Realpolitik washes the opportunity and the geopolitics fight over imaginary lines.LOC clashes have to continue in the best interest of the hegemony and the global order.
The Indo Sino Border issue is predestined to remain the Himalayan Blunder.Latest victims seem to be China's President Xi Jinping and Indian Prime minister Narendra Bhai Modi in Gujarati mode.
It is not about marketing some brand equity,not even a passionate incarnation of Hindutva multidimensional,not even a address to the nation highly loaded with vote bank equation.
Hence,Realpolitik washes the opportunity and the geopolitics fight over imaginary lines.LOC clashes have to continue in the best interest of the hegemony and the global order.Thus, a standoff between Indian and Chinese soldiers overshadowed a visit to New Delhi by China's President Xi Jinping on Thursday, with a $20 billion investment pledge eclipsed by robust comments from Prime Minister Narendra Modi about the dispute.
Since Pdt.Jawahar Lal Nehru,the first prime minister of India,committed the Himalayan blunder to take the imaginary British Mcmohan line as line of control which it never had been,Indian Realpoltic dare not to get rid of the default as the blind nationalism would never get pragmatic.
The Indo Sino Border issue is predestined to remain the Himalayn Blunder.Latest victims seem to be China's President Xi Jinping and Indian Prime minister Narendra Bhai Modi in Gujarati mode.
It needs pragmatic diplomacy to seek escape route for the bleeding people across the political borders to dismiss outsider interests.It needs vision and an objective as well to settle a default dispute unwanted.Political bias and blind nationalism would noty settle the issue.
For example,Indo Nepal border is also on turmoil so happens the border with Bhutan.But we blindly ignore and have very normal relationship with these nations.We happen to be so friendly despite of all kinds of disputes.
For example,India has many more problems with Sri Lanka in comparison to China.
For Example,the corridors across the Indo Bangla border exist since partition.We have very serious and continuous problem of refugee influx from Bangladesh.Not only this,BSF Bangladesh rifles calash everyday.We have always been ignorant.
We have a Kashmir in between India and Pakistan.
Of course,we had a Sikkim and Ladakh between India and China.
India has recognised Ladakh as part of China and China has also recognised the reality of Sikkim on Indian Map.
Crossing the imaginary line has been hyped as Border clashes,Claims and counterclaims are nothing new anywhere in the world.Even the states within a country claims the land from another state and it does not mean separation.
The world order has highest ever stakes of Indo Sino relations.
India or China may not afford a war in the best interest of emerging economy.Sustenance of growth demand peace and the history,if you delete whatever happened in 1962,also demands peace.
But Indian media and highly partisan intelligentsia would never allow any Prime Minister to take a pragmatic initiative to resolve the border issue.
The political border between India is geopolitically unique.You may not get the Himalayas as your LOC nowhere in the world.It is not even the Alps which melts,slides,deletes itself with weather climate changes so often.It is no river in between to decide the border line.It is no ocean in between.It is no definite well marked line whatsoever
The McMahon Line is a line agreed to by Britain and Tibet as part of the Simla Accord, a treaty signed in 1914. It is the effective boundary between China and ..
The western portion of the Line of Actual Control, which lies between ... Nehru that the LAC consisted of "the so-called McMahon Line in the east and the line up ...
Himalayan Blunder was an extremely controversial war memoir penned by Brigadier John Dalvi. It dealt with the causes, consequences and aftermath of the ...
India's discomfort stemmed from the fact that it believed the loss of Tibetan independence robbed New Delhi off an important buffer in the Himalayas. But Beijing ...
Rating: 4.5 - 164 votes - Rs. 340.00
First published in the year 1968, Himalayan Blunder: The Angry Truth About India's Most Crushing Military Disaster is a book that documents the causes and
The Sino-Indian War (Hindi: भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict (simplified Chinese: 中印边境战争; ...
Jump to Sino-Indian War - . Main article: Sino-Indian War. 1962 Border disputes resulted in a short border war between the People's Republic ...
The Sino-Indian War was fought between India and China .... Main articles: Sino-Indian relations and Sino-Indian border dispute. The cause of the war was a ...
Aug 23, 2013 - By Lan Jianxue. Noticeable progress has been made in Sino-Indian relations in recent years which are entering a new period of all-round ...
Media reports:Modi and Xi emerged from a long meeting to address a news conference shortly after officials confirmed that the soldiers had pulled back from their positions in a barren area of the Ladakh claimed by both nations.
"I raised our serious concern over repeated incidents along the border," said a stern-sounding Modi, who was elected in May partly on promises to build a more assertive India.
"There should be peace in our relations and in the borders. If this happens we can realise true potential of our relations," he said, with Xi sitting to his right.
Dozens of soldiers from both sides had faced off on the Ladakh plateau for over a week in a dispute about infrastructure works near the de facto border, where the two countries fought a brief war in 1962.
Raising hopes for a renewed push to resolve their territorial differences, Modi called for an early border settlement with China. The two sides have held 17 rounds of border talks since the early 1990s without making significant progress. Modi has not assigned a special envoy to restart the talks since he took office in May.
"We have to address the boundary question very soon," Modi said, urging "clarification" of the Line of Actual Control - the front line where fighting ended in the 1962 war.
In his speech at the same event, Xi played down the tensions and agreed with Modi that they should work to settle the border question at an early date, reiterating language China has used in the past.
"Sometimes there might be certain incidents, but the two sides are fully capable of acting promptly to effectively manage the situation," he said.
Watch: Chinese civilians intrude in Ladakh
Despite the tension, the two sides were able to agree on investments aimed at significantly upgrading their commercial relationship, with China pledging $20 billion for industrial parks and infrastructure including railway technology.
They agreed to begin talks on cooperating in the nuclear power industry and Xi said China would support India becoming a full member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation - a regional security body whose largest members are China and Russia.
Modi is keen on Chinese investment to help balance $65 billion in annual trade that is heavily tilted in China's favour. Xi promised more access for India's pharmaceutical, farming and fuel products to China.
M.D. Nalapat, who heads the department of geopolitics at Manipal University, said India's new government saw that working with China was 90 percent upside, and should not be undermined by the two countries' differences.
"Modi is looking at an opportunity, and will not sacrifice it because of the 10 percent threat," Nalapat said in an article written for the Gateway House think tank.
"China needs India – as a market, as a source of trained manpower, and as a friendly neighbour. I believe that Xi has the ability to break through the negativism about India."
Another irritant for China is the presence in India of exiled Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama, who has lived in the north of the country since fleeing a failed uprising against Chinese rule of his homeland in 1959. A government of exiled Tibetans and tens of thousands of refugees are also based in India.
In one sign that India wanted the Xi visit to be a success, New Delhi asked the Dalai Lama, whom Beijing labels a dangerous separatist seeking an independent Tibet, to reschedule an event in the capital so that it would not clash with the Chinese president's trip.
About 20 supporters of a free Tibet, mainly women, protested within a few metres of the building in New Delhi where Modi and Xi were holding talks, waving Tibetan flags and shouting "We want justice." Police detained them after a few minutes.
Several other small pro-Tibet protests broke out across the city.
Sep 19 2014 : The Economic Times (Kolkata)
Folk Theorem - China, India Should Settle British-Created Dispute
As today's rising Asian powers there is no point in two countries disputing a border, when none of them had a hand or say in creating it
India became independent from British rule in 1947. At the time and for two years afterwards China was engaged in a fierce internal struggle for control of power. From the late 1930s, as the authority of the last emperor waned and the Japanese drifted off to other global goals, the armies of Mao and Chiang Kai Shek squared off in an epic struggle to wrest control over this vast country .
World War II was a mere punctuation mark in this struggle, but by 1949, Chiang's forces had fled south some to remote parts of India and Burma, the rest to what is now Taiwan, to carve out an existence in exile. Henceforth, Mao and the communists ruled from the Forbidden City .
So, who determined the borders of India and China, borders that we squabble over to this day? There's that poem by W H Auden called `Partition' which is ruthlessly sarcastic of the way Sir Cyril Radcliffe, a British lawyer parachuted into India, set tled the borders of the soon-to-be independent nation over seven weeks in 1945.But apart from creating independent India and Pakistan, Radcliffe also drew our border with China.
As Auden points out, the maps he worked with were outdated or geographically inaccurate in some places. In any case, with China in complete turmoil, no colonial administrator ever bothered to ask Peking where its borders with India should lie.
The way India's border with China was drawn was a complete hotchpotch. In 1914 the British got Tibetans and Chinese to agree to their idea of a definition of the borders of China and Tibet, in a meeting at the hill station of Shimla. The British and the Tibetans signed on it, the Chinese representative said he'd come back later with permission from the emperor. And there things stood, till the 1940s.
After WWII with the world turned upside down and the British in a hurry to leave India, they consulted old maps and records including ones which imperial China had not signed on, to arbitrarily draw the boundaries of India and China.
Independent India went along with this fiction till 1962, when China attacked along two fronts. It later retreated from Arunachal Pradesh in our northeast, but retained the northwestern part of Jammu and Kashmir, which they needed to build a road network to Xinjiang. This is a matter of fact and no amount of propaganda, put out by the government in New Delhi, will alter this.
China is not interested in our northeast.And it will not cede what we list euphemistically as Aksai Chin on our sarkari maps. The situation on the ground is frozen at this: it is best that Delhi and Beijing acknowledge this and sign this reality into official papers. In the 1980s, Rajiv Gandhi realised this and started the process of settling our so-called border disputes.This government should conclude it.
There is no point in two nations disputing a border, when none of them had a hand or say in creating it. The British left us with boundaries that they drew arbitrarily and according to the whimsies of empire builders. Neither India nor China were independent then; we were being torn apart by the stress of Partition, China by its civil war.
Today , as rising Asian powers, we need to sit calmly across a table and draw up the India-China border amicably , according to the reality on the ground. After that, there will be no border disputes, no reason for TV news to go ballistic about incursions and every reason to trade and invest in each others' economy .
Sep 19 2014 : The Economic Times (Kolkata)
Another Route to Kailash Via Sikkim
As Prime Minister Narendra Modi thanked Chinese President Xi Jinping, "on behalf of the people of India," for opening a new route through Nathu-La to Kailash Mansarovar, he also fulfilled a promise he had made to the people of Gujarat as the Chief Minister of the state.
Largest number of pilgrims making the arduous journey to the abode of Lord Shi va is from Gujarat.
Seen as a major diplomatic gain for India, opening of the alternate route through Sikkim had been its long standing demand. The gesture by the Chinese President also reflected the special bonding between Modi and him. Modi had raised the issue of opening the additional route via Sikkim with President Xi in July when the two had met in Brazil ahead of the BRICS summit.
The Chinese President had given an assurance to consider the request. Opening of the new route, in addition to the existing one through Uttarakhand, will make the journey safer for hundreds of pilgrims, who brave adverse weather conditions and threat of landslides, every year. Like Modi said in a statement after holding the bilateral talks with the visiting dignitary -"The new route offers many benefits. It makes Kailash Mansarovar accessible by a motorable road, which is especially beneficial to the older pilgrims. It offers a safer alternative in the rainy season."
Sep 19 2014 : The Economic Times (Kolkata)
Arunachal's Rijiju not Invited for Talks, Dinner
Aman Sharma & Urmi A Goswami
POSSIBLE REASON Keeping Rijiju away may be because India might not like to ruffle Chinese feathers over its sensitivities over Arunachal Pradesh
The conspicuous absence of Kiren Rijiju, the Minister of State for Home and the Member of Parliament from Arunachal Pradesh, from the delegation-level talks and state banquet hosted by the President for his Chinese counterpart was the only jarring note in the strong message given to China by India on Thursday.
With Home Minister Rajnath Singh flying out to Nepal early on Thursday for the Saarc home ministers meet, Rijiju, the only MoS in the Home Ministry, was expected to represent MHA at the delegation-level talks and banquet.
At least two government officials told ET, on condition of anonymity, that the reason for not inviting Rijiju may be related to not ruffling Chinese feathers over its sensitivities as he represents Arunachal Pradesh, a disputed territory according to China. Rijiju has been a vocal critic of China's repeated transgressions into India as well as their stapled visa policy for residents of Arunachal Pradesh.
Congress spokesman Anand Sharma expressed surprise over Rijiju's exclusion. "Ministers of state are not excluded from the state banquet and over the years the practice has been to include the MoS of key ministries, especially if the Cabinet minister is not present. So the exclusion of the minister from the northeast, that too someone holding a key responsibility like home, sends the wrong signals and confuses interlocutors," Sharma told ET on Thursday .
No official reaction was forthcoming from the spokespersons of Home Ministry , Rashtrapati Bhawan or the Ministry of External Affairs despite repeated attempts. Rijiju was also not available for comment. A Home Ministry official, on the condition of anonymity , said the list of invitees for the banquet was prepared by the President's House in consultation with the foreign ministry.
Speaking in Mumbai, the Dalai Lama said Xi should use his visit to learn from the Indian experience of democratic rule, and learn democratic practices. He also linked the border flareups to Tibet, which stretches the full length of the Chinese side of the border with India.
Watch: PM Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping visit Sabarmati Ashram
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Sep 19 2014 : The Times of India (Ahmedabad)
Restore pre-Sept 10 status quo on Ladakh border, Modi tells Xi
Border Not Demarcated: Chinese Prez
The past caught up with the efforts of Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Xi Jinping to elevate bilateral ties, leading the PM to protest against China's bid to escalate tensions in Ladakh. It was the festering border row which Modi sought to address first in his meeting with Xi on Thursday as he told him that peace and tranquility along the borders was imperative for mutual trust and for realizing the full potential of Sino-Indian relations.
"This is an important understanding, which should be strictly observed," Modi said as he raised "serious concerns" over what India calls serial transgressions by the Chinese.
Pitching for a quick clarification of the Line of Actual Control (LAC), Modi told Xi that China had to restore the status quo that existed before September 10 in Ladakh this year. Foreign minister Sushma Swaraj also raised the issue with her counterpart Wang Yi. Modi, in fact, set the tone on Wednesday evening itself when, just after the public display of bonhomie, he raised the latest Chinese transgressions at Chumar in Ladakh in an after-dinner "pow-wow" with Xi.
The Chinese president came back with a response on Thursday when he told Modi that he had "noted" India's concerns and that the incidents in Ladakh may be a fallout of the non-demarcated border.
Sources said Modi took up the border issue strongly because the understanding in the government was that the incidents at Chumar could not have taken place without the concurrence of the top Chinese leadership. In fact, even as vigorous diplomacy continued, the Army had ensured enough presence in the region to outnumber the Chinese troops. Sources said more Indian troops were ready to move into the region where civilians formed a human wall to prevent the Chinese from moving into what India claims to be its territory.
Xi, however, said such incidents should not be allowed to impact bilateral relations. "There may be some incidents as the area is not clearly demarcated," Xi said in a media statement, but added that both sides were capable of not just effectively managing the border but also of resolving the border dispute "at an early date''.
The NDA government's first bilateral engagement at the highest level with China yielded as many as 16 agreements and MoU, including one expected to ensure investments worth $20 billion into India from China over the next five years.
Modi also raised India's concerns over China's visa policy for residents of Arunachal Pradesh and J&K and also over trans-border rivers, saying their resolution would take mutual trust to a new level.
India wants the Ladakh standoff to end immediately , with Modi telling Xi that a clarification of LAC and settlement of the dispute "would greatly contribute to our efforts to maintain peace and tranquility".
He requested Xi to look at resuming the stalled process of LAC clarification. Modi had an extended interaction with Xi which included 75 minutes of restricted meeting, 50 minutes of delegation talks and a 15-minute one-on-one.
Sep 19 2014 : The Economic Times (Kolkata)
On Day 2, Realpolitik Washes Away India-China Bonhomie
Sending Out a Stern Message As PM Modi puts boundary dispute & transgressions by Chinese troops at the centre of Indo-China talks, President Xi Jinping seeks to underplay incidents
After a day of smiles and sightseeing in Ahmedabad that promised a new approach to IndiaChina relations, realpolitik prevailed on Thursday as Prime Minister Narendra Modi put the boundary dispute and transgressions by Chinese troops at the centre stage of the New Delhi-Beijing bilateral.
Foreign experts and officials in the ministry of external affairs told ET that this was the first time in decades that an Indian PM had taken up the border issue so forcefully at a bilateral that was expected to be more about business and cooperation.
A stern-sounding Modi asked Beijing to respect New Delhi's sensitivities to realise the full potential of the relationship while Chi nese President Xi Jinping sought to underplay the frequent border transgressions describing them as "certain incidents" that could be managed by both sides.
Addressing the media jointly after a 90-minute talk, both the leaders listed out a slew of measures ranging from a new emphasis on Bangladesh-Myanmar-India-China (BMIC) corridor to opening a new route through Nathu La pass to the pilgrimage centre of Kailash-Mansarovar in Tibet.
Sep 19 2014 : The Economic Times (Kolkata)
Trying to Improve Trade Balance
5-YEAR TRADE & ECONOMIC GROWTH PLAN Agreement between the two countries notes `trade deficit with China is a matter of high concern for India'; New Delhi suggests enhanced cooperation in pharmaceuticals where India has built up global competitiveness
India and China signed a five-year trade and economic cooperation agreement to improve the trade balance that is loaded heavily in favour of the latter, a sore point in economic relations between the neighbours.
The agreement also envisages $20 billion Chinese investment in India.
The Five-Year Trade and Economic Development Plan was signed by Commerce Minister Nir mala Sitharaman and her Chinese counterpart Gao Hucheng in the presence of Prime Minister Narendra Modi and visiting President Xi Jinping.Sitharaman and Gao also signed the minutes of the 10th session of the India-China Joint Economic Group held earlier this month in Beijing.
India had a $36.2 billion goods trade deficit in fiscal 2014 with China. This wide trade imbalance is often blamed for hurting many of the manufacturing sectors in India. The total trade between the two countries was nearly $66 billion.
"It is recognised that trade deficit with China is a matter of high concern for India," the agreement be tween the two countries noted, adding that New Delhi and Beijing will strive for a more balanced trade over the next five years. One component of this would be to increase bilateral trade in services, particularly in formation technology and related services where India has a significant advantage. The framework proposes steps towards "improving India's export capacity and competitiveness and expedite action on resolution of market access issues", listing sectors that need specific attention.
India sought greater access for bovine meat, rapeseed meal and oil meals and also flagged the issue of the country's basmati exports facing restrictions in China.
China provided market access for Indian basmati rice in 2012 but shipments have been stuck because authorities in Shanghai were not aware of the quarantine clearance given by the Chinese government for import of the aromatic grain, New Delhi has pointed out.
India exported $4.1 billion worth of bovine meat in fiscal 2014. Basmati rice accounted for $4.8 billion of the total rice exports of $7.8 billion.
India has also sought market access for five fruit and vegetables on an urgent basis. China had provided market access for mangoes in 2004 and for grapes and bitter gourd in 2005.
India also suggested lower tariffs on textiles and handmade carpets, casein and caseinates, diamonds and oil seeds. China has suggested this could be taken up under the framework of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement.
New Delhi suggested enhanced cooperation in the area of pharmaceuticals where India has built up global competitiveness. Export of formulations can help China's public health programme, New Delhi has pointed out.
Cooperation in tourism was another area explored by the two countries.The agreement also mooted transparent, stable and investor-friendly business environment and an enhanced cooperation between the chambers of commerce and financial sectors.
Sep 19 2014 : The Economic Times (Kolkata)
Beijing Supports India's Aspiration for Bigger Role in UN Security Council: Xi
Our Political Bureau
GIVING SOME SIGNAL China ready to strengthen strategic cooperation with India in multilateral fora
Chinese President Xi Jinping today said Beijing supports "India's aspiration for a bigger role" in the UN Security Council (UNSC).
"China is ready to strengthen strategic cooperation with India in multilateral fora BRICS, UNSC and on the issue of climate change, food, energy, cyber security. India and China can cooperate. We have shared common interests in these issues. China supports India's aspiration for a bigger role in the UNSC," Xi said in his address at the Indian Council of World Affairs here.
Referring to the boundary question, Xi said, "Neighbours may encounter problems. What is important is to tackle the boundary question and seek a fair, resonable solution at an early date. And in the meantime, India and China should not allow the boundary problem to affect their bilateral economic ties."
"We should not just focus on our differences and forget our friendship and cooperation and let it stand in the way of our development, cooperation," he said.
Describing India as an amazing and a colourful nation visiting Chinese President Xi Jinping today praised India's growth story as incredible and appeared to agree with Prime Minister Narendra Modi's view that China and India are two bodies in one spirit.
"Anyone who comes to India will find himself walking into a long corridor of rich history as India enjoys a splendid past and a exhilarat ing present and a spectacular future," he added.
"We are thinking on the same lines on many issues. We have agreed to substantiate the strategic and cooperative partnership between our two countries and forge and even close partnership for development."
The Chinese President also was of the view that the people of India under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi are more confident in their future while the inter national community has greater expectations from India.
Earlier at his media statement at Hyderabad House, Xi said China welcomes and supports India's full membership in Shanghai Cooperation Oragnisation and expects India to help China in building relations in SAARC.
Xi also met youth leaders, besides se parate meetings with the President, Vice President and External Affairs Minister today .
Chinese Prez's Stand
NEIGHBOURS MAY encounter problems.What is important is to tackle the boundary question and seek a fair solution WE SHOULD not just focus on our differences and forget our friendship and cooperation and let it stand in the way of our development, cooperation
Sep 19 2014 : The Economic Times (Kolkata)
ET By Invite - ARINDA Five Big Takeaways from Xi Jinping's Visit to India
DR SRIKANTH KONDAPALLI Professor in Chinese Studies at JNU
Most significant is emerging personal chemistry between the two leaders of Asian countries
China's President Xi Jinping's visit to India this week will go down the history in five major aspects.Firstly, there were many unprecedented departures from the past in these interactions. Prime Minister Narendra Modi receiving Xi at Ahmadabad signifies the onset of regional diplomacy in India.Possibly for the first time, agreements were signed at the regional (Gujarat state) level on sister cities, sister states and development related issues. This has been the trend recently after Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and other states pushed the envelope of diplomacy by engaging -in the economic field -with others.Yesterday's agreement further legitimizes this process of regional state's outreach. Also, resembling the California meeting between Presidents Xi and Obama in June 2013 that yielded a "new type of major power relations" for the two, the interactions in Ahmadabad were conducted in a very informal manner with possibly very few formal issues coming up on the agenda.Unlike his predecessors Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao, Xi and his wife Peng Liyuan have shown remarkable flexibility and were at ease during the Sabarmati River side events. It is said that both Jiang and Hu were very stiff during their interactions not only with domestic actors but with foreign leaders as well. Hu is also known never to have publicly interacted with children. In contrast was a recent photo of Xi meeting his mother on her birthday . During the Sabarmati trip, Xi displayed flexibility by squatting at the Mahatma's floor, trying his hand at the charka, sitting along with Peng on a jhoola, etc.
Secondly , China and India interactions indicated the tough bargaining at Hyderabad House and both Modi and Xi expressed strong opinions on economic, territorial dispute and other issues. While China was the first to reach out to Modi after his elections -reflected in Premier Li Keqiang's phone call in May , foreign minister Wang Yi's visit in June and the BRICS interaction on July 14 -China's diplomatic initiatives faced a challenge as Maritime Silk Road was not endorsed; Bangladesh-India-China Myanmar Economic corridor was conditionally accepted provided it ensures "peaceful, stable and cooperative environment". India also did not receive $100-300 billion from China in investments.
Thirdly , China finally opened up its money bags to India, although just a trickle at $20 billion in investments in the next five years. While for the last four years Indian leaders have been complaining about the bourgeoning trade deficits (with which India lost $169 billion in trade deficits to China between 2007 and 2013) and non-opening of China's economy to Indian products, etc, the agreements suggest to some breakthrough, although we need to monitor the progress.
Fourthly , Indian leaders stood their ground on the territorial dispute, visas, river waters and the like. Modi stated in his media interaction to the conditional normalisation of relations with China thus: "a climate of mutual trust and confi dence; respect for each other's sensitivities and concerns; and, peace and stability in our relations and along our borders are essential for us to realise the enormous potential in our relations". In the light of the increasing border transgressions at Chumar and other areas, this signaling from India is significant.
Most significant of all the above, however, is the emerging personal chemistry between the two leaders of two rising Asian countries. The Ahmadabad outing and discussion at Delhi between Modi and Xi are useful and are of long-term significance and will have a definite bearing on the stability in relations in years to come. As two credible nuclear powers, these personal interactions are necessary . This is important for the long-term economic development of both the countries.The personal rapport and chemistry that developed in this Modi-guided tour at Ahmadabad should be reflected in certain intangibles in the bilateral relations for at least the next five to ten years of Modi-Xi tenures.