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Thursday, February 19, 2015

History of Gorkha Capturing Garhwal Kingdom History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -41

   History of Gorkha Capturing Garhwal Kingdom
History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) -41
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -560

                        By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

      History of Preparation of Gorkhas/Nepalis for Attacking on Garhwal

     Harsh Dev Joshi was not interested in protecting his motherland but was always busy in conspiracies for getting his supremacy and always deceived his motherland Kumaon.
      He became the darling of Nepal governors too.  Harsh dev Joshi inspired Gorkha/Nepalis for capturing Garhwal Kingdom too. In Almora, Harsh Dev Joshi offered many secrets of Garhwal Kingdom to Gorkhas/Nepalis.  
 However, there was no Garhwali betrayal to support Nepalis /Gorkhas for deceiving their motherland as Harsh Dev Joshi. Nepalis/Gorkhas were aware the hurdles of winning for Garhwal. Nepalis/Gorkhas were aware that local Garhwali chieftains would resist the Nepali/Gorkha attacks on Garhwal. Before attacking Garhwal Kingdom, Gorkhas/Nepali had gone for hard planning.

            Roads for Attacking on Garhwal by Gorkha/Nepali Forces
                 In past, Kumaon Kings used two roads for attacking on Garhwal. One road was used from Almora via Havalbagh, Dwarhat, Mahargaon, to Chaukhtiya at Ram Ganga Rvier Bank. The army used to cross Ram Ganga River and used to reach Mehalchauri, Gairsain to Chandpuri (Garhwal). Garhwal Kings used to have army in Lohabagarhi (6231 feet height)for ressting or failing the attack from Kumaon.  
 Another road from Kumaon was via Bageshwar, Baijnath to Pindar valley. The road of Pindar valley reached to Simali via Tharali, Narayanbagad. From Simali, the road used to reach Shrinagar via Karnprayag, Rudraprayag, Khankra. Garhwal King used to have army at Badhangarh (8124 Feet Height) . Third road was to Nayar Valley of Garhwal via Almora, Bhikhyasain, Deghat and regions of Garhwal- Deghat, Gujadugadh, Devlikhal.  Garhwal army was always there in Gujadugadhi (6000 Feet Height). Garhwal King was worried about Nepal rule over Kumaon and was concerned for protecting East Border of Garhwal. Garhwal King sent messages to his army governors at east pots for being highly careful about activities of Gorkha/Nepali armies.

  Gorkha planned for attacking on Garhwal from three sides. Nepali/Gorkha governor divided his army into three divisions. Nepali/Gorkha sent its army from three roads going to west of Garhwal. No doubt, those army divisions were not big in numbers but Garhwal Kingdom was forced to spread its limited force on large areas. Nepali/Gorkha attacked not from east but from South of Garhwal.  
History of Gorkhas/Nepali Attack on Ganga Salan Garhwal (Langurgarh)

              Gorkhas or Nepali strategists in Kumaon did not follow the conventional path for attacking on Garhwal from Kumaon. Nepali/Gorkha commanders of Kumaon called new well trained and well armed army from Nepal. It was necessary to cross Kaliganga at Brahmdev Mandi to reach Kathgodam from Nepal. The road from Almora via Chhakhata, Bhimtal, Tarai met here. From Brahm Dev Mandi the raod goes to Kashipur via Chilkiya (present Ramnagar) . From Ramnagar , the road goes to Bhabhar, Kotdwara , Salan Garhwal via Kalagarh by crossing Ramganga River. From Bhabhar, Kotdwara, road goes to Shrinagar via Dwarikhal, Langurgarh  (still today footpath road goes to Shrinagar via Dwarikhal).
  Another reason for taking the above rout was that ex-Kumaon King Mahendra Chand and his uncle Lal Singh tried to attack on Kumaon from Birgul in between Gangol Ppatti and Sipti Patti. Gorkha defeated Mahendra Chandra at Birgul. They tried to attack on Kumaon via Balkheri valley. Therefore, it was essential for Gorkhas to control Tarai –Bhabhar of kumaon too to stop invasion of Mahendra Chand. By attacking on Salan (South of Garhwal), it was easy to watch on South of Kumaon too.
            Gorkha Army Cordoning or Surrounding Langurgarh
  Due to Gorkha army reaching to South of Kumaon, Garhwal King kept an army at Langurgarh (Langur and near Dwarikhal, Goomkhal). Langurgarh was very strong Garh or fort. There is Bhairav statue there. The slop from South (coming from Kotdwara or Duggadda) was aprotecting slop for Langurgarhi as soldiers could throw or push heavy stones to harm soldiers coming from slop to Langurgarh. The North Slop reaches to Nayar (near Satpuli, Banghat etc.  There was water source too in Langurgarhi. The food supply could come from raskil, Barsudi, villages and other villages from Northern slop.
        Gorkha first planned to capture Abhedya (unwinnable) Langurgarh. They marched to Kotdwara, Bhabhar. When Nepal/Gorkha army attacked on Kotdwara Bhabhar, Garhwal Army did not resist. When Gorkha reached at the south valley of Langurgarh, in 1791, Garhwal army threw big stones on Nepal Army.  By hard work, Gorkha army reached to Langurgarh. It was not possible for Gorkha army to win there with Garhwal army. Nepal or Gorkha army surrounded Langurgarh and dug trench on another hill just opposite of Langurgarh (Kutalmanda) . Garhwali army used to trap Gorkha soldiers by attacking them in one post and then used to get food etc from villages. Gorkha Army surrounded Langurgarh for one year but was unable to capture Langurgarh fort. Langurgarh was the door to reach Shrinagar.
               History of Cruel Gorkha Oppression in Garhwal

              Gorkhas were more or equal than Muslim invaders in cruelly harassing, oppressing and suppressing people.  Gorkha army camped in Langoorgarh for one year. The soldiers used to go for food etc to nearby villages and used to loot villages cruelly.
           There are various folk tales about oppressions of Gorkha soldiers in Gangasalan, Malla Salan, Talla Salan. The soldiers used to loot food, grains, milk, curd, ghee etc. They used to take animals with them. Gorkha soldiers used to take women with them too and women were behaved by Gorkhas as consumable items.  Gorkhas used to plough on standing crops to spread their terror.
                  Call from Deities and Goddesses
             The phrase was reinitiated or faith re-came in existence that village deities and goddesses call villagers for informing coming of Gorkhas near the village.
                 Running away from village by villagers

             People started living in forests due to cruel oppression of Gorkhas. Still, we find the ruined huts or walls in ruined conditions in villages built in the time of Gorkhas. A couple of people used to stand on top of hills and used to call their people as soon as they watch Grokhas arrival. The villagers used to run into dense forest.
   The villagers were afraid that Gorkhas would come into village by seeing smoke. The villagers stopped cooking food in day time and started cooking food in night only. People started keeping money or jewelries in a pot and that pot was dug in a cave or elsewhere.
 There was no peace in Gangaslan and Badalpur region (nearby Bhabhar, Dugdda, Dwarikhal or Langoorgarh).
  Garhwal King could not act to protect its subject from Gorkha oppressions.
                China attacking on Nepal
             Gorkhas were unsuccessful in winning Langoorgarh. Gorkhas were arranging second attack on Langoor Garh. Gorkhas were ruling Tibet. In the mean time, in 1792, Quing Empire China attacked on Nepal.
Nepal King sent message to Kumaon commander to bring armed forces to Nepal. Nepal King asked them to hand over Kumaon to Harsh Dev Joshi.
                       Treaty with Garhwal Kingdom
   It was not possible for Gorkha soldiers to be in Langoorgarh. Force was to shift to Nepal. However, wisely Gorkha commander put pressure on Garhwal King to sign a treaty. Following were the conditions of traty for Garhwal King-
1-Garhwal Kingdom would pay annual tribute for rupees three thousand.
2-On its own cost, Garhwal Kingdom would keep its advocate in Nepal court
3-Nepal court would keep advocate in Garhwal court at the expense of Garhwal Kingdom.
             Pradyuman Shah was already a weak King due to regular treacheries of his brother Parakram and Garhwal administrators. Garhwal King did not have a choice to accept insulting conditions of Nepal commander. Garhwal King accepted the conditions of Gorkha commander.
  Atkinson stated that Garhwal King used to pay annual tribute of twenty five thousand rupees. Atkinson did not mention anything about Nepali representative in Shrinagar Court. However, Repar who visited Shrinagar in Gorkha rule period (1808) mentioned that Nepal representative was there in Srinagar court. Repar also mentioned that initially annual tribute was three thousand rupees.

History of the Most Selfish Harsh Dev in Shrinagar in Gorkha period of Kumaon

History of Last United Garhwal King Pradyuman Shah part- 9
History of Garhwal including Haridwar (1223- 1804 AD) –part -183     
   History of Uttarakhand (Garhwal, Kumaon and Haridwar) -431 

                       By: Bhishma Kukreti (A History Research Student)

                          Harsh Dev Joshi Escaping
             The most Selfish personality of Uttarakhand History, Harsh Dev Joshi not only brought foreign rule in Kumaon but also paved the way for foreign rule in Garhwal too.
              When, Nepal King called major force from Kumaon and Garhwal to Nepal, the Nepal King wanted one to one dialogue with Harsh Dev Joshi. Nepalis handed over Kumaon to Joshi. Gorkha/Nepali commanders took Harsh Dev Joshi with them for Nepal. Harsh Dev was conscious about bad days in Nepal.  Harsh Dev escaped from Nepali force and ran towards Johar.  Within shortest time, there was treaty between China and Nepal and Gorkha force retuned to Kumaon.  It was not possible for Joshi to collect his supporters in Almora in the presence of Gorkhas there.
     In Johar, Johariyas (now with Fartyal group) captured Harsh Dev Joshi and informed his enemies Lal Singh, Mahendra Chand (ex Kumaon King) those were staying in Tarai region. Mahendra Chand sent his community brother Padma Singh to bring Harsh Dev to him.
                Padma Singh went to Johar to bring Harsh Dev. The wisest diplomat of Uttarakhand in its whole history, Harsh Dev Joshi lured Padma Singh to become Kumaon King. Harsh Dev Joshi trapped Padma Singh very well. Harsh Dev Joshi took Padma Singh to Shrinagar. Harsh Dev Joshi asked help of Garhwal King Pradyuman Shah for eradicating of Gorkhas from Kumaon.  Pradyuman Shah had already taken vow not to involve himself in Kumaon politics. Pradyuman Shah refused to help them for attacking on Gorkhas in Kumaon.
              Padma Singh returned to Tarai with his soldiers. Harsh Dev was in Shrinagar for some time. Atkinson stated that Harsh Dev tried to convince Pradyuman Shah to attack on Gorkhas. However, Pradyuman and Parakram refused to do so.
                              Harsh Dev in Almora

                  Harsh Dev sent messages to Gorkhas in Almora and convinced them that he was pro-Gorkhas. Harsh Dev Joshi went to Almora.
 Mahendra Chand tried to defeate Gorkhas twice and both the times, Gorkhas failed his efforts getting back Kumaon Kingdom. Harsh dev Joshi and his group Mahar group also supported Gorkhas.
History of Oppression, Repression, Exploitation Era in Pradyuman Period in Garhwal

 From the time Harsh Dev Joshi inspired Gorkhas to capture Garhwal, Garhwal experienced repression, subjugation, suppression, exploitation, power abuse of Gorkhas/Nepalis.
          Gorkha had a treaty with Garhwal that Garhwal would pay three thousand rupees as tribute to Nepal.  However, by various suppressive methods, Gorkha increased the tax from three to nine thousand rupees annually. The Nepali representative and his assistant in Shrinagar used to collect gifts with force or with notorious methods from Garhwal King and people. Whenever, Nepali administrators used to visit Badrinath or Char Dham Yatra the Garhwal Kingdom had to bear the cost of their visits. By this way, Garhwal Kingdom was paying very high amount for defusing the tension from Gorkhas.
                   Gorkhas Raids on Garhwal
    Gorkha soldiers were cruel and used to raid on border villages of Garhwal Kingdom from Kumaon. They used to loot wealth, animals, food and used to capture women too. Burning the standing crops or destroying standing crops was common phenomenon for Gorkhas.
  When Garhwal King was unable to take actions against Gorkha raiders the people of border villages of Garhwal started resisting Gorkhas and started fights with Gorkha soldiers. Garhwalis were ready to take revenge by killing cruelly Gorkha soldiers.
Why Do Uttarakhandi Plow Standing Millet Crops? A Garhwali-Kumaoni Folk Tale

                    In hills of Uttarakhand, when the barnyard millets and finger millets plants get height of six or seven inch after sowing the farmers  plough millet field. This is very peculiar agro-custom.
                 However, there is a folk saying for plough the standing millet crops when the shoots are six seven inches in height.
              It is said that before rule of Nepal on Kumaon and Garhwal, the standing millet crops was not ploughed.  Gorakha soldiers of Nepal were very cruel. They used to find ways and means to suppress the citizens. Their mean of controlling the citizens was to create fear among citizens of Garhwal and Kumaon. Gorakha soldiers used to burn the standing crops to create fear among citizens. They used to beat or punish people without any reason. They used to burn forests too.
              Once, a few Gorakha soldiers thought to create fear by destroying standing crops of barnyard millets and finger millets. The pants of both millets are grown in rainy season. The sowing time between barnyard millets and finger millets is fifteen days to one month. The shoots of both millets were grown from six to eight inches height in that village. Gorkha soldiers first plowed the plough in barnyard Millet fields and then went the area where finger millets were grown. Those soldiers plowed the plough on standing finger millet crops.
            After plowing the plough on standing millet crops the Gorakha soldiers returned to their Chauki. The farmers were in shock that now the barnyard and finger millets crops are destroyed completely. Citizens were afraid of feminine after rainy season.
 However, that year rain rained normally. Farmers were shocked to find that the millet plants in those fields which were plowed by Nepal soldiers flourished more than the normal. That year the crop production was also more from those fields where standing millet crops were plowed by Gorakha soldiers.
  From that time, farmers started plowing (though not fine but on wider line) plowing the standing barnyard and finger millet crops when the shoots are half feet high.
   History of Captain T. Hardwicke reaching to Haridwar and Shrinagar Garhwal

             The first British account of Kumbh Mela Haridwar is described in Asiatic Researcher. Captain Thomas Hardwicke described the Kumbh Mela of 1796. Two and half million pilgrims reached Haridwar for attending and dipping into Ganga at the time of Kumbh.  That Kumbh fair was in chaotic situation due to conflict between Sikhs and Gusain, Akhada Sadhus. 
            Captain Hardwicke got a request letter from Awadh Nabab for Garhwal King about granting permission to Hardwicke foe entering into Garhwal. Hardwicke reached Haridwar on 1oth April 1796. Hardwicke sent his servant to Shrinagar for getting permission.
             On 12th April, 1796, Hardwicke reached to Nazibabad with his servants and soldiers. From Nazibabd, Captain Hardwicke went to Shringar on 21st April 1796 via Kotdwar Bhabhar, Amsaud, Gainoli, Dyusa, Dwarikhal, Bilkhet, Naithana, Adwani, Teka ku Manda and Chaitkoti.
    After reaching at HSrinagar, Captain Hardwicke stayed in a camp under mango tree. In evening  Garhwal King Pradyuman Shah with his brothers Parakram and Pritam  Shah came to tent of Captain Thomas Hardwicke. Many people were also with Pradyuman Shah. Everybody was disciplined in presence of the King.

  King Pradyuman Shah talked with Hardwicke about battle with Rohillas, British rule expansion, etc. Garhwal King praised the British army and its strategies.
         Captain Hardwicke described the political, social, cultural scenes of Garhwal of eighteenth century.

        History of Bawani Famine, Disaster and Calamity   in Pradyuman Period

                  Bawani Akal or Drought Famine of 1852 Samvat
              There was a stiff drought in Garhwal in Samvat year 1852 or 1795-96 and there was disastrous earthquake too. The drought is still remembered as Bawani ku Akal.
         The drought was so acute that there was shortage of food everywhere including forests produces. There was reduction in population of Garhwal.
           The rain deficiency was so sharp that people could not sow the seeds and they were forced to eat boiled tree bark and weeds.  Mass migration started and people became slaves in the plains. People were forced to sell the human beings.
                The border villages of Kumaon and Garhwal were already population less. The raids of Gorkhas from Kumaon on the east of Garhwal also forced people to migrate from the effected regions.
             Rohillas Musslim raiders used to rain and loot Salan ( Badlapur, Paini, Langur, Sheela, Dhangu, Dabralsyun, Udyapur, Ajmer regions) region. The villagers were also compelled to leave the region. Gorkha soldiers entered into Garhwal from Bhabhar, Langur Salan region and they used to repress people of Salan. The region was having scanty population. There was infighting for crown in Shrinagar for a century. The weakening of King’s administration increase taxes on people and people became poorer than poorest.
Captain Hardwicke travelled from Haridwar, Bhabhar, Dwarikhal, Bilkhet, Naithana and Shrinagar. Captain Hardwicke described about worsening conditions of villages. He described that there were hardly five hut in a village. Rarely, he saw ten huts in a village.

                             Earthquake of 1803
   There was sever, disastrous earthquake on Anat Chaturdasi in 18o3 in Garhwal.  There were quake jerks and shots for seven days.
  There were cracks on most of the houses of Garhwal. Many hills got crack. In many cases the water sources dried and in many cases, new water sources also emerged.  Many farm walls were also fall down.
 In Shrinagar, every house was effected by earthquakes. 80 percent of houses were so much affected that the houses were not fit for living. The palace became the piles of ruins. There was heavy rain after earthquake and it was salt in would. The records in palace were destroyed due to earthquake and it is one of reasons that we don’t get historical evidences of Garhwal.
         In Barahat Uttarkashi, the houses fell down. More than three hundreds of people lost their life and many got injured. There was total destruction in Barahat.
Animals also died in thousands in Garhwal.
 In Devprayag, many houses and temples got destroyed. There was breakage on roof of Raghunath temple. Daulat Rao Sindhiya repaired the Raghunath temple.
In many temples in Garhwal, Badrinath temple was in ruined condition after the quake. Daulat Rao Sindhiya repaired the temple and by that the originality of temple was lost. The temples of Joshimath were also fallen down. There was also destruction in Kedarnath temple.
 Thousands of people and animals died in that earthquake. The economic loss was countless.
            History of Parakram Group Killing Khanduri Brothers
                       Unsteady Behavior of Parakram

                    Parakram the younger brother of King Pradyuman Shah had unstable behavior for Pradyuman Shah. Many times, he tried to dislodge his elder brother Pradyuman Shah from crown and many times he created amicable relation with the King.
  By 1802, there was sour relation between Pradyuman and Parakram. There was division among administrators too for and against Pradyuman. 
        Ministers Rama Khanduri and Dharni Khanduri were supporters of Garhwal King Pradyuman Shah. Khanduri brothers increased force for protecting Pradyuman Shah. At the same time, the supporters of Parakram Shah, Shish Ram Saklani and Shiv Ram Saklani also started increasing force for Parakram.
             Battle between Uncle and Nephew

   Saklani brothers caught the King orders and told that they would not obey Pradyuman Shah. Saklani bothers surrounded the palace of Pradyuman Shah by their own force. Now, Garhwal King Pradyuman Shah was virtually under house arrest under Saklani brothers or Parakram Shah.  Saklani brothers spread the rumors that Pradyuman Shah handed over the charge of Kingdom to Parakram Shah.
          Rama Khanduri sent the message to sixteen years old prince Sudarshan Shah the son of Pradyuman Shah. Khanduri sent message to prince Sudarshan that he should act to free his father. Sudarshan came to Rama Khanduri.  Khanduri brothers and Sudarshan Shah had discussion.
          As per advice of Rama Khanduri, Parakram and his supporters camped with soldiers in Shrinagar capital at various places. The soldiers of Parakram also came opposite of forces of Sudarshan Shah.
   Prince Sudarshan Shah came with force near the palace. Sudarshan Shah surrounded palace. That was surrounded by soldiers of Parakram Shah. Now , Sudarshan Shah with soldiers was surrounding solider of Parakram. Parakram took Pradyuman Shah with him and took him to Ranihat (crossing Ganga) now Tihri Garhwal.
  The soldiers of Parakram were attacking on soldiers of Sudarshan Shah from other side of Ganga (Tehri side) by guns and spears. The battle ran for many days. People ran way from Shrinagar and other nearby villages. Hundreds of soldiers and people lost their life in the battle between Parakram and his nephew Sudarshan Shah. After there was truce in Shrinagar, people returned to Shrinagar.
 This year is supposed to be 1803.
   Nepal intervened to stop this battle. Nepal King sent his emissary Chanchal Dharani to Shrinagar and asked Parakram to accept Pradyuman as King.
              Pradyuman Shah meeting with Bambshah
     In 1797, Thapadal lost power in Nepal Kingdom and Chauntariyadal got the power. Chauntariya group asked Thapadal supporting officers for returning from Kumaon. Chauntariyad sent its own officers to Kumaon.
        Chauntariya group sent its faithful officers Bambshah Chauntariya and Rudravir Shah to Kumaon.
         Bambshah , Hastidal Chauntariya and Amar Singh Thapa prepared a plan for  capturing Garhwal. They called Pradyuman Shah to come to meet them in Kumaon. Pradyuman Shah went with his guards and most probably with Dharani Khanduri to Kumaon. Bambshah and company asked him to pay the balance taxes. Bambshah threatened to capture Garhwal in case of nonpayment of taxes due from many years. Maularam wrote about Prayduman in Kumaon but did not mention the meeting place between Bambshah and Pradyuman Shah.
                                 Treachery by Parakram Shah
  Pradyuman was in Kumaon for meeting Bambshah the Nepali governor in Kumaon. Parakram pushed away the army of Pradyuman Shah from Shringaar. Getting information, Bambshah called Parakram Shah to Kumaon. Parakram went towards Kumaon via Salan.
            Murder of Rama Khanduri and Dharni Khanduri
  When Parakram was in Salan (south Garhwal), his spy killed Rama Khanduri and then beheaded Dharni Khanduri. After killing Rama and Dharni Khanduri, Parakram entered into Shrinagar.
                     Folklores about Rama and Dharni Khanduri
              For many years, there was tussle between Dobhal supporters and Khanduri supporters in Shrinagar.
   With the support of Ghamand Singh, Rama Khanduri and Dharni Khanduri became chief administrating officers of Garhwal Kingdom. They made Pradyuman Shah their pet.  Pradyuman was as good as dead without their supports.
   Opponents of Khanduri brothers killed them.
         The opponents of Khanduri brothers accused them that they snet gold Kingdom Throne to Kumaon. Opponents killed Rama Khanduri in Dhuniramni of Painkhanda and Sharni in Shitala Reti at Ganga bank near Shrinagar.
        According to Girija Datt Naithani, Khanduri brothers inspired Nepali administrators to attack on Garhwal.
  According to Vishwambar Datt Chandola, Khanduri brothers persuaded Nepal court not to levy tax on Garhwal.
A couple of records of Tehri Darbar and folklores in Tehri, Khanduri brothers sold half of throne in Nepal. Rama Khanduri used to take Rice in meal but used to make stinginess in offering millets to Pradyuman.
           However, the statements of Maularam seem to be correct because if Khanduri brothers would be opponent of Pradyuman, Parakram group would not have killed Khanduri brothers.

                          Garhwali Folklore about Baiju ki Bamni
  According to a folklore, a woman Baiju ki Bamni was there in Khanduri family. Her husband Baiju was killed with Rama and Dharni Khanduri. Baiju ki Bamni reached to her father the Rajguru of Nepal. She inspired Nepal king to attack on Garhwal. It is just a folklore that does not have any logical connection with Nepal attacking on Garhwal as they had already made plan for attacking Garhwal, Himachal Pradesh Lahore.

              Dates of Killings of Khanduri Brothers

    As per Bhakt Darshan, it is said that a Tehri Durbar handwritten records mentioned the following dates for killings of Khanduri brothers –
Dharni Khanduri visiting Nepal – April 1803
Killing of Rama Khanduri – October 1803
Killing of Dharni Khanduri – December 1803
  According to Maularam, after killing of Khanduri brother, in Bhadon (September –October 1803), there was earthquake that destroyed Shrinagar. That means, Khanduri brothers were killed in summer season.
             Losing Ravain Region by Garhwal Kingdom
       Watching the bad situation of Garhwal Kingdom,  Bashahar (Himachal ) King (Himmat Singh or Ugar Singh) attacked on Rawain region of Garhwal with the help of Jubbal King Puran Chandra. Garhwal force resisted by Bashahar captured Ravain for (west of Garhwal, Uttarkashi).  However, this author could not find mentioning name Himmat Singh as Bashahar Kingdom in the history of Bashahar.
             History of Gorkha Capturing Garhwal

  Gorkha or Nepalese were trying to capture Garhwal from 1791. Gorkhas got many setbacks in Langurgarh , Ganga Salan (Near Dwarikhal, Gumkhal, Pauri Garhwal). Gorkha attacked minimum 13 times on Langurgarh. The people of Salan resisted the attack and did not allow Gorkha to capture on Garhwal. When there were acute disturbances by Parakram against Pradyuman Shah; the factionalisms among Garhwal Kingdom administrators came out in open and there were calamities in Garhwal; in 1803, Gorkha attacked on Garhwal with force reasoning that Garhwal Kingdom did not pay dues for many years.
             Gorkha Commanders for Attacking on Garhwal
   Bada Kaji Amar Singh Thapa (son of Commander Bhim Singh Thapa) was the leader of Gorkha force. There were more than eight thousand soldiers under Amar Singh Thapa. Hastidal Chautriya, Bambshah Chautriya, Desh Bhakt Thapa were assisting commanders of Amar Singh Thapa.
    Gorkha soldiers were equipped by Britain made Guns, swords, Khunkri, shields, spears, bow-arrow. Gorkha soldiers were trained in using and application of newer versions of guns and new weapons.
           The Nepali army was disciplined and soldiers were having red colored dress. The positions were divided as per British army. Gorkha army was fearless army. Though, Gorkha did not have the materials and power as Sindhiya, British, Jat armies but Gorkhas were better from Garhwali soldiers. Gorkha already knew the weaknesses and strengths of Garhwali soldiers and army. Gorkhas were well aware of numbers of Garhwal soldiers in each fort or Garhi. Nepali commanders were well aware about strategic points of Garhwal.
               Garhwali Army at the time of Gorkha/Nepal Attack

          There were only permanent 5000 soldiers in Garhwal Kingdom in 1796.Most of the soldiers were normal soldiers. One thousand soldiers were in Shrinagar and balance soldiers were in Pargana headquarter or forts in different regions. Parakram pushed away the soldiers devotee of Pradyuman Shah from Shrinagar and there were only five hundred soldiers of Pradyuman Shah in Shrinagar.
            There was no formal dress for Garhwal soldiers even in the Pradyuman period. There was no arrangement for training the army. There was no custom or system for paying regular salary to the soldiers. Very few soldiers (countable on fingers) knew to uses guns. Most of the soldiers were versed with swords, bow-arrow and spears.
                  Nepali Army in Shrinagar
        Amar Singh Thapa sent Gorkha or Nepali to Garhwal from two directions. According to Raturi, Nepali army reached to HSringar via Chandpur. Garhwal King sent his army to stop invasion of Gorkha/Nepali army. However, Gorkha /Nepali army defeated Garhwal army and Garhwal army came back to Shrinagar.
 Another army led by Bhakti Thapa and Chandravir Kunwar defeated Garhwal army at Langurgarh and proceeded towards Shrinagar.
           Both the army battalions reached to Shrinagar. There was no battle in Shrinagar and Gorkha /Nepali captured Shrinagar easily.
           Garhwal King Escaping from Shrinagar                                                         
         Before Gorkha/Nepali army would reach Shrinagar, most of elites escaped from Shrinagar.
         Pradyuman Shah already sent his family members as son Sudarshan Shah, son Devi Singh from a servant and other female members to Chauras Tehri region side. The King ran away towards Tehri region by crossing Alaknanda River with his little army and Parakram Shah before Gorkha /Nepali army entered into Shrinagar. Wife of Pradyuaan Shah died earlier than Gorkha attack. Parakram sent his wife to his brother in law Ramsharan das at Nalagarh before Gorkha attack. Pritam Shah was unmarried.
                 Three Battles on other Side of Alaknanda River (Tehri Garhwal Side)
         Pradyuman Shah with his family was in Chauras side (Tehri Garhwal side) opposite of Shrinagar.
             A few Pargana officers sent armies to rescue Garhwal King. According to Captain Repar who reached Shrinagar in 1808-09, Garhwal King was able to collect twenty thousand people or soldiers. Gorkha battalions crossed Alaknanda River. Gorkha army defeated Garhwal army.
       There were three battles and every time Gorkha defeated Garhwal army. Garhwal King Pradyuman
              Garhwal King ran towards Barahat. Gorkha army followed Garhwal King. Gorkha/Nepali army defeated Garhwal king there in Barahat. Garhwal King ran to Chamua and there Gorkha/Nepali army defeated Garhwal army.
    Gorkha battalion crossed Bhilangna River and Garhwal army led by Shivram Saklani fought with Gorkha /Nepali army at Guttu Gala at Bhilangana bank. Nepali commander Bhakti Thapa or his soldier killed Shivram Saklani.
  Garhwal King ran towards Doon valley with his family and a few soldiers. Gorkha/Nepali army followed Garhwal King up to Dehradun (Doon valley). Gorkha/Nepali army captured Doon value with ease.
  The Faujdar or Governor Ummed Singh did not do anything to protect his father in law.
        Pradyuman Shah reached to Jwalapur (Haridwar).

       The Last Try by Pradyuman Shah for Getting Back Garhwal Kingdom
  Now, Pradyuman Shah was in Jwalapur (Haridwar). He was curious to get back his Kingdom. Pradyuman Shah sold his Throne and Jewelry at Saharanpur. He got Guhar, Rajput, Raghad, Pundir soldiers from Landhur King Ramdayal Singh. Pradyuman Shah took the new army and attacked on Gorkhas of Doon valley. Initially, Pradyuman Shah was abl e to capture Doon valley. Nepal/Gorkha government sent armies with Kaji Amar Singh Thapa, Bhakti Thapa and Ranjit Kunvar.
  There was fierce battle at Khudbura (Near Guru Ram Rai darbar, Dehradun) between Pradyuman Shah and Gorkha battalion. Pradyuman Shah’s horse got fire from a gun. Pradyuman fell from horse and died taking hands on grounds. A Gorkha commander praised Pradyuman Shah that he did not lay by back but by hands and he was great brave King. Garhwal army ran away from the battle after martyr death of the Last King of United Garhwal. Gorkha captured Pritam shah and sent him to Nepal. Sudarshan Shah and his step brother Dev Singh escaped to Jwalapur. Gorkha sent the dead body of Pradyuman Shah with honor to Jwalapur.
                Terror of Gorkhas/Nepalese in Dehradun
             Gorkha captured Dehradun. There was terror in Dehradun. People ran away towards hills leaving their houses. Gorkhas lured them to return back but they did not return. Gorkhas /Nepalese looted Dehradun cruelly.  For one year, villagers did not return to their houses nor did they crop in fields. Gorkha also captured the property of Guru Ram Rai Darbar. Gorkha stopped Mahant Harseval Das’ usual activities too.
  There are disagreements for date of Khudbura battle.
Atkinson –
October 1803
January 1804
Raturi –
February 1804
14th May 1804
Bhaktdarshan –
July 1804
August 1804

*** History of Gorkha /Nepal Rule over Kumaun, Garhwal and Himachal (1790-1815) to be continued …. 42

Copyright@ Bhishma Kukreti Mumbai, India, bckukreti@gmail.com20/2/2015
History of Garhwal – Kumaon-Haridwar (Uttarakhand, India) to be continued… Part -561
(The History of Garhwal, Kumaon, Haridwar write up is aimed for general readers)


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Hamilton F.B. 1819, An Account of Kingdom of Nepal and the territories
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Bandana Rai, 2009 Gorkhas,: The Warrior Race
Krishna Rai Aryal, 1975, Monarchy in Making Nepal, Shanti Sadan, Giridhara, Nepal
I.R.Aryan and T.P. Dhungyal, 1975, A New History of Nepal , Voice of Nepal
L.K Pradhan, Thapa Politics:
Gorkhavansavali, Kashi, Bikram Samvat 2021 
Derek J. Waller, The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia page 172-173
B D pande, Kumaon ka Itihas
Sharma , Nepal kin Aitihasik Rup Rekha
Chaudhari , Anglo  –Nepalese Relations
Pande, Vasudha , Compares Histriographical Traditions of Gorkha Rule in Nepal and Kumaon
Pradhan , Kumar, 1991, The Gorkha Conquests , Oxford University Press

History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Pauri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Chamoli Garhwal, Nainital Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Rudraprayag Garhwal, Almora Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Tehri Garhwal, Champawat Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Uttarkashi Garhwal, Bageshwar Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh; History of Gorkha Rule in Dehradun Garhwal, Pithoragarh Kumaon, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh;
स्वच्छ भारत !  स्वच्छ भारत ! बुद्धिमान भारत

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