 score for IIT admissions

New Delhi: In aptitude test conducted by IIT, as recommended by HRD (Human Resource Department) Ministry, 70 percent weightage will be given to class 12 score, while just 30 percent weightage will be given to the entrance test.

 40,000 students will be shortlisted in the cut off list, which will be displayed in June, based on the XII class marks and aptitude test. These students will take an additional test for IIT. This would help reduce the burden on students and the resources that go into conducting an IIT-JEE exam where nearly four lakh students take the exam.

Damodar Acharya, Director of IIT Kharagpur, gave the report to HRD Minister, Kapil Sibal along with the recommendations for the aptitude test to be conducted more than once.

HRD Ministry have to ensure that each state board examination is at par with the CBSE examination conducted during class 12, in order to accomplish this task smoothly. To begin with, a core science and mathematics syllabus has been initiated for Science and Mathematics across the country and has received the approval of CBSE.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Part of a series on
Animal diversity October 2007.jpg
Anthropology · Anthrozoology · Apiology · Arachnology · Arthropodology · Cetology · Conchology · Entomology · Ethology · Helminthology · Herpetology · Ichthyology · Malacology · Mammalogy · Myrmecology · Nematology · Neuroethology · Ornithology · Paleozoology · Planktology · Primatology · Cryptozoology
Notable zoologists
Georges Cuvier · Charles Darwin · William Kirby · Carolus Linnaeus · Konrad Lorenz · Thomas Say · Alfred Russel Wallace · more...
Pre-Darwin · Post-Darwin

Zoology (correctly pronounced /zoʊˈɒlədʒi/, though often /zuːˈɒlədʒi/[1]), occasionally also spelt zoölogy, is the branch of biology that focuses on the structure, function, behavior, and evolution of animals.



[edit] History

Main articles: History of zoology (through 1859), History of zoology (1859–1912)

Humans have been fascinated by the other members of the animal kingdom throughout history. In early Europe, they gathered up and catalogued descriptions of strange animals from distant lands or deep seas, such as are recorded in the Physiologus and in the works of Albertus Magnus. His work was based largely on the writings of Aristotle (384–322 BC). Magnus' De animalibus libri XXVI is not the only volume of his commentaries on Natural History, but it remains one of the most extensive studies of zoological observation published before modern times.[2]

Conrad Gesner (1516–1565). His Historiae animalium is considered the beginning of modern zoology.

The disciplinary study of zoology also found root in Arabia and China. Arab scholar Al-Jahizz (781–868) wrote the Book of Animals. Two great Chinese authors in this field were Su Song (1020-1101) and Shen Kuo(1031-1095) of the Song Dynasty period, yet there were many others. In Roman times, the main writer about natural history was Pliny the Elder (23–79).

Scientific zoology really started in the 16th century with the awakening of the new spirit of observation and exploration, but for a long time ran a separate course uninfluenced by the progress of the medical studies of anatomy and physiology. The spirit of inquiry which now for the first time became general showed itself in the anatomical schools of the Italian universities of the 16th century and spread fifty years later to the University of Oxford.

The first founded of surviving European academies, the Academia Naturae Curiosorum (1651) confined itself to the description and illustration of the structure of plants and animals; eleven years later, the Royal Society of London was incorporated by royal charter.

A little later the Academy of Sciences of Paris was established by Louis XIV. Collectors and systematisers reached maturity in the latter part of the 18th century in Linnaeus, other anatomists such as John Hunter also set to work to examine anatomically the whole animal kingdom and to classify its members by aid of the results of careful study. Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch tailor and naturalist, introduced another revolution with his construction of the first microscope.

It was not until the 19th century that the microscope was improved and accomplished for zoology what some consider to be its most important service. The perfecting of the microscope led to an improved comprehension of cell structure and the establishment of the Cell Theory:

  1. That all organisms are either single cells or built of many cells;
  2. That all organisms begin their existence as a single cell, which multiplies by binary fission, the products growing in size and multiplying similarly by binary fission; and
  3. That the life of a multicellular organism is the sum of the activities of the cells of which it consists and that the processes of life must be studied in and their explanation obtained from an understanding of the chemical and physical changes which go on in each individual cell of living material or protoplasm.

The contributions of individuals such as William Harvey (the circulation of blood), Carolus Linnaeus (system of nomenclature), Georges Buffon (natural history), Georges Cuvier (comparative anatomy), and Claude Bernard (homeostasis) greatly advanced the field. Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, published on 24 November 1859, is a seminal work of scientific literature, considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.

[edit] Systems of classification

Linnaeus's table of the Animal Kingdom from the first edition of Systema Naturae (1735).

Morphography is the systematic exploration, tabulation and characterization of data concerning animals, existing or extinct. It is similar to ethnography. Groups of people who have contributed to the field include past museum-makers of and their modern descendants, the curators and annotators of zoological collections, early explorers and modern naturalist travelers and writers collectors of fossils and paleontologists.

[edit] Subfields of zoology

Although the study of animal life is ancient, its scientific incarnation is relatively modern. This mirrors the transition from natural history to biology at the start of the nineteenth century. Since Hunter and Cuvier, comparative anatomical study has been associated with morphography shapins the modern areas of zoological investigation: anatomy, physiology, histology, embryology, and animal behaviour. Modern zoology first arose in German and British universities. In Britain, Thomas Henry Huxley was a prominent figure. His ideas were centered on the morphology of animals. Many consider him the greatest comparative anatomist of the latter half of the nineteenth century. Similar to Hunter, his courses were composed of lectures and laboratory practical classes in contrast the previous format of lectures only. This system became widely spread.

Gradually zoology expanded beyond Huxley's comparative anatomy to include the following sub-disciplines:

  1. Zoography, also known as descriptive zoology, describes animals and their habitats.
  2. Comparative anatomy studies the structure of animals.
  3. Animal physiology
  4. Molecular Biology studies the common genetic and developmental mechanisms of animals and plants
  5. Ethology is the study of animal behaviour.
  6. Behavioural ecology
  7. Evolutionary biology: See of both animals and plants is considered in the articles on evolution, population genetics, heredity, variation, Mendelism, reproduction.
  8. Systematics, cladistics, phylogenetics, phylogeography, biogeography and taxonomy classify and group species via common descent and regional associations.
  9. The various taxonomically oriented disciplines such as mammalogy, herpetology, ornithology identify and classify species and study the structures and mechanisms specific to those groups. Entomology is the study of insects, by far the largest group of animals.
  10. Palaeontology

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "Zoology". Retrieved 26 April 2007. 
  2. ^ Albertus Magnus. On Animals: A Medieval Summa Zoologica. The Review of Metaphysics | December 01, 2001 | Tkacz, Michael W.

[edit] External links

At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Zoology at:


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  (Redirected from Oceanology)
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Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ωκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "to write"), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It covers a wide range of topics, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within it: biology, chemistry, geology, meteorology, and physics.



[edit] History

Map of the Gulf Stream by Benjamin Franklin, 1769-1770. Courtesy of the NOAA Photo Library.

Man first began to acquire knowledge of the waves and currents of the seas and oceans in pre-historic times. Observations on tides are recorded by Aristotle and Strabo. Early modern exploration of the oceans was primarily for cartography and mainly limited to its surfaces and of the creatures that fishermen brought up in nets, though depth soundings by lead line were taken.

Although Juan Ponce de León in 1513 first identified the Gulf Stream, and the current was well-known to mariners, Benjamin Franklin made the first scientific study of it and gave it its name. Franklin measured water temperatures during several Atlantic crossings and correctly explained the Gulf Stream's cause. Franklin and Timothy Folger printed the first map of the Gulf Stream in 1769-1770.[1][2]

When Louis Antoine de Bougainville, who voyaged between 1766 and 1769, and James Cook, who voyaged from 1768 to 1779, carried out their explorations in the South Pacific, information on the oceans themselves formed part of the reports. James Rennell wrote the first scientific textbooks about currents in the Atlantic and Indian oceans during the late 18th and at the beginning of 19th century. Sir James Clark Ross took the first modern sounding in deep sea in 1840, and Charles Darwin published a paper on reefs and the formation of atolls as a result of the second voyage of HMS Beagle in 1831-6. Robert FitzRoy published a report in four volumes of the three voyages of the Beagle. In 1841–1842 Edward Forbes undertook dredging in the Aegean Sea that founded marine ecology.

As first superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory (1842–1861) Matthew Fontaine Maury devoted his time to the study of marine meteorology, navigation, and charting prevailing winds and currents. His Physical Geography of the Sea, 1855 was the first textbook of oceanography. Many nations sent oceanographic observations to Maury at the Naval Observatory, where he and his colleagues evaluated the information and gave the results worldwide distribution.[3]

The steep slope beyond the continental shelves was discovered in 1849. The first successful laying of transatlantic telegraph cable in August 1858 confirmed the presence of an underwater "telegraphic plateau" mid-ocean ridge. After the middle of the 19th century, scientific societies were processing a flood of new terrestrial botanical and zoological information. European natural historians began to sense the lack of more than anecdotal knowledge of the oceans.

In 1871, under the recommendations of the Royal Society of London, the British government sponsored an expedition to explore world's oceans and conduct scientific investigations. Under that sponsorship the Scots Charles Wyville Thompson and Sir John Murray launched the Challenger expedition (1872–1876). The results of this were published in 50 volumes covering biological, physical and geological aspects. 4417 new species were discovered.

Other European and American nations also sent out scientific expeditions (as did private individuals and institutions). The first purpose built oceanographic ship, the "Albatros" was built in 1882. The four-month 1910 North Atlantic expedition headed by Sir John Murray and Johan Hjort was at that time the most ambitious research oceanographic and marine zoological project ever, and led to the classic 1912 book The Depths of the Ocean.

Oceanographic institutes dedicated to the study of oceanography were founded. In the United States, these included the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1892, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 1930, Virginia Institute of Marine Science in 1938, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University, and the School of Oceanography at University of Washington. In Britain, there is a major research institution: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton which is the successor to the Institute of Oceanography. In Australia, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, known as CMAR, is a leading center. In 1921 the International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) was formed in Monaco.

Ocean currents (1911)

In 1893 Fridtjof Nansen allowed his ship "Fram" to be frozen in the Arctic ice. As a result he was able to obtain oceanographic data as well as meteorological and astronomical data. The first international organization of oceanography was created in 1902 as the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

The first acoustic measurement of sea depth was made in 1914. Between 1925 and 1927 the "Meteor" expedition gathered 70,000 ocean depth measurements using an echo sounder, surveying the Mid atlantic ridge. The Great Global Rift, running along the Mid Atlantic Ridge, was discovered by Maurice Ewing and Bruce Heezen in 1953 while the mountain range under the Arctic was found in 1954 by the Arctic Institute of the USSR. The theory of seafloor spreading was developed in 1960 by Harry Hammond Hess. The Ocean Drilling Project started in 1966. Deep sea vents were discovered in 1977 by John Corlis and Robert Ballard in the submersible "Alvin".

In the 1950s Auguste Piccard invented the bathyscaphe and used the "Trieste" to investigate the ocean's depths. The nuclear submarine Nautilus made the first journey under the ice to the North Pole in 1958. In 1962 there was the first deployment of FLIP (Floating Instrument Platform), a 355 foot spar buoy.

Then in 1966, the U.S. Congress created a National Council for Marine Resources and Engineering Development. NOAA was put in charge of exploring and studying all aspects of Oceanography in the USA. It also enabled the National Science Foundation to award Sea Grant College funding to multi-disciplinary researchers in the field of oceanography.[4][5]

From the 1970s there has been much emphasis on the application of large scale computers to oceanography to allow numerical predictions of ocean conditions and as a part of overall environmental change prediction. An oceanographic buoy array was established in the Pacific to allow prediction of El Niño events.

1990 saw the start of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) which continued until 2002. Geosat seafloor mapping data became available in 1995.

In 1942 Sverdrup and Fleming published "The Ocean" which was a major landmark. "The Sea" (in three volumes covering physical oceanography, seawater and geology) edited by M.N. Hill was published in 1962 while the "Encyclopedia of Oceanography" by Rhodes Fairbridge was published in 1966.

[edit] Connection to the atmosphere

The study of the oceans is intimately linked to understanding global climate changes, potential global warming and related biosphere concerns. The atmosphere and ocean are linked because of evaporation and precipitation as well as thermal flux (and solar insolation). Wind stress is a major driver of ocean currents while the ocean is a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Our planet is invested with two great oceans; one visible, the other invisible; one underfoot, the other overhead; one entirely envelopes it, the other covers about two thirds of its surface.
Matthew F. Maury (1855) The Physical Geography of the Seas and Its Meteorology

[edit] Branches

Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere

The study of oceanography is divided into a number of branches:

These branches reflect the fact that many oceanographers are first trained in the exact sciences or mathematics and then focus on applying their interdisciplinary knowledge, skills and abilities to oceanography.[6]

Data derived from the work of Oceanographers is used in marine engineering, in the design and building of oil platforms, ships, harbours, and other structures that allow us to use the ocean safely.[7]

Oceanographic data management is the discipline ensuring that oceanographic data both past and present are available to researchers.

[edit] Related disciplines

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ 1785: Benjamin Franklin's 'Sundry Maritime Observations'
  2. ^ Wilkinson, Jerry. History of the Gulf Stream January 01, 2008.
  3. ^ Williams, Frances L. Matthew Fontaine Maury, Scientist of the Sea. (1969) ISBN 0-8135-0433-3.
  4. ^ NOAA National Sea Grant Office (NSGO).
  5. ^ Topic: Sea Grant Colleges.
  6. ^ Impact from the Deep; October 2006; Scientific American Magazine; by Peter D. Ward; 8 Page(s)
  7. ^ Tom Garrison. "Oceanography: An Invitation to Marine Science" 5th edition. Thomson, 2005. Page 4.

[edit] Further reading

[edit] External links

India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities

A World Bank report, India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities, was launched in Washington DC on June 28, 2005.


Buy the Book Online Download the Overview | Brief Summary of Recommendations


New World Bank Report Says India Can Make Even Greater Strides in Growing its Economy and Reducing Poverty.


See all K4D resources on India and the Knowledge Economy


One of the world's largest economies, India has made enormous strides in its economic and social development in the past two decades. But according to a new World Bank report, India can do much more to leverage its strengths in today's knowledge-based global economy.


India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities argues that, when supported by the right kind of government policy incentives, the country can increase its economic productivity and the well-being of its population by making more effective use of knowledge.


"This report serves as an important Bank input into the domestic consultation and reform process which will move India further into the global knowledge economy of the twenty-first century," says Michael Carter, World Bank Country Director for India. "The World Bank recognizes that making effective use of knowledge in any country requires developing appropriate policies and institutions to promote entrepreneurship and efficient use of knowledge."


Grooming World Class Knowledge Workers


India already has many highly educated and vocationally qualified people who are making their mark, domestically and globally, in science, engineering, information technology (IT), and research and development (R&D). But they represent only a small fraction of the total population. 


"To create a sustained cadre of 'knowledge workers,' India needs to make its education system more demand driven to meet the emerging needs of the economy and to keep its highly qualified people in the country," suggests Anuja Utz, co-author of the report. "This means raising the quality of all higher education institutions, not just a few world-class ones, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology."


Some ways of making the system more demand driven are to allow the private sector to fill the burgeoning demand for higher education by relaxing bureaucratic hurdles, and through better accreditation systems for private providers of education and training.  Increased university-industry partnerships to translate research into applications can yield economic value. Lifelong learning programs can be used to meet the learning needs of all, both within and outside the school system, including using distance learning technologies to expand access to and the quality of formal education and lifelong training programs.


Promoting Innovation


India is becoming a major global source of R&D; about 100 multinational corporations have already set up R&D centers in the country, leading to the deepening of technological and innovative capabilities among Indian firms. But even so, "India is still a relatively closed economy compared with other Asian economies," notes Carl Dahlman, co-author of the report. "India should increasingly tap into the rapidly growing stock of global knowledge through channels such as foreign direct investment, technology licensing, and so on, so that it can catch up to countries like China, where reforms have moved ahead much more rapidly."


An important part of India 's innovation system is the diffusion of modern and more efficient technologies in all sectors of the economy.  According  to Dr. R.A. Mashelkar, Director General, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India,  "India is already gaining international repute for its innovations in areas ranging from pharmaceuticals to software. IT will achieve even more as it improves the efficiency of public R&D, increase private R&D, and encourages greater university-industry linkages.  It is leveraging traditional knowledge with modern science and exploiting public-private partnerships to support grassroots innovations which can improve the quality of life for the poor. An example is the Computer-Based Functional Literacy program, initiated by Tata Group to overcome illiteracy through innovative use of IT."


Creating a for Center of Excellence Information and Communication Technology


In the telecommunications sector, fierce price competition has resulted in Indian mobile telephony becoming one of the cheapest in the world; more than 47 million people had mobile phones at the end of 2004!  India has achieved remarkable global success in the IT sector which accounted for about 3.82 percent of India 's GDP in 2003-04, and provided employment for almost a million people. 


But the report notes that the explosive growth of ICTs has been concentrated in urban areas. The government should promote the application and use of ICTs throughout the economy to raise productivity and growth. This requires increasing access to ICTs, such as widespread availability of telephones, including mobile phones, computers, and connectivity to the Internet; enhancing ICT literacy and skills among the population; and developing ICT applications that can provide much-needed social, economic, and government services to citizens.


Moving to Action


This report recognized India 's achievements but sees enormous potential yet to be unleashed. It recommends an India-led process to coordinate and integrate reforms, combining those in the economic and institutional regime with the many initiatives in education, innovation and ICTs.


"This report comes at a very opportune time. It provides a very useful input for discussion by all stakeholders. What is needed is a national vision and the leadership and governance mechanisms to put this into action," notes Arun Maira, Chairman, Boston Consulting Group, India.


Sam Pitroda, Chairman of India's National Knowledge Commission supports this view: "We will take into consideration the analysis and recommendations of the report as we design our own strategy. We look forward to cooperating with the World Bank and other multilateral agencies as well as with think tanks and universities in India and abroad as the Commission works to harness knowledge for India 's development and realize its potential to become a major knowledge power."




The Concept 

India's growing population of young people will give the country a demographic advantage over many western countries and possibly even China in the decades to come.  As a result, India's Prime Minister has said India must position itself to "leapfrog in the race for social and economic development" through the formulation of knowledge-oriented focus of development.  As a result of this initiative, the National Knowledge Commission (NKC) was established in June 2005.  The main objective of the commission will be to take appropriate actions to give India a knowledge advantage to create, apply and disseminate knowledge.  This objective is expected to be implemented through the following strategies: 

  • Creation of Knowledge: strengthen education systems, promote research and development in a variety of fields, and partner with foreign sources to expand learning
  • Application of Knowledge: target health, agriculture, government and industry sectors to balance traditional knowledge, innovation encouragement and revise governance through technology
  • Dissemination of Knowledge:  focus on widespread basic education for all citizens, especially those marginalized groups, create a culture of learning, foster improved literacy, create lifelong opportunities for skill acquirement, improve information and communication technology (ICT) and enhance standards of education through public awareness

Background of Knowledge Economy in India 

The potential for tremendous economic growth in India is commonly accepted, however, the direction and format in which this growth should occur is often debated.  Cooperation among key stakeholders in the government, private sector and civil society will be important in formulating and implementing polices that harness the knowledge that already exists within the country to increase the welfare and productivity of the economy and citizens.  India is well-known for its highly educated and vocationally-ready population in fields such as science, engineering, information technology and research and development.  India has and is still becoming a major source of research and development worldwide with approximately 100 large multinational corporations housing facilities in the country.

The historical importance of the Knowledge Economy is described by the President, in February 2006, "Since ancient times, our society has greatly valued knowledge. Our democracy has enabled us to spread the benefits of knowledge more widely. Today we live in a knowledge era in which every social and economic activity is driven by knowledge." 

National Knowledge Commission Focus Areas 

The access to knowledge is a fundamental goal of India's strategy.  It is critical for the majority of the population to possess the means to not only obtain this information but have the necessary educational background to understand and then communicate with others about the knowledge to expand learning through discussions.  The skills and intellectual abilities of India's young people will provide a strong foundation of human capital; thus, facilitating India's transition to a knowledge based economy.  The nation's universities, research institutions and laboratories are an integral player in the development of this knowledge.  The following issues regarding access to knowledge will be addressed by the commission:

  • Adult literacy
  • Delivery of information
  • Public information availability
  • Affirmative action framework

Further development of India's educational system is believed to be the key in fostering the advancement of the knowledge economy since knowledge concepts are distributed through the education system.  The role of education in the context of a developing country is considered significantly valuable.  As a result, the citizens and students of India will develop the skills to think independently, improve decision making, monitor current events at a local, national and global level, and question socio-economic situations to inspire innovation and change. 

Mechanisms for Change 

In order for India to become a global educational leader, the National Knowledge Commission recommends the following strategies to be operationalized into action through appropriate government policies: 

  • The promotion of sound research in universities and institutes and the achievement of worldwide competitiveness in the quality of higher education
  • The linkage of research in institutes with industry needs to best develop research and development
  • The diversification of funding sources for institutes and universities as a strategy for collaboration and knowledge sharing
  • The promotion of innovation through the National Innovation Foundation, which encourages students to use new approaches in science and technology
  • The strengthening of  Intellectual Property Rights in the country
  • The inclusion of internet and e-learning into standard education systems
  • The promotion of new agricultural technology that will provide sustainable food sources
  • The protection of traditional knowledge which is particularly at risk due to the expansion of new technologies
  • The creation of a comprehensive e-governance system to reduce costs, empower citizens and improve efficiency


Knowledge Economy

Knowledge Economy
The British High Commission's work on the knowledge economy is a cross-cutting effort to help ensure coherent engagement with India on economic and trade policy, science and innovation, education, and research; and to ensure that all involved realise the benefits of that engagement.

In this area, the High Commission's teams work particularly closely with DFID India (Department for International Development), and the India offices of  the British Council and UK Research Councils (RCUK).

Our economic and trade policy work includes programme activities in the economic reform strand of our Low Carbon High Growth Strategic Programme Fund.

Latest from the UK on knowledge economy issues

Competitiveness in a knowledge economy:  Speech by Vince Cable, Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills.

Developing a framework for Collaborative Linkages to meet the Emerging Challenges
Knowledge is increasingly becoming a more valuable asset than traditionally focused labor and capital used by economists for developing models of economic growth.

There are fundamental differences between knowledge and other physical assets. Knowledge is permanent. The seller continues to retain it even after selling. Knowledge is cumulative. It has increasing returns to scale. The more knowledge is produced and used, the higher the price it fetches. Knowledge is fungible. It cannot be hidden. It is interactive. Scientists, Professors and workers in the knowledge industry cannot work in isolation.

Economists, administrators, academicians, entrepreneurs, accountants and managers are used to dealing with physical assets and understand their importance and correlations through quantities, wages, prices, profits, etc. They understand the importance of education; yet they find it difficult to evaluate knowledge, it being abstract and subjective.

Managing knowledge is a process, which involves a multi-period decision framework, starting from investments in research and development to diffusion of knowledge to creation of innovations and finally capturing value through commercialization of inventions and innovations. The whole process is ridden with uncertainties and difficulties in managing the complexities. Read More »

International Management Institute
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Phone : 011 - 26961437, Fax: 011 - 26867539, Website :


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India has one of the largest 'Higher Education System in the world.


Universities   Deemed Universities  All India Directory of Colleges
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Scholarship Website
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Emergency Powers of the VCs of the Central Universities
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Initiatives and Status on Human Resource Development in Information Technology in Union States and Territories
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List of Institutions Offering Courses on Distance Mode and Open Universities in India
Guidelines for setting up Departments of Astrology in universities under the purview of University Grants Commission
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National Assessment and Accreditation Council
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Constitution of a Standing Committee to go into the working of Women's Studies on a continuing basis.


Main players in the higher education system in the country are:

University Grants Commission (UGC) is responsible for coordination, determination and maintenance of standards, release of grants.

Professional Councils are responsible for recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions and providing grants to undergraduate programmes and various awards. The statutory professional councils are:

All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE),
Distance Education Council (DEC)
Indian Council for Agriculture Research (ICAR),
Bar Council of India (BCI),
National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)
Medical Council of India (MCI),
Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)
Indian Nursing Council (INC)
Dentist Council of India (DCI)
Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH)
Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM)

Central Government is responsible for major policy relating to higher education in the country. It provides grants to the UGC and establishes central universities in the country. The Central Government is also responsible for declaration of Educational Institutions as 'Deemed to be University' on the recommendation of the UGC.

Presently there are sixteen (18)
Central Universities in the country. In pursuance of the Mizoram Accord, another Central University in the State of Mizoram is planned. There are 99 Institutions which have been declared as Deemed to be Universities by the Govt. of India as per Section of the UGC Act, 1956.

State Governments are responsible for establishment of State Universities and colleges, and provide plan grants for their development and non-plan grants for their maintenance.

The coordination and cooperation between the Union and the States is brought about in the field of education through the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE).

Special Constitutional responsibility of the Central Government: Education is on the 'Concurrent list' subject to Entry 66 in the Union List of the Constitution. This gives exclusive Legislative Power to the Central Govt. for co-ordination and determination of standards in Institutions of higher education or research and scientific and technical institutions.

Academic Qualification Framework - Degree Structure


There are three principle levels of qualifications within the higher education system in the country. These are:

Bachelor / Undergraduate level
Master's / Post-graduate level
Doctoral / Pre-doctoral level

Diploma courses are also available at the undergraduate and postgraduate level. At the undergraduate level, it varies between one to three years in length, postgraduate diplomas are normally awarded after one year's study.
Bachelor's degree in arts, commerce and sciences is three years of education (after 12 years of school education). In some places there are honours and special courses available. These are not necessarily longer in duration but indicate greater depth of study. Bachelor degree in professional field of study in agriculture, dentistry, engineering, pharmacy, technology and veterinary medicine generally take four years, while architecture and medicine, it takes five and five and a half years respectively. There are other bachelor degrees in education, journalism and librarian-ship that are second degrees. Bachelor's degree in law can either be taken as an integrated degree lasting five years or three-year course as a second degree.

Master's degree is normally of two-year duration. It could be coursework based without thesis or research alone. Admission to postgraduate programmes in engineering and technology is done on the basis of Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering or Combined Medical Test respectively.

A pre-doctoral programme - Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) is taken after completion of the Master's Degree. This can either be completely research based or can include course work as well. Ph.D. is awarded two year after the M.Phil. or three years after the Master's degree. Students are expected to write a substantial thesis based on original research. generally takes longer.

New Initiatives

Vocationalization at the First Degree Level


In conformity with the National Policy on Education, 1986, a scheme to provide career orientation to education at the first degree level was launched in 1994-95. Under the scheme, a university / college could introduce one to three vocational courses in 35 identified subjects.

Autonomous Colleges

138 colleges have been functioning as autonomous colleges in eight states in the country.

National Eligibility Test (NET) is being conducted by the UGC since 1989 for eligibility for lectureship. Around 50000 students appear for the test every year. Pass percentage is around 5%. Eight State level Tests have been accredited at par with NET.

System of Governance of Higher Education Institutions

The Universities are various kinds: with a single faculty, or multi-faculties; teaching or affiliating, or teaching cum affiliating, single campus or multiple campus. Most of the Universities are affiliating universities, which prescribe to the affiliated colleges the course of study, hold examinations and award degrees, while undergraduate and to some extent post the colleges affiliated to them impart graduate instruction. Many of the universities along with their affiliated colleges have grown rapidly to the extent of becoming unmanageable. Therefore, as per National Policy on Education, 1986, a scheme of autonomous colleges was promoted. In the autonomous colleges, whereas the degree continues to be awarded by the University, the name of the college is also included. The colleges develop and propose new courses of study to the university for approval. They are also fully responsible for conduct of examination. There are at present 138 autonomous colleges in the country.

Focus of Ninth Plan

Thrust areas are: measures for quality improvement and modernization of syllabi, renewal of infrastructure, extra-budgetary resource mobilization and greater attention to issues in governance. Issues of access and relevance would receive attention. Conferment of grater autonomy to deserving colleges and professional upgradation of teachers through Academic Staff Colleges would be given priority. Emphasis is being placed on consolidation and optimal utilization of the existing infrastructure through institutional networking, restructuring expansion, so as to only meet the demand of the unserved areas with a focus on women and under privileged sections. The Open University system, which has been growing in popularity and size, is striving to diversify courses and offerings and gain wider acceptability by upgrading its quality. It would focus more sharply on the educational needs of women and rural society, as well as professional training of in-service employees.

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C E N T R A L   U N I V E R S I T I E S

  • President of India is the Visitor of all Central Universities.
  • President/Visitor nominates some members to the Executive Committee/Board of Management/Court/Selection Committees of the University as per the provisions made in the relevant University Act.
  • Ministry provides secretariat service for appointment of Vice-Chancellor/Executive Committee Nominees/Court Nominees/Selection Committee Nominees etc. by the President.

There are 18 Central Universities under the purview of the MHRD which have been set up by Acts of Parliament. The details are as under:-



Name & Address of University




DELHI -110 007

FAX -91-011


27667011 (O)

27666921 (R)



NEW DELHI -110 067

FAX – 91-011 – 26717580

2671 7500 (O)
2618 5489, (R)


NEW DELHI -110 023.
FAX –011-6840229/6821232

26982153/26984650 (O)
26980273 (R)




NEW DELHI -110 068.

FAX - 91 -011-6862312.



2953 2707/2953 2484 (O)

26492076 (R)

FAX: 2953 5933






VC FAX - 316946         



2307220 (O)

2307209 (R)

FAX - 2369951



ALIGARH -202 002

FAX     - 0571-2700528


2700994 (O)  Demand 1567

Fax 401815 (O)




WEST BENGAL –731 235



03 463-262451 (O)

03 463-262481 (R)

033-2871026  (Calcutta Office, VC)





FAX-91-040-3010145, 3010120


 040-23010121 (O)

 040-23010170 (R)

FAX – 2301 1090




FAX –091-0413-2655 265



0413-2655175/2655209 (O)

0413-2655249 (R)




SHILLONG –793 022

FAX-91-03 64-551153, 227705


0364-250101/250075,76 (O)

0364-250074 ®




SILCHAR , ASSAM – 788 011

FAX -03 842-32779, 70802

Prof. S.C.SAHA

03842-270801 (O) 270202(R)






FAX -03 712-21539, 267006

Prof.(Dr.) P.C. DEKA

91-03712- 267003, 267115 (O)

255685 (R)





KOHIMA-797 001


FAX-03 70-222523, 223146, 222607


Prof.  G.D. SHARMA

SILCHAR (Res.) 03842-242520

Tele: 0370-229 0488 (O)

                 224 2701 (R)

Fax:   22523, 234072






0522-2440820 (O)

0522-2711424 (R)

Fax: 2440821




HYDERABAD -500 032.

FAX -040- 2300 6612, 13, 14, 15


040 – 2300 6601





Post Box No. 16, Panchitteela,

Arvi Road, Umri, Wardha – Pin. 442001.

Fax No. 0752 - 230903

Dr. G.Gopinathan,

Tele: 0752 – 230 907 (O)




P. B. No. 190, Aizawal, Mizoram -796012

Fax No. 0389-340313


Tele Fax – 0389-342348 (O)

              330343, 332443 (R)

                   011 – 373 1791

                             335 2690 (O)



Senate Hall, Allahabad – 211 002


Prof. H.R. SINGH

0532 – 2461 089 (R)

09415340695 (M)

FAX:- 2451 157

Camp Office – 2545 020, 2440 696

Camp Office (FAX): 2545 021



Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi


Jawaharlal Nehru University came into existence in 1969 by an Act of Parliament. It is primarily concerned with Post-graduate Education and Research. The University has been identified by the University Grants Commission as one of the University in the Country with 'Potential of Excellence'. It has 9 schools consisting of 27 centres of studies and 4 special centres. The strength of its teaching and non-teaching staff is 420 and 1297 respectively. 4890 students were on rolls.


For further details visit JNU Home page


University of Delhi


University of Delhi was established in February, 1922 as a unitary and residential university.  It has 14 faculties, 82 teaching departments and 78 college spread over national Capital Territory of Delhi.


For further details visit University of Delhi Home page


A new State University – Indraprashtha Vishwavidhlaya has come up in Delhi as an affiliating University.


Jamia Millia Islamia


Functioned as a Deemed University since 1962.  Acquired the status of a Central University in December 1988 by an Act of Parliament.  Imparts education from Nursery stage to Post-graduate and Doctorate levels. It has 29 Departments, excluding the various Centres of Studies and Research, grouped under 7 Faculties. Offering a total of 121 courses at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, in addition to Ph.D Programmes. It has on its rolls a total of 14,000 students, including 97 foreign students from 38 countries.   The total strength of the teaching staff is 612 (including 120 for School Sector) and that of the non-teaching staff is 997.  Apart from providing training at Postgraduate level in Mass Communication, A.J. Kidwai Mass Communication Research Centre produces material on different educational aspects/subjets for the UGC's INSAT Programme.


The new initiatives taken in the areas of academics include setting up of the various new Centres, including (i) Centre for Jawaharlal Nehru Studies, (ii) Centre for West Asian Studies, (iii) Centre for Dalit and Minorities Studies, (iv) Centre for Spanish and Latin American Studies and (v) Centre for Comparative Religion.


Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU)


Established in 1985 by an Act of Parliament for introduction and promotion of Open University and distance education system in the Country.  Major objectives include widening of access to higher education.  During 2005 the University offered 101 programmes and the total number of students registered for various programmes reached over 3,60,000. Its Students 'Supports Services consist of 48 Regional Centres, six Sub Regional Centres and 1200 Study Centres.  IGNOU programmes telecast on National Channel (DD-1) in the morning slot and Gyan Darshan, exclusive education channel.  At present, the University has bouquet of  six digital channels of Gyan Darshan,  Under the Gyan Vani FM Radio initiative, the University has set up 17 Radio Stations.  Today IGNOU has set up its study centres and has entered into collaboration with educational institutions in 35 countries. 


Distance Education Council (DEC) under IGNOU has the responsibility for coordination and maintenance of standards in open and distance education system in the country.


For further details visit IGNOU Home page http:/


Aligarh Muslim University


Established in 1920 as a fully residential Central University.  It has 102 Departments/Institutions/Centers/units grouped under 12 faculties.  It also maintains four Hospitals, six Colleges  (including Medical, Dental and Engineering Colleges), two Polytechnics and eight Schools.   Offers six diploma-level vocational courses exclusively for women. 19,703 students (excluding its secondary schools' strength) drawn from 25 States of the country are on its rolls.  Strength of the teaching staff  is 1,457 and that of non-teaching staff is 5,899.


Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi


Came into existence in 1916 as a teaching and residential University.  It consists of three Institutions – Institute of Medical Sciences, Institute of Technology and Institute of Agrecultural Sciences. It has faculties with 121 academic departments and 4 Inter-diciplinary schools. It maintains a constituent Mahila Mahavidyalaya and three School level institutions.  1000-Bedded Modern/Ayurvedic Medicine Hospital. It has    14, 812 students in the rolls. Teaching staff 1,162 and non-teaching 7,088.


University of Hyderabad


Established in 1974 as one of the premier Central Universities which has been identified as a 'University with Potential for Excellence' by the University Grants Commission.  The University was established for post graduate teaching and research 22km from the city of Hyderabad on the Old Hyderabad – Bombay road.  It has a City Campus – The Golden Threshold- the residence of the late Smt. Sarojini Naidu The University has Eight Schools of Studies and a Centre for Distance Education offering post-graduate diploma in five disciplines. The student strength of the University during the year 2003-04 was 2477 out of which 51 per cent are research students pursuing PhD and M.Phil/M.Tech  Programmes in various disciplines.   For further details visit University of Hyderabad Home page


Visva Bharati


An educational institution founded by late Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore in 1921 was declared in 1951, by an Act of Parliament, as an institution of national importance to provide for its functioning as a unitary, teaching and residential University.  Its jurisdiction is restricted to the area known as Santiniketan in the district Birbhum, West Bengal.  It imparts education from the Primary School level to Post-graduate and Doctorate levels.   It has twelve institutes – eight at Santiniketan, three at Sriniketan and one at Kolkata.. It has on its rolls a total of 6,227 students, including its Schools' strength.  The total strength of teaching and non-teaching staff is 550 and 1,400 respectively.   Admission is on the basis of merit adjudged through Admission Test.


Palli Samgathana Vibhaga, originally established by Gurudev Tagore in Sriniketan in 1922 with the primary objective to bring about regeneration of village life through self-reliance in the village around Santiniketan and Sriniketan, is now one of the Institutes of the University with four Departments – Rural Extension Centre, Silpa Sadana (a pioneering institute in India in developing cottage and small scale industries), Department of Social Work and Palli Charcha Kendra (offering a Ph.D. programme and two PG level courses – in Anthropology and Rural Development – apart from conducting research on various aspects of the life of the rural people).


North Eastern Hill University


Established in 1973 at Shillong by an Act of Parliament with the object to disseminate and advance knowledge  by providing instructional and research facilities in various branches of learning and also to pay  special attention to the improvement of the social and economic conditions and welfare of the people of the hilly areas . The University has its jurisdiction over the State of Meghalaya and has a Campus at Tura.  The NEHU presently has 24 academic departments and four centers of studies under six schools. There are 58 under graduate colleges and 8 professional colleges affiliated to the University. The number of students studying for their Master's Degrees and research students working for their M.Phil and PhD degrees is close to 1700. The faculty strength of the University is over 300. The undergraduate colleges affiliated to the University enroll about 19,500 students For further details write e,mail to the Registrar, NEHU in E.mail address


Pondicherry University, Pondicherry


Established by an Act of Parliament in 1985 as a teaching-cum-affiliating university with its jurisdiction over the Union Territories of Pondicherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.  It has 8 Schools, 24 Departments and 9 Centres, and it offers Certificate Course in one discipline, Post-graduate programme in 26 disciplines, M.Tech. in one discipline, M. Phil programme in 23 disciplines, Ph.D. programme in 26 disciplines and PG Diploma programme in 6 disciplines.  The University has 41 affiliated institutions of which 27 are located in Pondicherry, 5 in Karaikal, 2 in Mahe, 2 in Yanam and 5 in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.  Total students strength in these institutions is 21034.  Students enrolment in the University is 1538, out of which 312 students belong to SC/ST and women students are 536.  University has a faculty strength of 136 teachers and 523 non-teaching staff.  35 Research Scholars have registered for the Ph.D. programme. 68 sponsored Research Projects of topical relevance are in progress.


Nagaland University


It was established in 1994 as a teaching-cum-affiliating University with Head quarters at Lumami, Nagaland with the objective to disseminate and advance knowledge  by providing instructional and research facilities  and to make provision for various integrated courses, innovations in teaching-learning process and to pay special attention to the improvement of social and economic conditions and welfare of the people of Nagaland,  their intellectual, academic and cultural development.  The University has jurisdiction over the whole of the State of Nagaland  and has 25 Departments and 4 Schools of studies with  47 colleges affiliated to it.  The University has campuses in Kohima, Lumami and Medziphema (School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development- SASRD).     Faculty strength of the University is 109 and Students enrollment is 18,078. For further details may contact E.mail address


Tezpur University


A non-affliliating unitary Central University set up in 1994 under an Act of Parliament.  Its aim is to offer employment-oriented and inter-disciplinary courses, mostly at post-graduate level.  The University  has 12 Departments under 4 Schools of studies and 6 centres of Studies with 79 faculty members and Students enrollment of 648 or further details may contact e.mail address


Assam University


Established as a teaching-cum-affiliating University on 21.1.1994 with the objective to disseminate and advance knowledge by providing  instructional and research facilities in various branches,  to take appropriate measures for promotion of inter-disciplinary studies  and research in the University and also to pay special attention to the improvement of the social and economic conditions and welfare of the people of the State.   The University has its  jurisdiction over the districts of Cachar, Karimganj, Karbi, Anglong and Hailakandi in the State of Assam and  has 53 affiliated colleges with 24 Departments under 8 Schools of studies and 3 Centres of studies.  Total number of teachers is 101 and students on the rolls, including those in affiliated colleges, are 18,078.

For further details may contact:


Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Viswavidyalaya, Wardha.


Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalaya was set up during the year 1997 by an Act of Parliament with its headquarter at Wardha to promote and develop Hindi language and literature in general. The University started functioning as a camp office in a rented house at New Delhi. The University was shifted from its camp office to its headquarter at Wardha in December, 2003.


The teaching activities of the University started with two courses in the academic session 2002-03. Presently the University is running five MA courses and two M.Phil courses. For further details may contact e.mail address


Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow


Established as a State University in 1994 at Lucknow, it was notified as a Central University on 10th January 1996.  It aims to provide instructional and research facilities in new and frontier areas of learning.  It has 5 Schools comprising 8 Departments viz. (1) School of Ambedkar Studies, (2) School of Biosciences and Bio-technology, (3) School of Environmental Sciences, (4) School of Information Science and Technology, (5) School of Legal Studies.  Total enrolment of students is 255, including 35 Ph.D. scholars, during the year 2004-05 out of which 95 (i.e. 37.25 percent) belong to the SC/ST category.


Mizoram University


The Mizoram University, with its headquaters at Aizawl, was established as a teching and affiliating university with effect from the 2nd July, 2001.


The academic activites of the University are presently carried out through its sixteen teaching departments and one constituent college.  The total number of students enrolled in these departments and the constituent college is 1,187 and the teaching and non-teaching staff during the year 2004-2005 was 124 and 234 respectively. Besides, the University has 28 affiliated colleges located in the State of Mizoram.  The number of students studying in these affiliated colleges is 5,579.


Maulana Azad National Urdu University, Hyderabad


The aim of Maulana Azad National Urdu University is to promote and develop Urdu language and to impart vocational and technical education in Urdu medium through conventional and distance education system. The University was established in 1997 by an Act of Parliament. Its Administrative head quarters has been set up at Hyderabad and has five Regional Centres at Delhi, Patna, Bangalore, Bhopal and Dharbhanga. The University has so far established 84 Study Centres spread over in 14 States of the Country.


National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC)


National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) is an autonomous institutions  established by the University Grants Commission in 1994 NAAC's responsibility is to assess and accredit institutions of higher education that volunteer for the process, based on prescribed certain criteria. NAAC's process of assessment and accreditation involves the preparation of a self -study report by the institution, its validation by the peers and final decision by the Council. 122 universities and 2486  colleges/ institutions have been accredited by NAAC so far.  For further details may  see NAAC Website:


Fake Universities/institutions


According to the University Grants Commission Act 1956, the right of conferring or granting degrees shall be exercised only by a University established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, or a State Act, or an Institution deemed to be University or an institution specially empowered by an Act of the Parliament to confer or grant degrees. Thus, any institution which has not been created by an enactment of Parliament or a State Legislature or has not been granted the status of a Deemed to be University, is not entitled to award a degree.


The Act also provides that no institution, other than a University, established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, or a State Act shall be entitled to have the word 'University' associated with its name in any manner whatsoever. Under the Act, the contravention of its provision are punishable with fine. Apart from the fine prescribed, any attempt to cheat the public by offering unauthorized degrees by ineligible institutions would also attract the appropriate provisions of the criminal laws.


To curb the functioning of the Fake Universities/Institutions and, to create awareness amongst the public and the students alike, the UGC issues Press Releases, at the beginning of each academic session, advising  aspiring students not to pursue higher education courses with such institutions.  It is emphasized that these fake institutions have no legal entity to call themselves as University/Vishwvidyalaya  and to award 'degree' which are not treated as valid  for academic/employment purposes. A list of fake Universities/Institutions identified by University Grants Commission is as under:-



1    Maithili University/Vishwavidyalaya, Darbhanga, Bihar.



2    Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya, Varanasi (UP) Jagatpuri, Delhi.

3    Commercial University Ltd. Daryaganj, Delhi.

4    United Nations University, Delhi.

5    Vocational University, Delhi.

6    Delhi Vishwa Vidyapeeth, 233 Tagore Park, Model Town,   Delhi – 110 009.

7    ADR-Centric Juridical University, ADR House, 8J, Gopala Tower, 25

      Rajendra Place, New Delhi 110 008



8    Badaganvi Sarkar World Open University Education Society, Gokak, Belgaum (Karnataka)

9.    Handwriting University India, No. 16 Church Road, Basavangudi,  Bangalore -  560 004.


10.  St. John's University, Kishanttam, Kerala.


Madhya Pradesh

11  Kesarwani Vidyapeeth, Jabalpur (MP)



      12  Raja Arabic University, Nagpur.


Tamil Nadu

13  D.D.B Sanskrit University, Putur, Trichi, Tamil Nadu.


Uttar Pradesh 

14  Mahila Gram Vidyapith/Vishwavidyalaya, (Woman's University) Prayag,

15  Indian Education Council of U.P. Lucknow (UP)

16  Gandhi Hindi Vidyapith, Prayag, Allahabad (UP)

17  National University of Electro Complex Homeopathy, Kanpur.

18  Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose University (Open University) Achaltal, Aligarh (UP) 

19.  Uttar Pradesh Vishwavidyalaya, Kosi Kalan, Mathura (UP)

20. Maharana Partap Shiksha Niketan Vishwavidyalaya, Pratapgarh (UP)


Open University System


The advances in information and communication technology provide great opportunities to enhance teaching and learning in higher education by both on-campus and distance education. Even disabled students who are denied access to traditional institutions, and all those who require updating of their knowledge and life-long education can now be benefited by the modern facilities of communication. They also provide increased access to information sources and facilitate communication among researchers and teachers and the building of networks of institutions and scholars.


Through the open universities and distance learning initiatives, mechanisms are in place to upgrade skills at regular intervals and develop new competencies. People's needs of lifelong learning are constantly expanding. Higher education institutions are offering learning opportunities to satisfy these diverse demands. Ready access and flexibility are the hallmarks of these initiatives.


The Open University System was initiated in the country to augment opportunities for higher education as an instrument of democratising education and also to make it a lifelong process. The first open university in the country was established by the state government of Andhra Pradesh in 1982. In 1985, the central government established the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU).


Indian Gandhi National Open University


The IGNOU designed, developed and delivered high quality academic programmes in the Humanities, Sciences and Social Sciences as well as in professional areas like Computer Applications, Education, Engineering, Management, Nursing and Tourism. The University has currently -101 programmes comprising  900 courses to offer. Most of the University's programmes are structured on modular pattern, leading to the award of certificates, diplomas and degrees.


The enrolment in the university has been rising rapidly. From less than 4,000 students in 1987, the enrolment rose to over 1,60,000 in 1998 and is currently about 13,11,145 The University has a vastly heterogeneous student body: demo-graphically diverse (age, gender, region, social background, etc.); educationally  dis-advantaged (most of them without the traditional qualifications for entering into higher education and who have had no other opportunities to make up for the lost time); and economically weak (large majority belonging to low and lower middle income groups). Most of these students are in the lower rungs of their career looking for opportunities to improve their qualifications, professional competence and/or in acquiring new skills.


The University has demonstrated that modern communication technologies can be effectively harnessed in providing access to educational opportunities and that high technology need not necessarily be a high cost medium. The University has, at its inception, set up Audio-Video production facilities with the generous support provided by the Governments of UK and Japan. These facilities were substantially augmented with a major grant given by the Government of Japan. The current Electronic Media Production Centre is a state-of-the-art technological facility that significantly enriches the university's learning packages. The media packages of the university are transmitted on the nation-wide television network as well as through selected radio stations. A dedicated, satellite-based teleconferencing network is being developed on an experimental basis in cooperation with the Indian Space Research Organisation for providing interactive teaching- learning support to distance education programmes offered by open universities in India.


EDUSAT the first Indian satellite built exclusively for serving the educational sector. is a collaborative project of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Indira Gandhi National Open University(IGNOU), Department of Space Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). It is mainly intended to meet the demand for an interactive satellite based distance education system for the country. It strongly reflects India's commitment to use space technology for national development, especially for the development of the population in remote and rural locations.


For the delivery of various services to its students, the IGNOU has developed a nation-wide network of 48 Regional Centres 6 Sub-Regional Centres and over 1,271 Study Centres, all over India.The Study Centres and Work Centres are located generally with existing educational or training institutions who have made their facilities and services available to the IGNOU students.


Distance Education Council (DEC)


The IGNOU is also a national level apex body for distance education. Distance Education Council has been established as a statutory authority under the IGNOU Act. The DEC is responsible for promotion, coordination and maintenance of standards of open and distance education system in the country.


The apex body role envisages the establishment and development of an Open University Network by sharing the intellectual and physical resources within the distance education system among different institutions and enriching the system by extending its outreach, on the one hand, and ensuring the quality standards of its programmes of education and training, on the other. In discharging its responsibility, the Distance Education Council also provides development funding to open universities and distance education institutions from the funds placed at its disposal by the Central Government. The DEC has been supporting all the State Open Universities (SOUs) since eighth plan and Distance Education Institutions (DEIs) of conventional universities since ninth plan.


Presently, there is one National Open University (IGNOU), eleven (SOUs) and a number of DEIs in different states. 


Open University Network


The Distance Education Council (DEC) has taken several initiatives to develop the Open University Network. The programmes developed and produced by IGNOU are extensively used by the State Open Universities in the country. Efforts have also been made to evolve common standards for the products as well as processes (programme structure, credits, examination, grading, etc.) to facilitate student mobility across programmes as well as institutions through systems of credit transfer. Steps have also been initiated of credit transfer. Steps have also been initiated to frame norms and standards for the design, development and delivery of programmes in specific fields and to ensure their quality.


Cost Effectiveness and Pertinence


The Open University programmes have proved to be highly cost-effective. The current indications are that their cost   is much lower than  the cost normally incurred by the traditional system on comparable programmes. The open universities  arrive at lower costs  through economies of scale since a part of its fixed cost will get distributed over a larger number of students.


The open universities in the country have generally developed their programmes and courses with a view to ensure that they are relevant to the economic and employment needs. Most of their programmes are very different from those offered by the traditional universities. They are designed and developed in several modules to assist the potential students to choose such modules. as they perceive, are relevant to their needs. On their part, the universities have also sought to diversify their course provisions and developed high quality multi-media open learning curriculum designed to meet the academic, technical and vocational needs of diverse student groups. A notable feature of these programmes especially those in the technical, vocational and professional areas is the close linkages with the industry and other employer groups, not only in designing and preparing the learning packages, but also in the delivery of various services to the students at the work place.


The open university programmes offered by IGNOU have received international attention and recognition.

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U N I V E R S I T Y    G R A N T S   C O M M I S S I O N   ( U G C )


The Government established university Grants Commission (UGC) by an Act of Parliament in 1956. It discharges the Constitutional mandate of coordination, determination, and maintenance of standards of teaching, examination and research in the field of University and Higher Education. UGC serves as a vital link between the Union and State Governments and the institutions of higher learning. It monitors developments in the field of collegiate and university education; disburses grants to the universities and colleges; advises Central and State Governments on the measures necessary for the improvement of university education; and frames regulations such as those on the minimum standards of instruction



The Commission comprises the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and ten other members appointed by the Central Government. The Chairperson is selected from among persons who are not officers of the Central Government or any State Government. Of the ten members, two are from amongst the officers of the Central Government to represent it. Not less than four, selected from among persons who are, at the time they are selected, shall be a teacher in the Universities. Others are selected from among eminent educationists, academics and experts in various fields.
Chairperson is appointed for a term of 5 years or until the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier. Vice-Chairperson is appointed for a term of 3 years or until the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier. The other members are appointed for a term of 3 years. The Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and members can be appointed for a maximum of two terms.


Present composition


  1. Dr. Arun Nigavekar - Chairperson, UGC 
  2. Prof. V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai, - Vice-Chairperson
  3. Shri Sudeep Banerjee – Secretary (S&HE)
  4. Dr. Adarsh Kishore, - Secretary (Expenditure)
  5. Dr. S.K. Joshi, Chairman, Recruitment & Assessment Centre, DRDO, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi.
  6. Prof. Sureshwar Sharma, Vice-Chancellor, Rani Durgavati Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur.  
  7. Prof. B.H. Briz Kishore, Chairman, National Council of Rural Institutes.  
  8. Prof. Suranjan Das, Deptt. of History, University of Calcutta.
  9. Dr.Sivaji Rao Shripat Rao Kadam, Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune.
  10. Dr. P.N. Tandon, Ex. Prof., AIIMS, New Delhi
  11. Dr. Aruna Goel, Professor of Sanskrit, Panjab University, Chandigarh.
  12. Position of one member - vacant




          UGC has no funds of its own. It receives both Plan and Non-Plan grants from the Central Government to carry out the responsibilities assigned to it  by law. It allocates and disburses full maintenance and development grants to all Central Universities, Colleges affiliated to Delhi and Banaras Hindu Universities and some of the institutions accorded the status of 'Deemed to be Universities'. State Universities, Colleges and other institutions of higher education, receive support only from the Plan grant for development schemes. Besides, it provides financial assistance to Universities and colleges under various schemes/programmes for promoting relevance, quality and excellence as also promoting the role of social change by the Universities.

The details of the grants provided by the Government to UGC during the IX Plan and X Plan both under Plan and Non-Plan, are as under:


IX Plan

(Rs. In crores)




1997 – 1998



1998 – 1999


1009. 00

1999 – 2000









X Plan 















(upto 31.8.05)


(upto 31.8.05)


Institutions of Higher Education & Their Growth, Enrolment and Faculty

As on 31.3.2005, there were 342 Universities including 18 Central Universities, 211 State Universities, 95 deemed Universities and 5 institutions established under State Legislation and 13 Institutes of National Importance. There were 17625 colleges, of which 5386 have been recognized by the UGC under Section 2(f) and 12(B) of the UGC Act.


In 2004-05, an estimated 104.81 lakh students were enrolled in the institutions of Higher Education as against 99.54 lakh in the previous year and the faculty strength was 4.71 lakh as compared to 4.57 lakh in the previous year.


Regional Offices:


Name of Regional Office


Southern Eastern Regional Office, Hyderabad

Andhra Pradesh, Pondicherry, Andaman & Nicobar and Tamil Nadu

Central Regional Office, Bhopal

Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan

Eastern Regional Office, Kolkata

West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and

North Eastern Regional Office, Guwahati

Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura and

Western Regional Office, Pune

Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Dadar & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu

South-Western Regional Office, Bangalore

Kerala, Karnataka and Lakshdweep

Northern Regional College Bureau, Delhi

Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Chandigarh, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh


Inter University Centres (IUCs)


          Under Section 12 (ccc) of the UGC Act, the Commission has established the following Inter – University Centres to provide common facilities, service and programmes to Universities since heavy investment in infrastructure and inputs have made it beyond the reach of individual Universities to obtain these facilities




Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi 

                      Accelerator oriented research

IUC for Astronomy an Astrophysics, Pune

State-of-the-art instrumentation for

Inter – University Consortium for DAE facilities, Indore 

Use of facilities of Department of Atomic Energy

Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Ahmedabad 

Networking of libraries through electronic media

Consortium for Educational Communication (CEC) New Delhi 

To disseminate Countrywide programme through television

National Assessment & Accreditation Council (NACC) Bangalore 

To assess and accredit public & Private institutions of higher learning


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India and the Knowledge Economy


The Skills and Innovation Policy (SIP) program's interactions with top Indian policymakers interested in knowledge economy issues date back to 2001 when it organized a very successful high level forum for policymakers and representatives of the private sector and civil society from Brazil, China and India. A comprehensive report on India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities followed in 2005. The program is currently working with the World Bank's India country team on issues of enhancing the environment for innovation and fostering Diaspora networks.




arrowPromoting Inclusive Innovation in India. Anuja Utz and Carl Dahlman. October 2007.

arrowIndia and the Knowledge Economy - The road to a best selling World Bank report. An article about the publication of a best-selling report, India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities.


arrowDiaspora Networks and the International Migration of Skills: How Countries Can Draw on their Talent Abroad. The book offers a chapter on Indian Diaspora. June 2006.


arrowIndia and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities. The book makes key policy recommendations to increase India's competitiveness in the global economy, boost economic productivity and growth, and help reduce poverty. June 2005.


arrowPreliminary Benchmarking KE Assessments: India. Presentation by Carl Dahlman and Anuja Utz, November 2004. (PDF, 1.6Mb)


arrowIndia's Transformation to Knowledge-Based Economy – Evolving Role of the Indian Diaspora. The key objectives of this paper are to analyze the increasingly important role of the successful Indian Diaspora in facilitating growth and improving process management within the knowledge intensive industries in India. July 2004. (PDF, 84Kb)


Learning Events


bullet point for eventsGovernance of Technical and Engineering Education in India - Pilot Learning Forum. Hyderabad, India, September 23-26, 2009. New!


bullet point for eventsForum on Governance of Higher Education in India: How Best to Strike the Balance between Autonomy and Accountability? India, July 9-10, 2008.


arrowGlobal Workshop on Migration of Talent and Diasporas of the Highly Skilled.The workshop focused on the design of public policies to leverage expatriate skills abroad for the benefit of the countries of origin. April 2005.


arrowGlobal Innovation Policy Dialogue: India and China. The event was designed to discuss issues related to the promotion of innovation in developing economies. April 2005.


arrowWorkshop on India and the Knowledge Economy. The main aim of the workshop was to have a broad discussion with a wide range of stakeholders from government and the private sector on how Indiacan leverage its potential to further compete in the global knowledge economy. November 2004.


arrowK4D Policy forum for Brazil, China, and India. A policy forum for high level policymakers and representatives from the private sector and civil society. March 2001.


All Available Downloads


Did not find what you are looking for? The search engine below provides access to all the downloadable SIP resources relevant to India's strive towards knowledge economy, big and small – books, reports, policy notes and presentations. 


kam chart smallUse an interactive database - the Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM), to benchmark India's position in the global knowledge economy.

WBI Learning Programs » Knowledge for Development

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Governance of Technical and Engineering Education in India State Case Studies: Andhra Pradesh
Author(s): N/A   © The World Bank more

Presentations Accountability and Autonomy in Engineering Education: What is working ?
Knowledge for Development
Author(s): Brig. S.S. Pabla   © The World Bank more

Presentations Quality Dimensions for Excellence: Case Study of NIT Tiruchirappalli
Knowledge for Development
Author(s): M. Chida   © The World Bank more

Presentations Assessment of Higher Education Performance: International Trends and Examples
Assessment of Higher Education Performance: International Trends and Examples
Author(s): Kurt Larsen   © The World Bank more

Presentations Institutional Leadership for Transformation
This presentation suggests the range of institutional leadership options open to countries. Understanding these options and the strengths and weaknesses ... more

Presentations Towards a Joined-Up Government
presentation for videoconference on Public Sector Transformation Towards Citizen-Centric Joined-up Government: Lessons Learned from UK and India
Author(s): J Satyanarayana ... more

Presentations The Role of CIOs and e-Champions in the Public Sector
The Role of CIOs and e-Champions in the Public Sector Presentation to Information and Communication Technologies Agency of Sri Lanka ... more

Presentations Building e-Government Leadership in India: Key Issues and Perspectives
E-Governance will be promoted on a massive scale.Understand their goals Package e-governance suitably Make them understand their role in making ... more

Presentations India's Diversification from IT and Emergence as a Global Leader in Knowledge Intensive Industries – Issues at Stake and Challenges. Part 5.
Event: Global Innovation Policy Dialogue: India and China.
Author(s): Anil Gupta   © Indian Institute of Management more

Presentations India's Diversification from IT and Emergence as a Global Leader in Knowledge Intensive Industries – Issues at Stake and Challenges. Part 4.
Event: Global Innovation Policy Dialogue: India and China.
Author(s): Anil Gupta   © Indian Institute of Management more

Presentations India's Diversification from IT and Emergence as a Global Leader in Knowledge Intensive Industries – Issues at Stake and Challenges. Part 3.
Event: Global Innovation Policy Dialogue: India and China.
Author(s): Anil Gupta   © Indian Institute of Management more

Presentations India's Diversification from IT and Emergence as a Global Leader in Knowledge Intensive Industries – Issues at Stake and Challenges. Part 2.
Event: Global Innovation Policy Dialogue: India and China.
Author(s): Anil Gupta   © Indian Institute of Management more

Presentations India's Diversification from IT and Emergence as a Global Leader in Knowledge Intensive Industries – Issues at Stake and Challenges. Part 1.
Event: Global Innovation Policy Dialogue: India and China.
Author(s): Anil Gupta   © Indian Institute of Management more

Articles & Papers India's Transformation to Knowledge-Based Economy – Evolving Role of the Indian Diaspora.
Global Workshop on Migration of Talent and Diasporas of the Highly Skilled
Author(s): Abhishek Pandey, Richard Devane and Yevgeny Kuznetsov, Alok ... more

Articles & Papers India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities.
book overview
Author(s): Carl Dahlman and Anuja Utz.   © world bank more

Presentations Scotland's Experience of Building a Diaspora Network.
Learning Event: From Brain Drain to Brain Gain: 'How to' of Mobilization of Diasporas of Highly Skilled.
Author(s): Mairi MacRae   ... more

Presentations India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities
Structure of presentation:
India in Long Term Context
Why Focus on Knowledge Strategies?
Benchmarking India on the Four Pillars of the
Knowledge Economy
Key ... more

Articles & Papers India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities
One of the world's largest economies, India has made tremendous strides in its economic and
social development in the past two ... more

Presentations India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities
This presentation focuses on: India in Long Term Context; Why Focus on Knowledge Strategies; Benchmarking India on the Four Pillars ... more


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