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Sunday, November 10, 2013

projects of mass destruction get momentum and the minority government makes it a defaulted system of corporate infrastructure taking over the constitutional set up. ‘কেউ যদি বেশি খাও, খাবার হিসেব নাও’ ‘সারা দেশে ছোটো ছোটো গণআন্দোলন রাষ্ট্রের মাথাব্যথার কারণ হয়ে উঠতে পারে’ PM's Monitoring Group clears projects worth Rs 4.30 lakh crore 40,000 jobs lost as brokerages shut shop despite market surge

Irrespective of political equations the rural India agrarian people have to be evicted out of their home. All the projects of mass destruction get momentum and the minority government makes it a defaulted system of corporate infrastructure taking over the constitutional set up.

'কেউ যদি বেশি খাও, খাবার হিসেব নাও'

'সারা দেশে ছোটো ছোটো গণআন্দোলন রাষ্ট্রের মাথাব্যথার কারণ হয়ে উঠতে পারে'

PM's Monitoring Group clears projects worth Rs 4.30 lakh crore


40,000 jobs lost as brokerages shut shop despite market surge


Palash Biswas

বিধ্বংসী টাইফুনে ফিলিপিন্সে মৃতের সংখ্যা ছাড়াল দশ হাজার। এখনও নিখোঁজ বহু। ঝড়ের তাণ্ডবে নিশ্চিহ্ন হয়ে গিয়েছে মধ্য ফিলিপিন্সের উপকূল এলাকার প্রায় সবকটি গ্রাম।

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केंद्रीय वित्त मंत्री पी चिदंबरम ने पहली बार स्वीकार किया कि प्रधानमंत्री पद के बीजेपी के दावेदार नरेंद्र मोदी कांग्रेस पार्टी के लिए चुनौती हैं. चिदंबरम ने गोवा में आयोजित 'थिंकफेस्ट' समारोह में एक परिचर्चा के दौरान कहा, 'राजनीतिक दल के तौर पर हम मानते हैं कि वह (मोदी) चुनौती पैदा करने वाले हैं. हम उनकी अनदेखी नहीं कर सकते. वह मुख्य विपक्षी दल के उम्मीदवार हैं. हमें उन्हें ध्यान में रखना होगा.' हालांकि केंद्रीय मंत्री ने यह भी कहा कि एक व्यक्ति के तौर पर वह मोदी की विचारधारा, सोच और जनसभाओं में उनके द्वारा इस्तेमाल में लाई जाने वाली भाषा को लेकर चिंतित हैं.


सत्तारूढ़ पार्टी ने कहा, 'खूनी पंजा शब्द का इस्तेमाल बहुत निंदनीय है और यह जनता को कांग्रेस के खिलाफ आतंकित करने वाला है.' कांग्रेस ने बीती रात चुनाव आयोग का रुख किया. इससे कुछ दिन पहले आयोग ने पार्टी उपाध्यक्ष राहुल गांधी को आईएसआई वाले बयान को लेकर नोटिस जारी किया था. राहुल ने एक चुनावी सभा में कहा था कि पाकिस्तानी खुफिया एजेंसी मुजफ्फरनगर दंगे के कुछ पीड़ितों के संपर्क में है. राहुल गांधी के खिलाफ बीजेपी ने की थी शिकायत बीजेपी की शिकायत पर चुनाव आयोग ने राहुल को नोटिस जारी किया था.


मोबाइल टैरिफ रेट हर साल बढ़ेंगे: वोडाफोन

नवभारत टाइम्स

- ‎1 घंटा पहले‎







नई दिल्ली: देश की दूसरी बड़ी टेलीकॉम कंपनी वोडाफोन का मानना है कि कॉल और मोबाइल सर्विस के दूसरे रेट्स हर साल बढ़ेंगे। इसके साथ कंपनी ने इशारा किया है कि वह कम टैरिफ वाला दौर इंडस्ट्री में ज्यादा समय तक नहीं चलेगा। वोडाफोन इंडिया के मैनेजिंग डायरेक्टर और सीईओ मार्टिन पीटर्स ने बताया, '18 साल से हमने कम टैरिफ बनाए रखा है। इस बीच महंगाई दर 8-9 फीसदी सालाना रही है। क्या हमेशा ऐसा ही होगा? नहीं, यह मुमकिन नहीं है।' उन्होंने कहा, 'कम टैरिफ का जमाना खत्म होने को है। आगे हमें कॉस्ट के हिसाब से हर साल टैरिफ बढ़ाना होगा।' पिछले महीने कंपनी ने 2जी मोबाइल इंटरनेट रेट्स बढ़ाए थे।


टेलीकॉम सेक्टर में FDI बढ़ाने के लिए सरकार लाएगी पैकेज

नवभारत टाइम्स

- ‎1 घंटा पहले‎







सरकार टेलीकॉम सेक्टर में करीब 141 अरब डॉलर का फॉरन डायरेक्ट इनवेस्टमेंट (एफडीआई) अट्रैक्ट करने के लिए कॉम्प्रिहेंसिव इनसेंटिव पैकेज बना रही है। इसमें से 50 फीसदी से अधिक प्रॉडक्ट मैन्युफैक्चरिंग क्षेत्र में आ सकता है। सरकार ने यह कदम प्लानिंग कमिशन के इंटरनल असेसमेंट के आधार पर उठाया है। इसमें कहा गया है कि 12वें प्लान (2012-17) में टेलीकॉम सेक्टर में 152 अरब डॉलर के एस्टिमेटेड इनवेस्टमेंट का करीब 93 फीसदी प्राइवेट कंपनियों से आना चाहिए। टेलीकॉम डिपार्टमेंट इस महीने के अंत में टेलीकॉम इक्विपमेंट मैन्युफैक्चरिंग काउंसिल (टीईएमसी) की अगली मीटिंग में लोकल ...


देश 8% की दर से कर सकता है विकास: मोंटेक

आईबीएन-7

- ‎15 घंटे पहले‎







नई दिल्ली। योजना आयोग के उपाध्यक्ष मोंटेक सिंह आहलुवालिया ने शनिवार को कहा कि अगर कठोर नीतिगत फैसले लिए जाएं तो देश आठ फीसदी की दर से विकास कर सकता है। आहलुवालिया ने बाह्य आर्थिक नीतियों को तय किए जाने के दौरान बाह्य और आंतरिक सुरक्षा को ध्यान में रखने का आह्वान किया। रक्षा अध्ययन और विश्लेषण संस्थान (आईडीएसए) के 49वें स्थापना दिवस के अवसर पर 'भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था और राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षा' विषय पर आहलुवालिया ने कहा कि यूपीए की सरकार बनने के बाद से देश में गरीबी तेजी से कम हुई है। उन्होंने कहा कि आठ फीसदी का विकास दर हासिल करने के लिए बड़ी संख्या में कठोर ...



भारतीय कंपनियां: 10 महीने में किए 411 अधिग्रहण-विलय, आंकड़ा 26 अरब डॉलर

बिजनेस भास्कर

- ‎6 घंटे पहले‎







नई दिल्ली : भारतीय कंपनियों की विलय एवं अधिग्रहण गतिवधियां इस साल के पहले 10 माह में कम रहीं। इस दौरान भारतीय कंपनियों ने 25.48 अरब डालर के 411 विलय एवं अधिग्रहण सौदे किए, जो पिछले साल की समान अवधि के मुकाबले 17 प्रतिशत कम हैं। वैश्विक कर व परामर्शक कंपनी ग्रांट थार्नटन की रिपोर्ट में यह जानकारी दी गई है। जनवरी से अक्तूबर 2012 की अवधि में भारतीय कंपनियों ने 493 सौदों की घोषणा की थी, जबकि 2011 की समान अवधि में यह आंकड़ा 518 था। इसके अलावा मूल्य के लिहाज से पिछले दो साल विलय एवं अधिग्रहण के सौदे घटे हैं। जनवरी-अक्तूबर 2012 में 30.56 अरब डालर के सौदे हुए जबकि 2011 में यह 38.01 ...


RBI ने जनता को लुभाने वाले emails से सतर्क रहने को कहा

Zee News हिन्दी

- ‎2 घंटे पहले‎







RBI ने जनता को लुभाने वाले emails से सतर्क रहने को कहा नई दिल्ली : भारतीय रिजर्व बैंक ने आम जनता को केंद्रीय बैंक तथा गवर्नर रघुराम राजन के नाम से भेजे जाने वाले जाली ईमेल से सतर्क रहने को कहा है। इस तरह के ईमेल में लोगों को अप्रत्याशित लाभ का वादा किया जाता है। रिजर्व बैंक ने कहा है कि वह इस तरह के ईमेल नहीं भेजता। रिजर्व बैंक के गवर्नर के नाम से भेजे गए ईमेल्स में उंचे रिटर्न या जैकपॉट का वादा किया गया है। केंद्रीय बैंक के प्रवक्ता ने इस बारे में पूछे जाने पर कहा कि रिजर्व बैंक अपनी वेबसाइट तथा अन्य माध्यमों के जरिये जाली ईमेल के बारे में नियमित आधार पर जागरूकता अभियान ...


India is an "extraordinary" country to do business and the reward for long-term investment there is "very good", a former British diplomat has said.


Speaking at a day-long 'UK KarnatakaBusiness Meet 2013' in the House of Commons, Mike Nithavrianakis, who recently returned after his four-year tenure as Britain's Deputy High Commissioner in Chennai, said that "it is not an easy place to do business".


But in spite of the hurdles, "India is absolutely an extraordinary country to do business once you invest there and the reward in long term is very good," he said.


Here you are!


Mike Nithavrianakis spoke out the central theme of Indian economy alias politics.

It is all about money making game.


Everyone everywhere in Indian open market economy is making money converting the nation into an infinite killingfields.


Right to reject is not going to change  the monopolistic Hegemony rule in India. The political soap opera is quite irrelevant as policy making and governance are concerned.


Media exposes the political skin but blacks out the policy making process and at the same time, the governance is glorified despite unabated scams and scandals.


Since Dr Manmohan Singh has been inserted in Indian political system as an incarnation of reforms God, political mandate as well as all the democratic institutions have become irrelevant irrespective of multi color,multi dimensional, multi media,biometric digital format of governance and it is all the way, continuous economic ethnic cleansing  unresisted.


Irrespective of political equations the rural India agrarian people have to be evicted out of their home.


All the projects of mass destruction get momentum and the minority government makes it a defaulted system of corporate infrastructure taking over the constitutional set up.


Thus,as expected,the Prime Minister's Project Monitoring Group (PMG), set up to track stalled large investment projects, has cleared 128 projects worth over Rs 4.30 lakh crore so far.


Of this, PMG has given priority to troubled projects from the power sector and has resolved all issues on 94 projects, entailing an investment of over Rs 3.80 lakh crore, data available on its website showed.


Besides, issues in 34 projects of oil and gas, railways, steel, roads and highways, shipping, civil aviation and mines have also been resolved. They involve investments of over Rs 50,000 crore.


In total, it has so far compiled a list of 378 stalled projects for want of various types of clearances, entailing investments over Rs 17.23 lakh crore.


The PMG was set up in June, after a high level meeting chaired by the Prime Minister, to facilitate and work for resolving specific issues of the projects and fast tracking them.


The issues and clearances of the stalled projects depend on their current stage and includeenvironment and forest clearances, land acquisition, lack of co-ordination between various government departments and clearances stuck at the state government level.


India Inc has been raising its concern against the slow pace of project clearances for quite some time, saying that this has led to a severe decline in country's manufacturing activity, thereby lowering exports and affecting current account deficit (CAD).


According to the official figures, India's manufacturing sector had grown by only 1 per cent in 2012-13. Between April and August this year, country's industrial growth has been at a dismal rate of 0.1 per cent, while the manufacturing growth has declined by 0.1 per cent.


The list of cleared projects include Rs 12,000 crore project for development of new terminal building at the Mumbai Airport, Rs 12,000 crore power project of Sterlite Energy and Rs 9,900 crore project of Adani Power (third phase of Mundra project).


The PMG has also resolved issues related to Rs 7,000 crore project of Utkal alumina refinery of Hindalco in Odisha and Rs 4,255 crore Lumding-Silchar(482Km) gauge conversion project of Railways, which is aimed at providing seamless connectivity to lowerAssam and Tripura, Mizoram and Manipur with rest of India.


Meanwhile,coming out in favour of free trade pacts, Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Montek Singh Ahluwalia said that India "clearly and unambiguously" needs to ink more such agreements.


India has signed free trade pact with about 20 countries including Japan, Korea,ASEAN nations, Sri Lanka and Nepal, while it is negotiating market opening pacts with Australia, Canada, New Zealand and theEuropean Union.


"We should (go for FTAs) quite clearly and unambiguously," he said when asked whether India should refrain from signing more Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) as it hurts revenue.


An FTA permits free trade in goods and services between the countries with minimal tariff barriers.


The issue of FTAs came up for discussion at the meeting of the Trade and Economic Relations Committee, which was chaired by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.


Among others, the meeting was attended by Commerce Minister Anand Sharma, Finance Minister P Chidambaram, National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council Chairman V Krishnamurthy and Ahluwalia.


Some of the participants reportedly expressed concern over the effectiveness of such free trade pacts. It was argued that India should focus on promoting manufacturing activities within the country, instead of going in for more such pacts which leads to loss of revenue.


Those against FTAs, argue that promotion of manufacturing sector would generate more jobs within the country.


Replying to queries on different pricing of domestic and imported coal, Ahluwalia, "We need to find a way of doing that and that is not agreed yet. But it should be done in my view."


According to him, a coal user sitting next to a port should be allowed to import the fuel at a premium for another consumer situated far away.


"Let's create a possibility where if a guy in (near) port says I don't mind importing little more...providing he pays me higher price than I would have to pay for it. The trouble is that it is interpreted legally as trading," he said.


"Basically all economics consists of trading to optimise profits. If you are not going to be given that option, why should anybody go for costly imports," he added.


PANAJI: Finance Minister P Chidambaramtoday conceded that a potent mix of factors like slowdown of economic growth, dysfunction of the executive and corruption allegations has brought in a "high degree of negativity" but expressed confidence that the government would get over it.


"In the second five years of UPA, yes, there is, I can sense, I can see that the voter is at the moment negative. I can see that. I am blind if I don't see that. The reason is slowdown in economic growth, dysfunction of the executive, the cases of allegations of corruption, investigations that are going on,inflation and a slowdown in job creation.


"I think it is a potent and powerful mix, a potent mix of factors which has brought in a high degree of negativity. It is possible we may get over it.


"It is possible we don't get over it. It is a verdict we have to leave to the people. We have to accept whatever the verdict people will give," he said at the "Thinkfest" event in Bambolim near here.


Even in this slowdown in the last nine years, the country has clocked an average of 7.5 per cent growth.


"It is sad that at the end of the 10-year term, the growth has seen slowdown for a couple of years after having been high in the middle years and low in the last two years. I am doing my best. I will continue to do my best to see that there is an upturn before we go to polls," he said.


Chidambaram was replying to a question whether at the end of the second UPA term in the context of global pressures, CAG reports and high optimism in which the coalition was voted to power in 2009, there was today a lack of credibility for the government and that the prime minister was singularly lacking in leadership.


He shot back saying that he cannot remain in government and comment on the prime minister.


"That is not correct, that is not appropriate. I won't do it. He is the prime minister. I am a minister in his Cabinet. I have to accept his leadership and respect him. I am sorry, I cannot answer this question."

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    40,000 jobs lost as brokerages shut shop despite market surge

    MANISHA JHA

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    522 brokerages, 12,855 sub-brokers down shutters in first half of current fiscal

    MUMBAI, NOV. 8:  

    The Sensex has been on a high, but not the stock brokerage business.

    According to SEBI data, 522 brokerages and 12,855 sub-brokers in the cash segment shut shop in the first six months of this fiscal ended September. That translates into potential job losses for about 40,000 industry hands.

    Assuming that on average each sub-broker employs two people, the number of jobs lost in just the sub-brokerage business across India would be about 25,710, according to a back-of-the-envelope calculation.

    Similarly, assuming that about 5 per cent of the 522 shut brokerages are multiple-branch offices employing an average of 100 people and the remaining 95 per cent are single branch brokerages employing about 20 people each, a total of 12,520 people would have lost their jobs, say industry watchers.

    Even as this oversupply of laid-off brokers, dealers and analysts floods the job market on the one hand, new job openings in stock brokerage-related jobs, such as analysts and dealers, are down 10 per cent since last year.

    As brokerages put their expansion plans and fresh hiring plans on hold, the number of new job openings in the stock market sector has fallen to 362 in October 2013 from 406 in October last year, according to Naukri.com, one of the largest job portals in the country. With the economy passing through a slowdown, brokerages and sub-brokers have been forced to shut shop due to low market volumes, rising costs, squeezed margins and cut-throat competition.

    Recently, HSBC announced the closure of its retail broking division. Three-hundred jobs disappeared. This was followed by India Infoline, which has begun scaling down its retail business. The company, however, declined to provide details on the number of jobs that will be affected.

    Rajiv Parmar, 28, who was once employed as a sub-broker in Mumbai's upmarket Nariman Point, now sells suitcases and bags while some of his colleagues have joined call-centres or have taken up other sales jobs.

    "I thought selling suitcases was better than sitting at home and doing nothing, though I miss the thrill and charm of the stock market. My friends in other brokerages, which have downsized, are no better off as they are being made to double up as dealer-cum-relationship managers now for the same salary," he rued.

    CAUTIOUSLY OPTIMISTIC

    HR managers in top brokerages maintained a cautiously optimistic outlook and said that hiring hinges on economic policy certainty and a stable government after the elections, besides a sustained rally in the equity markets based on improvement in fundamentals.

    "Markets have just started picking up and we are waiting for it to stabilise before re-starting any fresh hiring," said Jaya Jacob Alexander, HR Chief, Geojit BNP Paribas Financial Services.

    manisha.jha@thehindu.co.in

    (This article was published on November 8, 2013)

    http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/markets/40000-jobs-lost-as-brokerages-shut-shop-despite-market-surge/article5330493.ece

    Finance Ministry keen on Indian Oil disinvestment in November

    The Finance Ministry wants to sell 10 per cent of the government's stake inIndian Oil Corp (IOC) by end of the month in a bid to achieve its Rs 40,000 crore disinvestment target.


    "We want to push the IOCBSE 1.62 % stake sale first, within November itself. This will pave the way for disinvestment of other oil sector PSUs like Engineers India," a senior Finance Ministry official told PTI.


    Last month, the Department of Disinvestment put off overseas roadshows for the IOC stake sale following opposition from the company and the Petroleum Ministry, which cited poor market conditions. The roadshows were planned in London, US, Singapore, Hong Kong and Dubai.


    IOC shares rose 1.62 per cent to Rs 213.20 at the close on the BSE on Friday. They have fallen 43 per cent from the 52-week peak of Rs 375 on January 18.


    At the current price, the sale of 19.16 crore IOC shares, equivalent to 10 per cent of the government's holding in the company, would fetch more than Rs 4,000 crore, which is 10 per cent of this financial year's disinvestment target.


    The government held a 78.92 per cent stake in the country's largest oil refiner as of September 30.


    Citibank, HSBC and UBS Securities are among the five merchant bankers selected to manage the IOC share sale.


    IOC Chairman R S Butola had written to the Oil Ministry in September, saying, "Current share price of IOC, already undervalued, may not fetch the fair value in the prevailing uncertain environment and investors in all probability are likely to factor in huge discount in their assessment of share price."


    A share sale under present conditions could fetch a low price and would further dent IOC's efforts to raise loans for crude oil imports.


    IOC posted an 82.5 per cent drop in net profit to Rs 1,683.92 crore for the July-September quarter after losses from foreign exchange and sales of diesel, cooking gas and kerosene below cost.


    The government is waiting for disinvestment in IOC before going ahead with plans to sell 10 per cent in Engineers India Ltd (EIL).


    At the current market price of Rs 175.10, the sale of 3.36 crore EIL shares would fetch about Rs 600 crore.


    So far, the government has raised about Rs 1,325 crore from stake sales in six companies.


    Infosys investing over Rs 100 crore to upgrade MCA21 portal

    PTI [ Updated 10 Nov 2013, 16:51:42 ]PRINT

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    New Delhi: IT major Infosys, which is managing the Corporate Affairs Ministry's e-governance portal MCA21, is investing over Rs 100 crore to upgrade the system in view of expected rise in load as company filings surge on account of new Companies law.


    The IT services company expects multi-fold increase in the number of filings by companies with the MCA due to various provisions of the new Companies Act, Infosys Vice-President and Head, India Business, C N Raghupathi said.


    Provisions like new corporate social responsibility ( CSR) norms and single-person company would increase the workload multi-fold on the system, he said.


    "To meet this additional load, Infosys is investing over Rs 100 crore in a year to upgrade the system," he told PTI.


    Through the MCA21 online portal, corporate sector stakeholders and investors alike gain secure access to an array of services provided by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.


    The portal also facilitates the mandatory filing of various documents by firms with the Ministry.


    Infosys, which won the MCA21 mandate in November 2012, has revamped and transformed the project significantly, updating the infrastructure to provide for the rapidly changing needs of the industry, the company said.


    Speaking on the number of filings by firms through the portal, he said the Ministry witnessed 23.3 lakh filings this year so far, up from last year's 17.4 lakh.


    In October 2013 alone, the total filings were at 14.2 lakh (14,28,000), an almost two-fold increase over the October 2012 filings of 6.94 lakh.


    This was made possible by the investments that Infosys has made in the hardware and software of the implementation of the MCA21 v2, Raghupathi said.


    The number of filings would increase multi-fold as the MCA aims to make the process paperless in future, he added.


    He also said that the company has plans to invest over Rs 200 crore in the project in future.


    The new Companies Act was approved by the Parliament in August this year. The new legislation, replaces the nearly six-decade old legislation governing corporates in the nation.


    The Ministry is in the process of finalising different rules and various provisions of the Companies Act.


    Manmohan, Obama set 6-month agenda of engagement

    • PTIU.S. Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asia Nisha Desai Biswal is expected to visit New Delhi soon as part of active engagement between the two countries. File photo

    High profile visits starting with the one by U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asia Nisha Desai Biswal to mark the "robust agenda" to keep the two nations actively engaged during Lok Sabha elections.

    Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and U.S. President Barack Obama have set "a robust agenda" for the next six months to keep the two nations actively engaged during elections in India and lay the foundation for bilateral ties to take off under a new government in New Delhi.

    During their White House meeting on September 27, 2013 which lasted over three hours, Mr. Obama and Dr. Singh agreed that the relationship between the two countries — described by the U.S. President as the most significant one for the 21st century — is too important to keep adrift for a period of six months as India enters a crucial election phase.

    As such Mr. Obama and Dr. Singh laid out a robust agenda of active engagement for the next six months and prepared groundwork for what the sources familiar with the talks described as "take off" for the new Indian government formed after the general election before May 2014.

    As part of this active engagement, newly-appointed Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asia Nisha Desai Biswal is soon expected to visit New Delhi which would be preceded by her trip to Tokyo for a trilateral U.S.-India-Japan talks.

    Foreign Secretary Sujatha Singh is also scheduled to visit Washington for a series of high-level meetings before the end of the year.

    In January, U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz is scheduled to visit India and the trip is expected to pave the way for a new phase in India-U.S. energy cooperation while planning is in works for an early visit of the new Homeland Security Secretary.

    The Indian Army Chief General Bikram Singh is also expected to visit the U.S. before the end of this year which informed sources said would make it the first time that heads of all the three Indian armed forces would be visiting the U.S. the same year.

    Ground work is also being laid out for a visit of U.S. Defence Secretary Chuck Hagel to India.

    It is only a question of when Mr. Hagel would go to India, highly placed sources told PTI, adding that defence and energy sectors are now being billed as the "next nuclear deal moment" for the India-U.S. relationship.

    A senior administration official, when asked that the India-U.S. relationship has "entered into a period of inactivity" as India heads towards general election in the next few months, said "I would not say that at all".

    "We have a very robust agenda before us. The visit of the Prime Minister Singh was an important and consequential visit and we have an action agenda of commitments that we made during the visit and priorities that were reiterated during the visit," another senior U.S. official said.

    "We have a robust agenda to discuss. I would not say that we are in a period of inactivity under any circumstances," the official said.

    Informed sources familiar with the Obama-Singh meeting on September 27, 2013 attributed this new direction and enthusiasm, amidst the alleged plateau of relationship as described by political analysts to the strong personal relationship between the two leaders.



    FIPB clears Tata, Westland proposal to assemble choppersAs per the proposal the Indian Rotorcraft will assemble AW119Kx helicopters, an upgraded version of AW119Ke chopper.

    The FIPB has approved a proposal to assemble upgraded version of a military and civil helicopter in collaboration with the Augusta Westland, a firm which is facing corruption inquiry in India.


    The Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) in its meeting on September 19 approved the proposal of Indian Rotorcraft, which is a joint venture between Tata Sons(74 per cent) and Augusta Westland (26 per cent).


    As per the proposal the Indian Rotorcraft will assemble AW119Kx helicopters, an upgraded version of AW119Ke chopper. The company expects to commence production from March 2014.


    The issue of corruption charges on Augusta Westland's parent company Finmeccanicacame up during the FIPB meeting and it was observed that "the issue which was being investigated related to helicopter model AW101 and not this proposal", sources said.


    The board, according to sources, observed in its minutes that "the law will take its own course and the current FIPB consideration is without prejudice to any existing or future civil or criminal proceedings against the foreign investor or its parent".


    The proposal will now be placed before the Finance Minister for a final nod.


    The Defence Ministry had issued a final show cause notice to Augusta Westland for violating the terms of the contract on October 21 and asked the Anglo Italian firm to explain why "all or any action as prescribed, including cancellation of the contract, should not be taken against them for violating the terms of the pre-integrity pact and the contract for procurement of 12 VVIP choppers".


    The Attorney General has already given his opinion to the Defence Ministry that there was breach of contractual obligations and the integrity pact by the firm.


    The government has already frozen the contract for supply of 12 AW-101 VVIP choppers to the IAF after allegations that Rs 360 crore was paid as bribe in which two top officials of the company were accused.

    New bank licences: Sebi scans listed applicants, group firms

    As RBI gears up to issue new bank licences, capital markets regulatorSebi has also a job at hand that is of scrutinising all applicants coming under its jurisdiction directly or through group entities.


    Sebi's scrutiny follows detailed queries shot off by RBI to various regulators in India and abroad as part of its due-diligence of entities seeking to enter banking arena.


    According to a senior official, Sebi is looking into the capital market track-record of all the group entities of 26 banking aspirants, some of whom are either listed entities or have presence in Sebi-regulated businesses likemutual funds, brokerage and investment banks.


    The area of prime focus for the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi) is action taken by or underway for violations to various market regulations, he added.


    The scrutiny is expected to be over this month itself. RBI is granting new bank licences for the first time in about a decade and preliminary screening process is underway for 26 entities that have submitted their applications.


    As part of this process, RBI has also asked the applicants to provide further details about their promoters, equity structure, financial inclusion programme, proposed banking model, among others, sources said.


    In addition to Sebi, RBI is also seeking details from other regulators such as insurancewatchdog IRDA and pension regulator PFRDA, about the businesses of the applicant entities under their respective jurisdictions.


    With regard to some applicants, RBI has sought to know details about source of funds and compliance to the structural norms proposed for new banking players.


    Besides, RBI is seeking additional details from the concerned foreign regulators about those applicants whose group entities have operations, significant business dealings with foreign companies or overseas listings.


    Sources said this due diligence process involves information exchange with domestic and foreign regulatory authorities for all group entities of the applicants.


    RBI has also set up an expert panel to look into the applications. Headed by former RBI Governor Bimal Jalan, this committee includes RBI's former Deputy Governor Usha Thorat, Sebi's former Chairman C B Bhave and financial sector expert Nachiket Mo. This panel held its first meeting on November 1.


    RBI's board will take a final decision on new licences after taking into account the panel recommendations. The names of successful entities are expected by January 2014.


    The applicants include entities from large corporate houses like Tatas, Anil Ambani-led Reliance Group, Kumar Mangalam Birla-headed Aditya Birla Group, L&T, Bajaj, SREIBSE -4.91 %, Religare and Indiabulls. Besides, Department of Post, IFCIBSE 1.21 %, LIC Housing FinanceBSE -2.55 %, JM FinancialBSE 0.54 %, Muthoot FinanceBSE -2.81 %, Edelweiss, IDFC, India Infoline and Shriram Capital are also in the fray.


    In the past 20 years, the RBI has licensed 12 banks in the private sector in two phases, withKotak Mahindra BankBSE -0.78 % and Yes Bank being the last two entities to get banking licences in 2003-04.

    CII, WEF sign pact to collaborate on infra investmentsThe MOU was signed by Founder and Executive Chairman, WEF and President, CII in the presence of Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma.

    Industry body CII today said it has signed an initial agreement with theWorld Economic Forum to collaborate for partnerships in various spheres including infrastructure investments and human capital.


    "CII and World Economic Forum today signed an MOU to collaborate in delivering a strong engagement across all multi stakeholder groups in India," the industry body said in a statement.


    The MOU was signed by Klaus Schwab, Founder and Executive Chairman, WEF and Kris Gopalakrishnan, President, CII in the presence of Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma.


    "The reform process in India is in full swing and the government has taken several measures which are yielding positive results specially in the areas of recovery of rupee and stock market," Sharma said.


    He invited WEF to organise an integrated South Asia Economic Summit in Delhi, the same way as WEF organises the India Economic Summit.


    WEF and CII will identify areas for further projects and collaboration related to the most pressing issues that India is facing in areas such as infrastructure investments, skill gaps and human capital and inclusive growth, Sharma said.

    Prime Minister Manmohan Singh ranked world's most powerful, influential SikhManmohan Singh is followed by Chief Minister of Punjab Parkash Singh Badal, who ranks 4th. (AP)


    Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has been listed as the world's most powerful, influential and contemporary Sikh, according to the first edition of the annual 'Sikh 100' published here.

    According to the list, the world's first comprehensive ranking of the most powerful, influential and contemporary Sikhs in the world brought out by the Sikh Directory, 81-year-old Singh is "highly acclaimed as a thinker and a scholar".

    "He is well regarded for his diligence and his academic approach to work, as well as his accessibility and his unassuming demeanour", a brief profile of Singh read.

    Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Montek Singh Ahluwalia, 69, ranks as the second most powerful Sikh on the list, released last night.

    Jathedar Singh Sahib Giani Gurbachan Singh, current religions head of Sri Akaal Takht Sahib, the supreme religious authority of the Sikhs based in Amritsar, is listed third.

    He is followed by Chief Minister of Punjab Parkash Singh Badal, who ranks 4th.

    Ajaypal Singh Banga, president and CEO, MasterCard Worldwide, USA is ranked 8th on the list while Rabinder Singh, High Court Judge, Royal Courts of Justice, UK is 9th.

    Gursharan Kaur, wife of Prime Minister Singh is 13th on the list while Sukhbir Singh Badal, president of Shiromani Akali Dal and Deputy Chief Minister of Punjab is 14th.

    Others figuring on the list are Sir Mota Singh, Judge (UK) (17th), Sant Singh Chatwal, president and CEO, Hampshire Hotels and Resorts (USA) (19th), Malvinder & Shivinder Singh, chairman/director, Fortis Healthcare, India (21st) and Khushwant Singh, Journalist and Novelist (22nd).

    Onkar Singh Kanwal, chairman, Apollo Tyres, India (23rd) Bhupinder Singh, managing director, Punjab National Bank (26th), Harbhajan Singh, cricketer (28th), Capt Amarinder Singh, president Punjab PCC (29th), Lord Indarjit Singh, director, The Network of Sikh Organisations, UK (42nd), Rami Ranger, chairman, Sun Mark Ltd (UK) (48th) and Kartar Singh Lalvani, director, Vitabiotics, UK (52nd) are others on the list.

    Modi, Manmohan at it again; history, geography the latest battlefieldNarendra Modi and Manmohan Singh have been exchanging barbs over a number of issues in the past few days (PTI image)

    A combative Narendra Modi hit back at the Prime Minister on Sunday for his attack on BJP, saying the Congress committed the "sin" of partition and eulogised only the Nehru-Gandhi family while neglecting heroes of the freedom struggle.

    Modi trained his guns on Prime Minister Manmohan Singh who had on Saturday said in Raipur that on many occasions, "over-excited BJP leaders change history and geography of the country". Singh's remarks appeared to be directed at BJP's Prime Ministerial candidate.

    "Mr Prime Minister, I am aware that it is not in your hands what you should say or not say. But the country wants to know who changed the geography of India. The village in which you were born was a part of Hindustan. Today it is not. Who changed the geography. Who broke this country into pieces?" Modi said while inaugurating a multi-specialty hospital managed by a Muslim trust in Balassinor in Kheda district, about 100 km from Ahmedabad.

    Singh was born on September 26, 1932 in Gah, a remote village, now in Pakistan's Punjab province.

    Modi charged that "it is the Congress which committed the sin of dividing India into two parts".

    "You say we are changing the geography. Every so often China creates problems on our borders. It has captured hundreds of square kms of our territory. Who changed this geography? It was changed during Congress rule," Modi said.

    Taking the Prime Minister to task on his speech made in Naxal-hit Chhattisgarh, Modi said it would have been better if the Prime Minister had spoken on how to tackle price rise and corruption.

    "I was hearing PM's speech yesterday when he was speaking in Chhattisgarh. It would have been better if PM spoke on price rise, corruption but he was talking history and geography," Modi said.

    FIIs invest Rs 3,000 crore in Indian stocks so far in NovemberFIIs invested a net Rs 28,700 crore in stocks during the past two months. (AP)


    oreign investors poured in almost Rs 3,000 crore in the Indian equity market so far this month amid renewed optimism about the economy and a delayed tapering of the US monetary stimulus.

    Total foreign investment in the stock market reached Rs 91,892 crore (USD 16.67 billion) so far in 2013, according to data from the Securities and Exchange Board of India, the market regulator.

    Foreign institutional investors (FIIs) were gross buyers of equities worth Rs 15,370 crore and sellers of Rs 12,412 crore of shares during November 1-8, a net inflow of Rs 2,958 crore (about USD 480 million).

    They invested a net Rs 28,700 crore in stocks during the past two months (September-October).

    However, FIIs pulled out Rs 2,916 crore from debt securities so far this month. They have withdrawn a net Rs 53,070 crore from the debt market since the beginning of the year.

    FII inflows into the stock markets have been buoyant since September 2013 on the back of continued global liquidity as the US Fed postponed the withdrawal of its monetary stimulus for now.

    Earlier this month, Finance Minister P Chidambaram had said the current account deficit is under control and the fiscal deficit target will be met. He said export growth is expected to continue and a bumper harvest is likely after the good monsoon.

    The benchmark BSE Sensex has declined by about 498 points, or 2.35 per cent, so far this month to settle at 20,666.15 points on Friday. The index closed at a record 21,239.36 on November 3.

    As of November 8, the number of registered FIIs in the country stood at 1,745 and the total number of sub-accounts at 6,379.


    Goldman Sachs should not comment on political matters: Montek Singh AhluwaliaGoldman Sachs had in a recent report upgraded the Indian markets on the likelihood of Narendra Modi coming to power (Reuters)

    Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Montek Singh Ahluwalia today said US investment bank Goldman Sachs should not be commenting on political matters.

    "I don't agree with Goldman Sachs. Lots of people have said they should not be pronouncing on these things," Ahluwalia said on the sidelines of a function organised by the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses here.

    Goldman Sachs had in a recent report upgraded the Indian markets on the likelihood of Narendra Modi coming to power.

    "The truth of the matter is we are perfectly aware what needs to be done, at least as far as the Planning Commission is concerned. We have laid out a very bold agenda, which has been approved by the Cabinet, NDC (National Development Council) and so on," he said.

    "In the last six months before a general election, that's not when all these things are implemented. So, I have no idea what Goldman Sachs means," he added.

    Goldman Sachs, in a report titled "Modi-fying Our View: Raise India to Marketweight," upgraded its outlook for domestic equities and revised its end-2014 target for the Nifty index to 6,900 points, implying a 9 per cent rise from current levels.

    The report attributed the optimism to the opposition BJP-led alliance gaining ground in opinion polls in the past few months, suggesting a higher probability of a BJP-led alliance forming the next government.

    The 18-page report described the BJP's Prime Ministerial candidate as more business-friendly.

    Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma had said the report is "most inappropriate and objectionable." Goldman Sachs stood by the report, saying it was based on investor sentiment and does not reflect political bias.

    Talking about the poor, Ahluwalia said there is no serious possibility of reducing poverty if the country doesn't get back to 8 per cent growth.


    Planning Commission rejects DIPP proposal to limit FDI in pharma

    By Dilasha Seth, ET Bureau | 6 Nov, 2013, 02.51AM ISTThe Planning Commission has opposed a proposal by the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP) to limit foreign direct investment (FDI) in companies making 'critical drugs' to 49%.

    NEW DELHI: The Planning Commission has opposed a proposal by the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP) to limit foreign direct investment (FDI) in companies making 'critical drugs' to 49%, saying it entails a complete reversal of the existing policy that allows 100% FDI in the sector.


    "The lowering of cap to 49% in critical pharma facilities will reverse the general direction in which the overall FDI policy should move," Planning Commission deputy chairman Montek Singh Ahluwalia has said in response to the draft Cabinet note circulated by DIPP.


    Without imposing a cap on FDI, the government has already tightened the rules to put in place some conditions and ensure that such investment in existing pharmaceuticals companies require government approval. This followed much debate within the government on rising foreign investments in the sector and takeover of some big India drug manufacturers amid fears that multinationalisation of India's successful pharma industry would deny cheap drugs to local consumers.


    The finance ministry has also strongly opposed DIPP's proposal requiring the backing of department of health and science and technology.


    The Planning Commission has said the evidence to revisit the pharma FDI policy in effect from 2011 is not satisfactory. Opposing the proposal, it has said elements such as 'critical and rare facilities' to be decided on a case-to-case basis by the health ministry have been introduced in the proposed pharma FDI policy without providing a definition of critical and rare facilities.

    *

    DIPP has proposed that foreign buyers not be allowed to enforce any non-compete clause, giving the existing promoter leeway to foray into the same line of business, a provision it feels can increase competition. Besides, investors will have to ensure that 25% of the total investment, if FDI exceeds 49%, will have to go towards enhancing production of the existing facility or part greenfield operations.


    The Planning Commission has said the current policy in place from 2011 has not impacted drug prices in the country. Ahluwalia has also asked DIPP to clarify the ambiguity on the usage of 'existing companies' in the press note in 2011, and 'brownfield companies' in the circular 1 of 2013.


    The department of economic affairs in the finance ministry has said the present policy should continue for some time so that its impact can be examined. It has, however, supported the idea to remove non-compete clauses from takeovers in pharma sectors.


    However, experts feel removing the noncompete clause will be a deal-breaker for the sector that has been seeing heightened investor interest. "This move, if implemented, would be a definite dealbreaker for pharma MNCs. When MNCs decide to enter emerging markets like India, they are already apprehensive of the intense competition these markets are fraught with. Non-compete clauses are levers which allow both foreign buyers and Indian seller firms to arrive at a business plan best suited to both players," said Murali Nair, partner, E&Y.


    Parliament's standing committee on chemicals and fertilisers has also suggested a blanket ban on FDI in brownfield pharma.

    http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/news-by-industry/healthcare/biotech/pharmaceuticals/Planning-Commission-rejects-DIPP-proposal-to-limit-FDI-in-pharma/articleshow/25279329.cms


    Macroeconomic data, earnings, FII trend to drive stock markets: Experts

    Macroeconomic data, movement of rupee against the US dollar, foreign investments trend and earnings from blue-chips such as SBI would drive the stock markets in a holiday-shortened week ahead, experts said.


    Industrial production data for September would be announced on Tuesday.


    Besides, the data on inflation based onconsumer price index (CPI) for October will be unveiled on Tuesday, while wholesale price index (WPI) numbers will come on Friday.


    Stock markets would remain closed for Moharram on Thursday.


    The major earnings announcements this week are -- NHPC, Reliance PowerBSE 0.87 %, Hindalco IndustriesBSE -0.21 %,Reliance CommunicationsBSE -0.25 %, Tata Global BeveragesBSE -0.31 %, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Cipla, Coal India, Mahindra & Mahindra, State Bank of India, Tata SteelBSE 2.86 %, Tata PowerBSE 0.30 % and Jaiprakash Associates.


    "Global cues and economic and political scenarios within the country will impact near-term trend. This week, 6,080 shall be a crucial deciding level for Nifty in near-term, and the index is likely to witness further selling below this level," said Rakesh Goyal, Senior Vice President, Bonanza Portfolio Limited.


    Overseas investors have poured in nearly Rs 3,000 crore in the Indian stock market so far this month.


    Meanwhile, the US economy saw an addition of 2,04,000 new jobs in October despite a fortnight long government shutdown, latest government figures had said last week, reflecting an improvement in the condition of the world's largest economy.


    Over the past week, the S&P BSE benchmark Sensex ended lower by 531 points to 20,666.15 after touching an all-time high of 21,321.53 during the first day of the Samvat year 2070.


    Case for food security: Effective PDS implementation by states has helped pull millions out of poverty​New research argues that the public distribution system lifted 38 million people out of poverty in 2009-10. And it's getting better. Don't thank the UPA, though.

    Editor's Pick

    By Avinash Celestine, ET Bureau | 10 Nov, 2013, 10.44AM IST

    37 comments |Post a Comment


    In the vociferous debate around the food security bill, critics seemingly had evidence and history on their side. The public distribution system (PDS) has for long been seen in policy circles as a kind of budgetary black hole, sucking in enormous resources and giving back very little in return, in terms of poverty reduction or better nutrition.


    Critics charged that the implementation of the food bill, with its legal guarantee of minimum levels of food for a large mass of the population, would only lead to an increase in food subsidy, currently pegged at Rs 90,000 crore for 2013-14. The conclusion: more taxpayer money will go down the drain. Now new research argues that the population pulled out of poverty in the last decade, thanks to PDS, has actually increased sharply. The research, by Himanshu, an associate professor atJawaharlal Nehru University, and Abhijit Sen, member of the Planning Commission, is due to be published in the Economic and Political Weekly.


    In 1993-94, there would have been around 413 million poor, if there had been no PDS from which people could buy subsidised food. Of this number, around 10 million (2.4%) were lifted above the poverty line because of access to PDS. In 2004-05, following a shift to targeted PDS, that number had risen to 14 million out of 417 million — or 3.3%.


    But it was after 2004-05 that a sharp shift happened, with the number of poor falling to 402 million, despite it being a drought year, of which 38 million (10%) were lifted out of poverty due to PDS. And in 2011-12, preliminary results indicate that without any system of food transfers there would have been 330 million poor in the country. Because of PDS, the number of poor lifted out of poverty was 50 million (15%). About 30% of the reduction in the poverty rate between 2004-05 and 2009-10 was attributable to PDS, according to the paper. And that's not even the whole story, since the food subsidy system also supports the midday meal scheme which accounted for another 17 million poor being lifted out of poverty in 2009-10.


    Has PDS Changed?


    Underlying these shifts is evidence from other surveys of a sharp shift in the nature and reach of PDS. In the late 1990s, the scope of PDS was narrowed sharply, with the introduction of the so-called targeted PDS, which created two categories of consumers — those below the poverty line who got grain at highly subsidized prices, and those above the poverty line who received grain at far less subsidized prices. This shift, in 1999 under the NDA government, led to a sharp drop in the coverage of PDS and a jump in the 'leakages' — the share of grain that was supposed to reach the intended beneficiaries but didn't — from the system. But it was after 2004-05 that PDS reversed course.



    *

    It was a policy reversal, effectively resulting in a more inclusive and broader system in a number of states, which was rarely officially acknowledged as such. It may be tempting to align this shift with the change in governments at the national level with the UPA coming to power, but the Congress-led government at the Centre had relatively little to do with this shift. As the authors point out, much of the effort at improving PDS was done by individual states. These included Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Bihar.



    "Such ownership and effort [by states] appears crucial," say the authors. "Its lack was one reason why PDS failed before 2004-05..." And interestingly, increase in the expenditure on the food subsidy and PDS system by both the Centre and states since 2003-04, as a share of GDP, has been entirely due to increased expenditure by states, not the Centre. The other big shift that actually led to a de facto broadening of PDS was a Supreme Court order in 2001 which required all states to implement the midday meal scheme.


    Out of Poverty


    In their study, the authors looked at data on families recorded in the large scale NationalSample Surveys, who bought food from PDS in different years. They valued the amount of food bought from PDS at their market prices in those years. The difference between the subsidized price the families actually paid, and what they would have paid had they bought that food from the market amounts to a transfer of funds from the government to the poor. The authors then calculated the number of poor people who, because of such a transfer, ended up with a consumption level that was higher than the level which determined the poverty line. The authors found that 1.3% of the population was lifted above the poverty line as a result of such transfers in 1993-94, 2.6% in 2004-05 and 4.6% in 2009-10.


    "...increased food transfers accounted for 32% of reduction in the Tendulkar Head Count Ratio between 2004-05 and 2000-10," say the authors. The Head Count Ratio is the technical term for the poverty rate published by the Planning Commission, which was 22% in 2011-12, down from 29.8% in 2009-10 and 37.2% in 2004-05. The authors acknowledge that 2009-10, being a drought year, could well be an anomaly, since high food prices would have forced many more families to be reliant on subsidised food from PDS, leading to a bounce in the number of people who benefitted from it.



    However, say the authors: "Since a vital role of PDS in food security is to cope with drought and high food price inflation, this is a matter that should be noted rather than played down when evaluating whether PDS is effective or not." Despite criticism of the National Food Security Act, it may have history and evidence on its side to a greater extent than usually believed.


    http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/policy/case-for-food-security-effective-pds-implementation-by-states-has-helped-pull-millions-out-of-poverty/articleshow/25517576.cms?intenttarget=no


    'কেউ যদি বেশি খাও, খাবার হিসেব নাও'

    ভারতে মাত্র ৩০ কোটি মানুষ যদি সপ্তাহে এক দিন একবেলা উপোস করেন, তা হলে অন্তত ১৫ লক্ষ কুইন্টাল খাদ্যশস্যের সাশ্রয় সম্ভব৷ অর্থাত্‍, বছরে সাত কোটি ৮০ লাখ কুইন্টাল৷ আসুন, উপোস আন্দোলন গড়ে তুলি৷ লিখছেন অমল সরকার


    প্রথম ইউপিএ সরকার কর্মহীনের পাশে দাঁড়াতে বছরে ১০০ দিন কাজ দেওয়া নিশ্চিত করেছিল৷ দ্বিতীয় ইউপিএ সরকার খাদ্য সুরক্ষা নিশ্চিত করার কাজ হাতে দিয়েছে৷ আমাদের মতো একটি বিশাল দেশে এই ধরনের প্রকল্পের ভাবনা এবং বাস্তবায়ন, দুই-ই প্রশংসাযোগ্য৷ অর্থনীতির অনেক গণ্যমান্য মানুষ আশঙ্কা প্রকাশ করেছেন, এই প্রকল্পের ফলে দেশ আরও বড় আর্থিক বিপর্যয়ের সম্মুখীন হবে৷ এই বিশিষ্টরা যে সব নামজাদা প্রতিষ্ঠানের পরিসংখ্যানে চোখ বুলিয়ে এমন আশঙ্কায় আচ্ছন্ন, সেই সব প্রতিষ্ঠানের তথ্য দিয়েই এক দল দাবি করছেন, এই প্রকল্পের মাধ্যমে মোটেই গরিব মানুষের ভাণ্ডারে খাদ্য শস্যের জোগান বাড়বে না৷ ঘোষণামতো চাল-গম দিতে না পারলে তা খোলা বাজার থেকে কিনে নিতে নগদ টাকা দেওয়ার সংস্থান রাখা হয়েছে আইনে৷ এ জন্য যে পরিমাণ অর্থ বরাদ্দ হবে সেই টাকায় বাজার থেকে প্রয়োজনীয় চাল, আটা কেনা যাবে কি না তা নিয়ে ঘোর সংশয় আছে৷ কারণ, বাজার চলে বাজার চলে বাজারের নিয়মে৷ যে কারণে প্রয়োজনের দ্বিগুন পরিমানে আলু হিমঘরে মজুত থাকা সত্ত্বেও ১০ টাকার আলু ১৬ টাকায় কিনতে হচ্ছে৷

    http://eisamay.indiatimes.com/editorial/post-editorial/articleshow/25258550.cms


    'সারা দেশে ছোটো ছোটো গণআন্দোলন রাষ্ট্রের মাথাব্যথার কারণ হয়ে উঠতে পারে'

    'সব জায়গায়, সব গ্রামে, সাধারণ লোক বহুজাতিকের বিরুদ্ধে রায় দিচ্ছে৷ কয়েক বছর ধরে হাজার অত্যাচারের মধ্যেও আদিবাসীরা বেদান্ত কোম্পানিকে বক্সাইট ও অন্যান্য মিনারেলের জন্যে জায়গা ছাড়েনি৷' জানালেন তথ্যচিত্র নির্মাতা সঞ্জয় কাক৷ আলাপে সৌমিত্র দস্তিদার




    সৌমিত্র দস্তিদার: তোমার নতুন ছবি তো এর মধ্যেই বেশ বিতর্ক তুলেছে, অনেকে বলছে তোমার 'রেড অ্যান্ট ড্রিম' আগের দুই ছবি 'নর্মদা' ও কাশ্মীর নিয়ে 'জশন্-এ-আজাদি'-র পরিপূরক৷ বস্ত্তত এ এক ট্রিলজি, 'নর্মদা' নিয়ে ক্যামেরায় তোমার যে জার্নির সূচনা, তার বৃত্ত সম্পূর্ণ হল নতুন এই ছবিতে৷ তুমি কী বলো?


    সঞ্জয়: আমি ব্যক্তিগত ভাবে ট্রিলজি বা নির্দিষ্ট কোনও গন্তব্যে পৌঁছনো তা বলিনি৷ আসলে পিপলস মুভমেন্ট যেখানে যেখানে হয় তার কারণ অনুসন্ধানই আমার কাছে গুরুত্বপূর্ণ৷ সে ক্ষেত্রে তুমি লক্ষ করবে 'নর্মদা' মূলত মেধা পাটকরের নেতৃত্বে গান্ধীবাদী আন্দোলন, 'জশন্-এ-আজাদি' আবার একই সঙ্গে রাষ্ট্রীয় সন্ত্রাস, মানবাধিকার লঙ্ঘন এবং জাতিসত্তার প্রশ্ন নিয়ে সংগ্রামের এক দলিল৷


    পাশাপাশি এই ছবিতে দেখো অনেক ক্ষেত্রেই বার বার ঘুরে ফিরে এসেছে বস্তারের মাওবাদী রাজনীতি৷




    এই নতুন ডকুমেন্টরিতে তুমি মাওবাদী রাজনীতি যেমন এনেছ, তেমনই ভগত্‍ সিং ও ওড়িশার নিয়মগিরি মুভমেন্টের কথাও বলেছ৷ সেই সঙ্গে পাঞ্জাবের খালিস্তানি আন্দোলনে শহিদ কবি পাসে'র কবিতাও ব্যবহার করেছ৷ তাঁকে স্মরণও করেছ৷ এই তিন আলাদা আলাদা আপাত পৃথক বিষয়ের মধ্যে যোগসূত্রটা ঠিক কী? তথ্যচিত্রের ফর্মের দিক দিয়েও ভাবনাটা অভিনব একটু কি উত্তরআধুনিক বলা যায়?


    কোনও নির্দিষ্ট সংজ্ঞা আমি বলব না, আমি বিশ্বাসও করি না পোস্ট মডার্ন, সুরিয়ালিস্ট বা আভাগাঁর্দ- এ ভাবে ভাগাভাগিতে৷ আসলে আমি যে বিষয়ে বলতে চাই সেটাকে নানা দিক দিয়ে দেখি৷ তারই প্রতিফলন ঘটে আমার ছবির ফর্মে৷ 'নর্মদা' থেকে 'বস্তার' এই তিনের মধ্যে যোগসূত্রও থাকছে৷ এক তো আগেই বলেছি পিপলস মুভমেন্ট, দুই হচ্ছে রাষ্ট্র কী ভাবে গণআন্দোলনকে চিরকালই সন্ত্রাসবাদ আখ্যা দিয়ে দমন-পীড়ন চালায়৷ আবার প্রয়োজনে সেই সন্ত্রাসবাদীকেও আইকন হিসেবে রাষ্ট্র ব্যবহার করে৷ 'ভগত্‍ সিং' যেমন ব্যক্তি সন্ত্রাসের রাজনীতির বাইরে গিয়ে জেলের ভিতরে হয়ে উঠেছিলেন আদ্যন্ত মার্কসিস্ট৷ ফাঁসির ঠিক আগে জেলের কর্মীরা যখন ওকে ডাকতে আসে তখন তিনি বলেছিলেন একটু অপেক্ষা করতে হবে আমি বইটা শেষ করে যাচ্ছি৷ বইটি ছিল লেনিনের 'রাষ্ট্র ও বিপ্লব'৷ স্বাধীনতার পরে সমস্ত রাজনৈতিক দলই ভগত্‍ সিং-এর জনপ্রিয়তাকে নিজেদের স্বার্থে ব্যবহার করতে চেয়েছে তাঁর দর্শনকে বাদ দিয়ে৷ কবি পাস শহিদ হয়েছিলেন ভগত্‍ সিং-এর ফাঁসির দিনই ২৩ মার্চ, সময়ের ফারাককে বাদ দিলে দু'জনেই কিন্ত্ত আজ গোটা দেশে বিশেষ করে পাঞ্জাবের নতুন প্রজন্মের কাছেও জনপ্রিয় ও গুরুত্বপূর্ণ দেশপ্রেমিক৷ মাওবাদীদের ক্ষেত্রে একটা কথা তো সত্যি, রাষ্ট্রের হাজার অত্যাচারের মধ্যেও বস্তারে বিস্তীর্ণ এলাকায় জনমনে তাদের প্রভাব অনস্বীকার্য৷ যেখানেই স্ক্রিনিং হয় লোকে যখন জানতে চায় যে বস্তার ও কাশ্মীরের সাধারণ মানুষ কোন পক্ষে?


    আমি প্রায়ই বলি, যে যদি কাশ্মীরের আমজনতাকে জিজ্ঞেস করেন ভারতীয় সেনা ও আন্দোলনকারী আপনি কার সমর্থক? দেখবেন ৯০ শতাংশ লোকই মিলিটারির বিরুদ্ধে৷ একই ভাবে বস্তারেও রাষ্ট্র পুলিশ মিলিটারি এস পি ও আর মাওবাদীদের মধ্যে তুলনামূলক আলোচনা হলে লোকের সমর্থন সন্দেহ নেই থাকবে মাওবাদীদের দিকে৷ এই কারণগুলো না খঁুজলে দেশের কোনওদিনই গণতন্ত্র সার্থক হতে পারে না৷




    তুমি যখন কাশ্মীরের কথা বলছই তখন জিজ্ঞেস করি, কিছুদিন আগে শ্রীনগরে যে জুবিন মেহতার মিউজিক কনসার্ট হল শান্তির উদ্দেশে তা নিয়েও কিছু কিছু মহলে কথা উঠেছে কলকাতাতেও কবীর সুমন জুবিনের বিরোধিতা করে গান লিখেছেন, বিক্ষোভ হয়েছে কাশ্মীরেও, কিন্ত্ত কেন? গোটা বিষয়ে উদ্দেশ্য নিয়ে তোমার কী মত?

    প্রথমেই বলি, আমরা তো কেউ সঙ্গীতের বিরুদ্ধে নই৷ এমনকী কবীর সুমনও যে গান লিখেছে তুমি নিশ্চয় জানো, সেখানেও ব্যক্তি জুবিনকে বিরোধিতা করা হয়নি৷ প্রশ্ন তোলা হয়েছে গান গাইবার সময় জুবিনের একবারও মনে পড়বে যে রাষ্ট্রীয় সন্ত্রাসের শিকার কয়েক হাজার নিরীহ কাশ্মীরির কথা? তা ছাড়া, এর পিছনে যে জার্মান কনসাল-এর উদ্যোগ ছিল তিনি এর আগেও আফগানিস্তানে এ রকম কনসার্ট বসিয়েছিলেন৷ আপাত ভাবে এই উদ্দেশ্য নিয়ে প্রশ্ন তোলার কথাও নয়৷ কিন্ত্ত গোটা রাজ্যে বিশেষ করে শ্রীনগরে কার্ফু জারি করে কনসার্ট বোঝাই যায় এর পিছনে জনসমর্থন ছিল না৷

    এক দিনে কোটি কোটি টাকা খরচা হয়েছে৷ শালিমার বাগে অত্যাধুনিক বিদেশি গাড়ির লাইন পড়ে গিয়েছিল৷ মোট বাজেটের বড়ো অংশ নাকি এই গাড়ি স্পনসর করেছিল৷ তাদের উদ্দেশ্য অবশ্যই ভারতের বাজার দখল করা, কিন্ত্ত শান্তি প্রতিষ্ঠা কিনা সে প্রশ্ন আলাদা৷ কাশ্মীরে বলা হয় টেররিস্টরা সঙ্গীতেরও বিরুদ্ধে৷ অথচ এই 'এহসাস-এ-কাশ্মীর' যখন জুবিন মেহতা করলেন তাঁর পাল্টা হিসেবে কাশ্মীরের সাধারণ লোক কাছেই একটা পার্কে যে 'হকিকত-এ-কাশ্মীর'-এর আয়োজন করেছিলেন তাতে কার্ফু উপেক্ষা করে ভিড় উপচে পড়েছে৷ সুতরাং বলা যাবে না সঙ্গীতের বিরুদ্ধে কাশ্মীরের আন্দোলন৷ বরং আন্দোলনের হাতিয়ার হয়ে সঙ্গীত নাটক চলচ্চিত্র উঠে এসেছিল 'হকিকত-এ-কাশ্মীর'-এ৷




    তুমি কী বিশ্বায়নের সংস্কৃতির পাল্টা হিসেবে গণআন্দোলনের এক মাধ্যম হিসেবে সংস্কৃতির বিকল্প পথের উপরেও জোর দিতে চাইছ?


    একদম ঠিক, কাশ্মীরের পার্কে গণজমায়েতে যে সংস্কৃতির ধারা সাধারণকে অনুপ্রাণিত করেছিল তা কোনও কর্পোরেট পুঁজির দাক্ষিণ্যে জনপ্রিয়তা পায়নি৷ মানুষের আবেগই উঠে এসেছিল গান কবিতা নাটক সংস্কৃতি নানা মাধ্যমে৷ ভোপালে ইউনিয়ন কার্বাইডের গ্যাস দুর্ঘটনা, আদতে যা গণহত্যা তার প্রতিবাদেও '৮৪-র পর থেকে আজ অবধি প্রতি শনিবার কার্বাইড কারখানার কাছের এক পার্কে নিয়মিত এক সাংস্কৃতিক জমায়েত হয়৷ সেখানে দুর্ঘটনায় নিহত শহিদের পরিবারেরা যেমন থাকেন তেমনই দেখা যায় নতুন প্রজন্মের অজস্র তরুণ তরুণীদের৷ ডকুমেন্টরির বিপণনেও মাল্টিপ্লেক্স কালচারের বিপরীতে আমরা গড়ে তুলতে চাই 'জনতা কি মাল্টিপেক্স'৷ অজস্র গুরুত্বপূর্ণ তথ্যচিত্র প্রদর্শনীর মধ্যে দিয়ে জন্ম নিতে পারে এক সাংস্কৃতিক আন্দোলন৷ এই জনগণের সংস্কৃতি সব সময়ই সব দেশেই শাসকদের ভয়ের কারণ হয়৷ এক দিকে যখন কাশ্মীরে রাষ্ট্র সঙ্গীতের মধ্যে দিয়ে শান্তির আবহ তৈরি করতে চাইছে, অন্য দিকে পুনায় ও অন্যান্য নানা শহরে নব্যহিন্দুত্ববাদীরা আক্রমণ নামিয়ে আনছে কবীর কলা মঞ্চের মতো দলিত গণশিল্পীদের সংগঠনের উপর৷ এ কাজে বি জে পি ও কংগ্রেস কোনও ফারাক নেই৷ আনন্দ পট্টবর্ধনের নতুন ছবি 'জয় ভীম কমরেড'-এ গান করেছেন কবীর কলা মঞ্চের শিল্পীরা৷ তাদের মাওবাদী সন্দেহে পুলিশ দীর্ঘদিন ধরে হয়রান করেছে৷ অথচ দলিত তরুণী শীতল শাঠের মতো গায়িকা নিঃসন্দেহে দেশের গৌরব৷




    তুমি বস্তারের আন্দোলনটা কী ভাবে দেখছ?


    দেখো, আবারও বলব, নর্মদা, বস্তার, ওডিশার বিভিন্ন জায়গা সর্বত্রই ছবিটা এক৷ খনিজ সমৃদ্ধ এলাকাগুলিতে একের পর এক বহুজাতিক পুঁজি হিংস্র থাবা বসাচ্ছে উন্নয়নের নামে৷ আমাদের সরকার দু'হাত তুলে তাদের স্বাগত জানাচ্ছে৷ তার ফলে বঞ্চিত হচ্ছে বিশাল সংখ্যক আদিবাসী জনজাতির লোকেরা৷ একটা সময় ছিল যখন সব কিছুই তারা ভবিতব্য বলে নীরবে মেনে নিত৷ কয়েক বছরে ধীরে ধীরে ছবিটা পাল্টেছে৷ কৃষক, অসংগঠিত শ্রমিক আদিবাসী পাল্টা প্রতিরোধে নেমেছে৷ বঞ্চনার বিরুদ্ধে নিজেদের জল-জঙ্গল-জমি নিয়ে অধিকারের দাবিতে৷ রাষ্ট্র, পুঁজি বনাম জনগণের এই দ্বন্দ্বে সারা ভারতেই পুঁজির পক্ষ নিচ্ছে৷ সন্ত্রাস নামাচ্ছে নিজেদের নাগরিকদের বিরুদ্ধে৷ বস্তারেও তার ব্যতিক্রম নয়৷ ওখানে এখন আক্ষরিক অর্থেই যুদ্ধপরিস্থিতি৷ গ্রামের পর গ্রাম একদিকে 'মাওবাদী পিপলস্ গেরিলা লিবারেশন' আর্মি মার্চ করছে, অন্যদিকে রাষ্ট্র ক্রমেই নতুন নতুন পথ খুঁজছে দেশের পক্ষে সবচেয়ে বিপজ্জনক শক্তির উপর আঘাত হানার জন্য৷ এই পরিস্থিতি ক্রমশই আরও জটিল হবে৷ পুঁজি খনিজসমৃদ্ধ এলাকা নিজের অধিকার যত বেশি কায়েম করতে চাইবে ততই সংঘাত তীব্র হবে৷




    বস্তারের অবুঝমার-এ মিলিটারি তো নতুন করে ঘাঁটি করবে ঠিক করেছে৷ আকাশপথেও বিমান আক্রমণে প্রস্ত্ততি চলছে৷ এই অবস্থায় তোমার কী মনে হয় দু'এক বছরের মধ্যেই সরকারি ভাবে যুদ্ধ ঘোষণা হবে?


    '৬০-এর দশকে নাগাল্যান্ডের নাগা 'বিদ্রোহী'দের দমন করার জন্যে গ্রামের পর গ্রাম ভারতীয় বায়ুসেনার বোমায় ধ্বংস হয়ে গিয়েছিল৷ সে সব এখন ইতিহাস৷ কত হাজার গ্রামবাসী ওই সময় প্রাণ দিয়েছিলেন৷ তা নিয়ে আজ আর কোনও আলোচনাই হয় না৷ কে জানে বস্তারের ঠিক কী হতে চলেছে? তবে আমার মনে হয় যেহেতু এখন বিশ্বব্যাপী অর্থনৈতিক মন্দা চলছে বহুজাতিক পুঁজি কিছুটা কোণঠাসা৷ তাই বিভিন্ন মাল্টিন্যাশনাল কোম্পানি সরকারকে এখনও চরমসীমা দিতে পারেনি যে গোটা এলাকা আদিবাসীশূন্য করে দেওয়ার৷ তাই এখনও সে অর্থে যুদ্ধ ঘোষণা হয়নি কিন্ত্ত বাকিটাই বা কী আছে? দন্তেওয়াড়া, গীদম, বাসাগুডা, গড়চৌলি সব জায়গায় ভারতীয় সেনার রণহুঙ্কার হঠাত্‍ দেখলে ইরান ইরাক আফগানিস্তানকে মনে করিয়ে দেয়৷ সরকারি সন্ত্রাস যত বাড়বে তত মাওবাদী রাজনীতির প্রভাবও বাড়বে৷




    অবুঝমার তো প্রাচীন গোণ্ড আদিবাসীদের পবিত্র স্থান৷ স্বাভাবিক ভাবে সেখানে মিলিটারি ঘাঁটি গড়ে উঠলে মাওবাদী নয় এবং সাধারণ আদিবাসীরাও তো বিদ্রোহ করবে৷ তা তো করবেই৷ নিয়মগিরিও তো তাই৷ ওডিশা রায়গোডা বিভিন্ন গ্রামে কয়েক বছর ধরে স্থানীয় গ্রামসহ ভোটাভুটি হচ্ছে 'উন্নয়নের স্বার্থে' মাল্টিন্যাশনাল কোম্পানিকে জায়গা দেওয়া হবে কি না তা নিয়ে৷ সব জায়গায়, সব গ্রামে, সাধারণ লোক বহুজাতিকের বিরুদ্ধে রায় দিচ্ছে৷ কয়েক বছর ধরে হাজার অত্যাচারের মধ্যেও আদিবাসীরা বেদান্ত কোম্পানিকে বক্সাইট ও অন্যান্য মিনারেলের জন্যে জায়গা ছাড়েনি৷ এই বিস্তীর্ণ ভারতে ছোটো ছোটো যে গণআন্দোলন তাই কিন্ত্ত আগামী দিনে ভারত রাষ্ট্রের মাথাব্যথার কারণ হতে পারে৷ তা সে গান্ধীবাদী পথেই হোক বা মাওবাদী বা অন্যান্য বামপন্থী ধারার নেতৃত্বেই হোক৷ স্বাভাবিক আমি এ ছবিটা করেছি, ছবিটার নাম দিয়েছি 'রেড অ্যান্ট ড্রিম'৷ এই ছোটো আপাত গুরুত্বহীন লাল স্বপ্ন যত তুচ্ছই হোক, ইতিমধ্যেই তা সরকারি মাথা ব্যথার কারণ হয়ে উঠেছে৷ কাশ্মীর, মধ্যভারত ও উত্তরপূর্ব ভারতে সন্ত্রাস দিয়ে কখনওই তা দমন করা যায় না৷ এক জায়গায় যদি আগুন নিভে যায় অন্য জায়গায় তা জ্বলে ওঠে৷ এই ভারতকে নতুন করে আমাদের আবিষ্কার করতে হবে৷ খুঁজতে হবে মানুষের মধ্যে অপরিসীম শক্তিকে যা শাসকদের দম্ভ কখনওই থামিয়ে দিতে পারে না৷ আমার ছবিতে বা আমাদের ছবিতে বারে বারে এই ভারতই উঠে আসে৷


    কয়েক বছর আগেও ডকুমেন্টারি গোটা দেশে এত পরিচিত ছিল না৷ এখন আজমগড়, ভাতিন্দা, উত্তরপ্রদেশ, পাঞ্জাব, রাজস্থান বিভিন্ন জায়গায় ছোটো ছোটো শহরে ডকুমেন্টারি এক বিকল্প বিপণনের সম্ভাবনা ক্রমেই বাড়ছে৷ সাধারণ লোক জানতে চাইছে এ দেশের আসল পরিস্থিতি কী? গ্রামের দেহাতি মানুষও পকেটের পয়সা খরচা করে কিনে নিয়ে যাচ্ছে বিকল্প তথ্যচিত্রের ডিভিডি৷ আন্দোলন ও আন্দোলনের ছবি একে অন্যের পরিপূরক৷ আন্দোলন যত বাড়বে ডকুমেন্টারিও এ দেশে তত গুরুত্বপূর্ণ হবে৷

    http://eisamay.indiatimes.com/editorial/interviews/interview-with-sanjay/articleshow/22801331.cms

    গোল্ডম্যান স্যাক্সের রিপোর্টে নমো-স্তুতি, তীব্র নিন্দায় কংগ্রেস

    নয়াদিল্লি: মোদীর প্রশংসা করে সরকারের নিন্দা কুড়োল আন্তর্জাতিক আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠান গোল্ডম্যান স্যাক্স৷ সম্প্রতি এক রিপোর্টে, ভারতীয় শেয়ার বাজারের উত্থানের পূর্বাভাস দিয়ে আগামী বছর সাধারণ নির্বাচনে 'ব্যবসা-বন্ধু' মোদীর ক্ষমতা দখলের ইঙ্গিত করেছে গোল্ডম্যান স্যাক্স৷ যার জেরে এই রিপোর্টকে 'একপেশে', 'রাজনৈতিক রং জড়ানো' বলে উল্লেখ করেছেন কেন্দ্রীয় বাণিজ্য মন্ত্রী আনন্দ শর্মা৷ তাঁর মতে, এই রিপোর্টটি 'ভুল এবং আপত্তিকর'৷ যদিও আত্মপক্ষসমর্থনে গোল্ডম্যান স্যাক্স কর্তৃপক্ষ জানিয়েছে, সারা দেশের বিনিয়োগকারীগের মানসিকতা বিচার করেই রিপোর্টটি তৈরি৷ এতে কোনও পক্ষপাতিত্ব নেই৷



    রিপোর্টে কী বলেছে গোল্ডম্যান স্যাক্স? আন্তর্জাতিক উপদেষ্টা এবং বিনিয়োগ সংস্থাটি গত ৫ নভেম্বর সংশ্লিষ্ট রিপোর্টটি প্রকাশ করেছে৷ যাতে স্পষ্ট বলা হয়েছে, ২০১৪-র লোকসভা নির্বাচনে মসনদে বসতে পারে বিজেপির নেতৃত্বাধীন এনডিএ জোট৷ শেয়ারে বিনিয়োগকারীরা বিজেপিকে বিনিয়োগ-বান্ধব বলে মনে করেন, এবং বিজেপির প্রধানমন্ত্রী পদপ্রার্থী নরেন্দ্র মোদীকে পরিবর্তনের প্রতীক বলে মনে করা হয়৷ তাই বিজেপি সরকার ক্ষমতা এলে দেশের শেয়ার বাজার ঊর্ধ্বমুখী হবে৷ পাঁচ রাজ্যের বিধানসভা নির্বাচনে বিজেপি ভালো ফল করবে বলে আশা৷ সেখান থেকেই লোকসভায় তাদের এগিয়ে রাখা হচ্ছে৷ সাধারণ নির্বাচনের ফলাফল নিয়ে অনিশ্চয়তা থাকলেও, আগামী দু'টি ত্রৈমাসিকে বাজার তেজি থাকতে পারে৷ ২০১৪ সালের শেষের দিকে ন্যাশনাল স্টক এক্সচেঞ্জ সূচক নিফটি ৬৯০০ পয়েন্ট স্পর্শ করতে পারে৷ অর্থাত্‍, বর্তমান স্তর থেকে ৯ শতাংশ বৃদ্ধি৷ এ ছাড়া বাকি শেয়ার বাজার সূচকগুলিও ভালো ফল করবে৷ 'মোদী-ফাইং আওয়ার ভিউ' শীর্ষক রিপোর্টে ভারতীয় শেয়ার বাজারগুলিকে 'মার্কেট ওয়েট' রেটিং দেওয়া হয়েছে৷ অর্থাত্‍, এখানে বিনিয়োগ হওয়ার সম্ভাবনা প্রবল৷


    তবে বিনিয়োগকারীদের মানসিকতা ব্যাখ্যা করতে গিয়ে দেশের ৮০ কোটি ভোটারের ভাবাবেগে আঘাত করা হয়েছে বলে গোল্ডম্যান স্যাক্সের বিরুদ্ধে অভিযোগ করেছেন মন্ত্রী আনন্দ শর্মা৷ তিনি বলেছেন, 'গোল্ডম্যান স্যাক্স তাদের পরিচিত জায়গা- অর্থনীতি নিয়ে মাথা ঘামাক না৷ দেশের রাজনীতিতে ঢুকে পড়ার কারণ কী? আর আমাদের মতো স্বনির্ভর দেশের এরকম কোনও সমীক্ষা বা রিপোর্টের দরকার নেই৷ বিশেষ করে তাদের কাছ থেকে যারা রাজনীতি থেকে সম্পূর্ণ বিচ্ছিন্ন বিষয় নিয়ে কাজ করেন৷ আমরা কখনও অন্য দেশের ভোটারদের বলি না তাদের কী করা উচিত৷ আমাদের ৮০ কোটি ভোটারকে অপমান করা, তাদের কী করতে হবে বলে দেওয়ার মানে কী? আমাদের গণতন্ত্র এবং আমাদের দেশের প্রতি সংস্থাটির সম্মান দেখানো উচিত৷'


    ভারতের তরফে এই প্রতিক্রিয়া পেয়ে গোল্ডম্যানের ভারতীয় শাখার সিইও বান্টি ভোরা বলেছেন, 'এই রিপোর্ট সংশ্লিষ্ট লেখকের নিজস্ব মতামত নয়৷ এটি একটি স্বাধীন গবেষণা৷ পরিস্থিতি যা ইঙ্গিত দিচ্ছে তাই তুলে ধরা হয়েছে রিপোর্টে৷ বর্তমান অর্থনৈতিক পরিবেশ এবং মূল্য-সূচকের উপর নির্ভর করেই পূর্বাভাস দেওয়া হয়েছে৷' সংস্থার তরফে আনুষ্ঠানিক বিবৃতি দিয়ে বলা হয়েছে, 'কোনও রকম রাজনৈতিক রং না দেখে স্রেফ বিনিয়োগকারীদের মানসিকতা তুলে ধরা হয়েছে রিপোর্টে৷ এই রিপোর্টের মাধ্যমে কোনও রাজনৈতিক মতামত ব্যক্ত করছে না সংস্থা বা তার বিশেষজ্ঞরা৷ রিপোর্টের সততার সম্পূর্ণ দায়িত্ব নিচ্ছে সংস্থা৷'


    অর্থনৈতিক গবেষণায় লিপ্ত সংস্থার রাজনীতির ময়দানে ঢুকে পড়ার প্রসঙ্গে গোল্ডম্যানের বক্তব্য, সমসাময়িক রাজনৈতিক পরিস্থিতি বিচার করে বাজারের অভিমুখ এবং মনোভাব সম্পর্কে নিরপেক্ষ ও স্বাধীন ব্যাখ্যা দেওয়াই সংস্থার কর্তব্য৷


    List of massacres in India

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Not to be confused with Indian massacre.
    This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
    This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling.You can assist by editing it. (August 2013)

    massacre is the general and unnecessary slaughter of members of one group by one or more members of another more powerful group. A massacre may be indiscriminate or highly methodical in application. A massacre is a single event, though it may occur during the course of an extended campaign or war. A massacre is separate from a battle (an event in which opposing sides fight), but may follow in its immediate aftermath, when one side has surrendered or lost the ability to fight, yet the victors persist in killing their opponents.

    Massacres[edit]

    Name/PlaceDate LocationDeaths Notes
    Massacres after the battle of Panipat 1761Panipat 40,000-70,000 Hindu Maratha [1][2] About 22,000 Hindu women and young children enslaved
    Massacres by General Neill June–July 1857Allahabad, Kanpur and surrounding areas Thousands of Indian mutineers, suspected rebels and civilians[3] The massacres at Allahabad took place before the Bibighar massacre; the ones at Kanpur after it
    Satichaura Ghat massacre 27 June 1857Kanpur Around 200 British men[4] Massacre by Nana Sahib's forces
    Bibighar massacre 15 July 1857Kanpur Around 200 British women and children[5] The victims were prisoners under Nana Sahib's forces. The massacre was carried out by a group of butchers, but who ordered it remains unclear.
    Jhokan Bagh massacre8 June 1857Jhansi European officers, their wives and children (60 Europeans)Some of the sepoys of the 12th Bengal Native Infantry were responsible for the massacre
    Jhansi massacre3–4 April 1858Jhansi Majority of the population, ~5,000 killed, after rebel city Jhansi was captured by British forces commanded by Sir Hugh Rose.[6] After the city was captured street fighting continued into the following day and no quarter was given, even to women and children. "No maudlin clemency was to mark the fall of the city" wrote Thomas Lowe.[7]
    Jallianwala Bagh massacre 13 April 1919Amritsar 379-1,000 Hindus, Muslims and SikhsBritish Police open fire on protesting group of people.
    Moplah Rebellion 1922MalabarKerala 2,337-10,000 HindusAnnie Besant reported that Muslim Mappilas forcibly converted many Hindus and killed or drove away Hindus totaling to 100,000.[8]
    Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre 23 April 1930Peshawar 400-700 Hindu - MuslimsBy British Police
    Noakhali genocide October 1946Bengal 5000 Hindus[9][10][11][12] Connected to Direct Action Day
    Great Calcutta Killings (also known as Direct Action Day massacre) 16 August 1946Bengal 7,000 [13][14] Massacre by Muslims on call by Muslim League
    Bihar November 1946Bihar Estimated 8000 mostly MuslimsMassacre by Hindus of Muslims on call by Fundamentalist Hindu Parties
    Garhmukteshwar November 1946Garhmukteshwar Estimated 2000 mostly MuslimsMassacre by Hindus of Muslims on call by Fundamentalist Hindu Parties
    Partition riots in Rawalpindi March 1947Rawalpindi Estimated 5000 mostly SikhsMassacre by Muslims on call by Muslim League
    After 15 August 1947 (Independent India)
    Partition of India 1947Punjab Estimated 1 million on both sidesMassacre of Sikhs and Hindus by Muslims in West Punjab and of Muslims by Sikhs and Hindus in East Punjab
    Hyderabad massacre of 1948 1948Hyderabad 27 - 40,000 Muslims killed.[15] Massacre of Muslims by Indian army and Hindus.[16]
    1969 Gujarat riots 1969Gujarat 660Hindu-Muslim riots; 430 Muslims killed
    Moradabad riots 1980Uttar Pradesh Officially 400; unofficial estimates as high as 2500.[17] Started as a Muslim-Police conflict; later turned into a Hindu-Muslim riot
    Mandai massacre 1980Tripura 255-500 Bengali Hindu refugees [18]
    Nellie massacre 18 February 1983Assam 2,191 Muslims
    Train Passenger massacre I (part of the List of terrorist incidents in Punjab (India)) 23 February 1984Punjab 11 Hindus
    1984 anti-Sikh riots 31 October - 4 November 1984Delhi 2,700-4,000 (nearly all Sikhs)Pogrom by Indian National Congress Party members - Sajjan Kumar & Jagdish Tytler after murder of Indira Gandhi
    Hondh-Chillar massacre(part of the 1984 anti-Sikh massacres) 2 November 1984Hondh-ChillarHaryana 32 SikhsPogrom by Indian National Congress Party members - Sajjan Kumar & Jagdish Tytler after murder of Indira Gandhi
    Desri Ground massacre (part of the List of terrorist incidents in Punjab (India)) 28 March 1986LudhianaPunjab 13 Hindus
    Mallian massacre (part of the List of terrorist incidents in Punjab (India)) 29 March 1986JalandharPunjab 20 Hindu labourers
    Bus Passenger massacre III (part of the List of terrorist incidents in Punjab (India)) 25 July 1986MukatsarPunjab 15 Hindus
    Bus Passenger massacre IV (part of the List of terrorist incidents in Punjab (India)) 30 November 1986KhuddaPunjab 24 Hindus
    Hashimpura massacre 22 May 1987MeerutUttar Pradesh 42 Muslims
    Bus Passenger massacre V (part of the List of terrorist incidents in Punjab (India)) July 1987FatehbadHaryana 80 Hindus
    Jagdev Kalan massacre(part of the List of terrorist incidents in Punjab (India)) 6 August 1987Punjab 13 Hindus
    Rajbah massacre (part of the List of terrorist incidents in Punjab (India)) 31 March 1988Punjab 18 Hindus belonging to 1 family
    Bhagalpur riots October 1989BhagalpurBihar 1,070 mostly Muslims
    Ethnic cleansing of Hindu Pandits 1990sKashmir 219-399 Hindus140,000 to 192,000 Hindus were forced to abandon their ancestral land.[19][19][20]
    Gawakadal massacre 20 January 1990SrinagarKashmir 35 MuslimsFiring on procession by Indian CRPF
    Zakoora and Tengpora Massacre 28 February 19902 locations in Srinigar,Kashmir 47 Muslim (26 in Zakoora, 21 in Tengpora)
    Rajbah massacre (part of the List of terrorist incidents in Punjab (India)) 31 March 1988Punjab 18 Hindus belonging to 1 familyBy Sikh terrorists
    Train Passenger massacre II (part of the1991 Punjab killings) 15 June 1988LudhianaPunjab 80 ( mostly Hindus)By Sikh Terrorists
    Train Passenger massacre III (part of the1991 Punjab killings) December 1988LudhianaPunjab 49 ( mostly Hindus)By Sikh terrorists
    Bombay Riots December 1992 - January 1993Mumbai 575 Muslims, 275 Hindus, 45 unknown and 5 others
    Sopore massacre 6 January 1993SoporeKashmir 55 MuslimsFiring on procession by Indian BSF
    1997 Laxmanpur Bathe massacre 1 December 1997Bihar 58Upper caste Ranvir Sena enter village at night and kill 58 Dalits
    1998 Wandhama massacre 25 January 1998WandhamaJammu and Kashmir 23 HindusPakistan sponsored terrorist groups
    1998 Prankote massacree 17 April 1998Jammu and Kashmir 26 Hindus
    1998 Chapnari massacre 19 June 1998ChapnariJammu and Kashmir 25 HindusPakistan sponsored terrorist groups
    1998 Chamba massacre 3 August 1998Chamba district,Himachal Pradesh 35 HindusCommunal Riots
    Chittisinghpura massacre 20 March 2000ChittisinghpuraAnantnag districtJammu and Kashmir 36 SikhsPakistan sponsored terrorist groups
    Gourangatilla massacre[21] 2000Tripura 16 non-tribal HindusBy Christian extremist. Part of Christian terrorism in Tripura
    Bagber massacre[21] 20 May 2000Tripura 25 non-tribal HindusBy Christian extremist. Part of Christian terrorism in Tripura
    Tripura Tribal massacre (Part of Christian terrorism in Tripura) 1999-2000Tripura 20 tribal HindusIncludes murder of tribal Hindu spiritual leader Shanti Kali,[22] and Hindu religious leader Labh Kumar Jamatia.[23]
    Nanoor massacre 27 July 2000West Bengal 11 labourers
    2000 Amarnath pilgrimage massacre 1 August 2000Jammu and Kashmir 30 (Hindu pilgrims)Pakistan sponsored terrorist groups
    2001 Kishtwar massacre 3 August 2001Jammu and Kashmir 19 HindusPakistan sponsored terrorist groups
    Godhra train burning 27 February 2002Godhra 58 HindusHindu passengers burnt alive[24] by Muslim extremist
    2002 Gujarat violence 28 February 2002Ahmedabad 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed[25] Communal riots
    Gulbarg Society massacre(part of the 2002 Gujarat violence) 28 February 2002Ahmedabad 69 (mostly Muslim)Communal violence
    Naroda Patiya massacre(part of the 2002 Gujarat violence)| 28 February 2002NarodaAhmedabad 97 Muslims[26][27] Communal violence
    Raghunath Hindu temple massacre I (part of 2002 Raghunath temple attacks) 30 March 2002Jammu & Kashmir 11 killed, 20 injured (mostly Hindu devotees)Pakistan sponsored terrorist groups
    2002 Qasim Nagar massacre 13 July 2002Jammu and Kashmir 29 HindusCommunal violence
    Akshardham Temple attack 24 September 2002Gujarat 29 killed, 79 injured (mostly Hindu devotees)Pakistan sponsored terrorist groups
    Raghunath Hindu temple massacre II (part of 2002 Raghunath temple attacks) 24 November 2002Jammu & Kashmir 14 killed, 45 injured (mostly Hindu devotees)Pakistan sponsored terrorist groups
    2003 Nadimarg Massacre 23 March 2002Jammu and Kashmir 24 HindusPakistan sponsored terrorist groups
    2002 Kaluchak massacre 14 May 2002Jammu and Kashmir 31Pakistan sponsored terrorist groups attack Tourist bus and Army's family quarter attacked.
    2006 Varanasi bombings March 2006Uttar Pradesh 28 killed, 101 injured -Devotees of Sankat Mochan Hanuman Templetargeted Terrorist attack Hindu temple.
    Doda massacre 30 April 2006Jammu & Kashmir 35 HindusPakistan sponsored terrorist groups
    Tumudibandh massacre (part of the Murder of Swami Lakshmanananda) August 2008Orissa 5 HindusBy Christian extremists
    Kandhamal riotsAugust 2008Orissa 42[28]
    Mumbai massacre 26 November 2008Mumbai 16411 coordinated attacks by Lashkar-e-Taiba terrorists; casualties include people of various nationalities, and Israeli victims were reportedly tortured before being killed.
    2010 Dantewada bus bombing 17 May 2010Chhattisgarh 76Maoist terrorist attacked civilian bus
    2012 Assam violence July 2012Assam 77 deathsCommunal violence between Bodos (Tribal, Christian & Hindu faith) and Muslims
    2013 Darbha Ghati massacre 29 May 2013Chhattisgarh 2929 people from a Congress Party motorcade

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. Jump up^ T. S. Shejwalkar, Panipat 1761 (in Marathi and English) (Deccan College Monograph Series. I), Pune (1946)
    2. Jump up^ James Grant Duff History of the Mahrattas, Vol II (Ch. 5), Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1826"
    3. Jump up^ Heather Streets (2004). Martial Races: The Military, Race and Masculinity in British Imperial Culture, 1857-1914. Manchester University Press. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-0-7190-6962-8. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
    4. Jump up^ Alex Tickell (17 June 2013). Terrorism, Insurgency and Indian-English Literature, 1830-1947. Routledge. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-136-61841-3. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
    5. Jump up^ Michael Gorra (15 April 2008). After Empire: Scott, Naipaul, Rushdie. University of Chicago Press. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-0-226-30476-2. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
    6. Jump up^ Edwardes (1975) Red Year. London: Sphere Books; p. 122
    7. Jump up^ Edwardes, Michael (1975) Red Year. London: Sphere Books, pp. 120-21
    8. Jump up^ Besant, AnnieThe Future Of Indian Politics: A Contribution To The Understanding Of Present-Day Problems P252. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1428626050. "They murdered and plundered abundantly, and killed or drove away all Hindus who would not apostatize. Somewhere about a lakh of people were driven from their homes with nothing but the clothes they had on, stripped of everything. Malabar has taught us what Islamic rule still means, and we do not want to see another specimen of the Khilafat Raj in India."
    9. Jump up^ Time. 28 October 1946.
    10. Jump up^ Khan, Yasmin (2007). The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan. Yale University Press. pp. 68–69.ISBN 9780300120783.
    11. Jump up^ "Fatal flaw in communal violence bill"Rediff.com. 2 July 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
    12. Jump up^ Sinha, Dinesh Chandra; Dasgupta, Ashok (2011). 1946: The Great Calcutta Killings and Noakhali Genocide. Kolkata: Himangshu Maity. pp. 278–280. ISBN 13978-81-922464-0-6 Check |isbn= value (help).
    13. Jump up^ Sengupta, Debjani (2006). A City Feeding on Itself: Testimonies and Histories of 'Direct Action' Day. Sarai Reader.
    14. Jump up^ L/I/1/425. The British Library Archives, London.
    15. Jump up^ Thomson, Mike (2013-09-24). "India's hidden massacre"BBC. Retrieved 2013-09-26.
    16. Jump up^ Thomson, Mike (2013-09-24). "India's hidden massacre"BBC. Retrieved 2013-09-26.
    17. Jump up^ Satish Saberwal, Mushirul Hasan (1991). "14. Moradabad Riots, 1980: Causes and Meanings". In Asgharali Engineer. Communal riots in post-independence India. Universities Press. pp. 209–227. ISBN 978-81-7370-102-3. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
    18. Jump up^ "350 Bengalis Are Massacred in Indian Village"Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. June 16, 1980. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
    19. Jump up to:a b [1] U S Congress Bill
    20. Jump up^ [2] 399 Pandits killed since 1990
    21. Jump up to:a b [3] 19 KILLED IN TRIPURA MASSACRE RERUN
    22. Jump up^ "Hindu preacher killed by Tripura rebels"BBC News. 2000-08-28.
    23. Jump up^ "Tripura tribal leader killed"BBC News. 2000-12-27.
    24. Jump up^ "Times Of India". Retrieved 11 September 2012.
    25. Jump up^ [articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2005-05-11/india/27842948_1_post-godhra-riots-hindus-muslims 790 Muslims, 254 Hindus perished in post-Godhra] Times of India - May 11, 2005
    26. Jump up^ "Ex-BJP Minister among 32 convicted of Naroda-Patiya massacre"The Hindu. August 29, 2012. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
    27. Jump up^ "Naroda Patiya massacre: BJP MLA Maya Kodnani, Bajrang Dal leader Babu Bajrangi and 30 others convicted"CNN-IBN. Aug 29, 2012.
    28. Jump up^ http://zeenews.india.com/news/odisha/kandhamal-riots-probe-commission-issues-notice-to-former-dgp-s_806896.html

    List of ethnic cleansings

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    This article lists incidents that have been termed "ethnic cleansing" by some academic or legal experts. Not all experts agree on every case; nor do all the claims necessarily follow definitions given in this article. Where claims of ethnic cleansing originate from non-experts (e.g., journalists or politicians) this is noted.

    Contents

    Early modern history[edit]

    • Edward I of England expelled all Jews living in England in 1290. Hundreds of Jewish elders were executed.[1]
    • Spain expelled its Jews in 1492, then its Muslims in 1502, forcibly Christianizing the remaining Muslim.[2] The descendents of these converted Muslims were called Moriscos. After the 1571 suppression of the Morisco Revolt in the Alpujarras region, almost 80,000 Moriscos were expleed from there to other parts of Spain and some 270 villages and hamlets were repopulated with settlers brought in from Northern Spain. This was followed by the overall Expulsion of the Moriscos from the entire Spanish realm in 1609–1614.
    • After the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland and Act of Settlement in 1652, the whole post-war Cromwellian settlement of Ireland has been characterised by historians such as Mark Levene and Alan Axelrod as ethnic cleansing, in that it sought to remove Irish Catholics from the eastern part of the country, but others such as the historical writer Tim Pat Coogan have describe the actions of Cromwell and his subordinates as genocide.[3]
    • On 26 May 1830, president Andrew Jackson of the United States signed the Indian Removal Act which resulted in the Trail of Tears.[4][5][6][7]
    • Michael Mann, basing his figures on those provided by Justin McCarthy, states that between 1821 and 1922, a large number of Muslims were expelled from south-eastern Europe as Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia gained their independence from the Ottoman Empire. Mann describes these events as "murderous ethnic cleansing on a stupendous scale not previously seen in Europe". These countries sought to expand their territory against the Ottoman Empire, which culminated in the Balkan Wars of the early 20th century.[8]
    • In 2005, the historian Gary Clayton Anderson of the University of Oklahoma published The Conquest of Texas: Ethnic Cleansing in the Promised Land, 1830–1875. This book repudiates traditional historians, such as Walter Prescott Webb and Rupert N. Richardson, who viewed the settlement of Texas by the displacement of the native populations as a healthful development. Anderson writes that at the time of the outbreak of the American Civil War, when the Texas population was nearly 600,000, the still new state was "a very violent place. ... Texans mostly blamed Indians for the violence – an unfair indictment, since a series of terrible droughts had virtually incapacitated the Plains Indians, making them incapable of extended warfare."[9] The Conquest of Texas was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize.
    • The forced expulsion of the Acadians in 1755, from settlements in Nova Scotia, and the subsequent deaths of over 50% of the deported population, has been described by many scholars as being an act of ethnic cleansing following the French and Indian Wars.[10]
    • The nomadic Roma people have been expelled from European countries several times.[11]

    20th century[edit]

    This section possibly contains original researchPlease improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. (May 2009)
    • In December 2008 200 Turkish intellectuals and academics issued an apology for the ethnic cleansing of Armenians during World War I, an event that most Western historians view as amounting to a genocide.[12] At a conference of Hellenes victims of ethnic cleansing, held in February 2011 in Nicosia, an apology was demanded [13]
    • The Bolshevik regime killed or deported an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 Don Cossacks during the Russian Civil War, in 1919–1920.[14] Geoffrey Hosking stated "It could be argued that the Red policy towards the Don Cossacks amounted to ethnic cleansing. It was short-lived, however, and soon abandoned because it did not fit with normal Leninist theory and practice".[15]
    • The Nazi German government's persecutions and expulsions of Jews in Germany, Austria and other Nazi-controlled areas prior to the initiation of mass genocide. Estimated number of those who died in the process is nearly 6 million Jews.[16]
    • In the last months of the Second World War, ethnic Germans were ethnically cleansed from Yugoslavia, Poland and Czechoslovakia, beginning in the fall of 1944 and going through the spring and summer of 1945. At the Potsdam Conference 17 July – 2 August 1945 the Allies agreed to transferring the rest (article XIII of the Potsdam communiqué). In all 14 million ethnic Germans were expelled and it has been asserted that as many as two million might have perished in the process.[17] Due to horrifying revelations of Nazi genocidal practices at the same period, and to the collaboration of many ethnic Germans with Nazi occupation in various countries, their expulsion was mostly tolerated by international public opinion at the time. Historians such as Thomas Kamusella, Piotr Pikle, Steffen Prauser and Arfon Rees all describe it as ethic cleansing. Kamusella he links it to the development of ethnic nationalism in central and eastern Europe.[18]
    • At least 330,000 Serbs, 30,000 Jews and 30,000 Roma were killed during the NDH (today Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina).[19][20] The same number of Serbs were forced out of the NDH, from May 1941 to May 1945. The Croatian Fascist regime managed to kill more than 45 000 Serbs, 12 000 or more Jews and approximately 16 000 Roma at the Jasenovac Concentration Camp.[21][22]
    • During World War II, in Kosovo & Metohija, approximately 10,000 Serbs were killed by Nazi German soldiers and Albanian colloborators.,[23][24] and about 80[23] to 100,000[23][25] or more[24] were ethnically cleansed.[25] After World War II, the new communist authorities of Yugoslavia banned Serbians and Montenegrins expelled during the war from returning to their abandoned estates.[26]
    • During the four years of wartime occupation from 1941 to 1944, the Axis (German, Hungarian and NDH) forces committed numerous war crimes against the civilian population of Serbs, Roma and Jews in the former Yugoslavia: about 50,000 people in Vojvodina(north Serbia) (see Occupation of Vojvodina, 1941–1944) were murdered and about 280,000 were arrested, raped or tortured.[28] The total number of people killed under Hungarian occupation in Bačka was 19,573, in Banat 7,513 (under German occupation) and in Syrmia 28,199 (under Croatian occupation).[29]
    • During the Axis occupation of Albania (1943–1944), the Albanian collaborationist organization Balli Kombëtar with Nazi Germansupport mounted a major offensive in southern Albania (Northern Epirus) with devastating results: over 200 Greek populated towns and villages were burned down or destroyed, 2,000 ethnic Greeks were killed, 5,000 imprisoned and 2,000 forced to concentration camps. Moreover, 30,000 people had to flee to nearby Greece during and after this period.[30][31][need quotation to verify]
    • During the Partition of India 6 million Muslims fled genocide taking place in India to come to what became Pakistan and 5 million Hindus and Sikhs fled from what became Pakistan into India. The events which occurred during this time period have been described as ethnic cleansing by Ishtiaq Ahmed (an associate professor in the Department of Political Science, Stockholm University) [32][33]
    • Throughout the 20th century, several Armenian-Azerbaijani conflicts occurred during which both sides practiced ethnic cleansings:
      • The Azerbaijani population was subjected to deportation from the territory of Democratic Republic of Armenia and Armenian SSRseveral times during the 20th century.[34][35][36] Hundreds of thousands of Azerbaijanis were resettled by force and many of them were killed and injured.
      • During those same conflicts, hundreds of thousands of Armenians also were resettled by force, and many were killed and injured during pogroms which authorities ignored or encouraged.[37][38][39][40][41][42][43]

    1910s[edit]

    1920s–1930s[edit]

    • The Iraqi army launches a campaign against Assyrian villages in northern Iraq with the help of Kurdish and Arab tribes. The number of deaths ranged between 600–3,000. Around one third of the Assyrians later sought refuge in Syria.[49]
    • The Burning of 'The Negro Wall St', also known as the 'Tulsa Race Riot': in which the wealthiest African-American community in the USA was burned to the ground. During the 16 hour offensive, over 800 people were hospitalized, more than 6,000 Greenwood District residents were arrested and detained in a prison camp, and 35 city blocks composed of 1,256 residences were destroyed by fire caused by bombing resulting in an estimated 10,000 African-American Residents left homeless.[50] Property damage totaled $1.5 million (1921).[50] Although the official death toll claimed that 26 blacks and 13 whites died during the fighting, most estimates are considerably higher. At the time of the riot, the American Red Cross listed 8,624 persons in need of assistance, in excess of 1,000 homes and businesses destroyed, and the delivery of several stillborn infants.[51]
    • The Kuomintang Chinese Muslim Generals Ma Qi and Ma Bufang launched extermination campaigns in Qinghai and Tibet against ethnic Tibetans, with Chinese Muslim troops. The actions of these Generals have been called Genocidal by some authors.
    • However, that was not the last Labrang saw of General Ma. Ma Qi launched a war against the Tibetan Ngoloks, which author "Dinesh Lal" calls "genocidal", in 1928, inflicting a defeat upon them and seizing the Labrang Buddhist monastery.[citation needed]The Muslim forces looted and ravaged the monastery again.[52]
    • Authors Uradyn Erden Bulag called the events that follow genocidal and David Goodman called them ethnic cleansing:: TheRepublic of China government supported Ma Bufang when he launched seven extermination expeditions into Golog, eliminating thousands of Tibetans.[53] Some Tibetans counted the number of times he attacked him, remembering the seventh attack which made life impossible.[54] Ma was highly anti-communist, and he and his army wiped out many Tibetans in the northeast and eastern Qinghai, and also destroyed Tibetan Buddhist Temples.[55][56][57]

    1940s[edit]

    • The deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1947–1950 took place as an act of forced resettlementand ethnic cleansing.[34][35][36][58] The reason for Armenian unity and coherence was the fact that progressively through the seventy years of Soviet power, the republic grew more Armenian in population until it became the most ethnically homogeneous republic in the USSR. On several occasions local Muslims were removed from its territory and Armenians from neighboring republics settled in Armenia.
    • The deportation of Romanians from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina (1940–1941, 1944–1951), by the USSR to Siberia and Central Asia.
    • Between the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and the Six Day War in 1967, there was a Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim lands. Many Jews living in Arab and Muslim nations were forcibly expelled by authorities, while others fled due to antisemitic pogroms which broke out during the conflict.[66][67][68][69][70] Between 800,000–1,000,000 Jews fled or were expelled from the Arab world, and another 200,000 Jews from non-Arab Muslim nations fled due to increasing insecurity and growing hostility. A number were also killed in antisemitic violence. Most migrated to Israel, where today, they and their descendants constitute about half of Israel's population. Many also migrated to Europe and the Americas.
    • After the Republic of Indonesia achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1949, around 300,000 people, predominantly Indos, or people of mixed Indonesian and Dutch ancestry, fled or were expelled.[71]
    • In the aftermath of the 1949 Durban Riots (an inter-racial conflict between Zulus and Asians in South Africa), hundreds of Indians fled Cato Manor.[72]

    1950s[edit]

    • On 5 and 6 September 1955 the Istanbul Pogrom or "Septembrianá"/"Σεπτεμβριανά", secretly backed by the Turkish government, was launched against the Greek population of Istanbul. The mob also attacked some Jews and Armenians of the city. The event contributed greatly to the gradual extinction of the Greek minority in the city and country, which numbered 100,000 in 1924 after the Turko-Greek population exchange treaty. By 2006 there were only 2,500 Greeks.[73]

    1960s[edit]

    • Ne Win's rise to power in 1962 and his relentless persecution of "resident aliens" (immigrant groups not recognised as citizens of the Union of Burma) led to an exodus of some 300,000 Burmese Indians. They migrated to escape racial discrimination and wholesale nationalisation of private enterprise a few years later in 1964.[74][75]
    • The creation of the apartheid system in South Africa, which began in 1948 but reached full flower in the 1960s and 1970s, involved some ethnic cleansing, including the separation of blacks, Coloureds, and whites into separate residential areas and private spheres. The government created Bantustans, which involved forced removals of non-white populations to reserved lands.[76][77]
    • As Algeria fought for independence, it expelled the pied-noir population of European descent and Jews; most fled to France, where they had citizenship. In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 of these European descendants and native Jewish people left the country.[78][79]
    • Between 1967 and 1973, the British government expelled and resettled all of the roughly 2,000 Chagossian inhabitants of Diego Garcia to make way for a U.S. air and naval base on the island.[82]
    • By 1969, more than 350,000 Salvadorans were living in Honduras. In 1969, Honduras enacted a new land reform law. This law took land away from Salvadoran immigrants and redistributed this land to native-born Honduran peoples. Thousands of Salvadorans were displaced by this law (see Football War).[citation needed]

    1970s[edit]

    • Shortly after Muammar al-Gaddafi gained power in Libya, the Libyan government forcibly expelled some 150,000 Italians living in the country on 7 October 1970, in retaliation for Italy's 1911 colonization of the country. The expulsion is known in Libya as the "Day of Vengeance".[83]
    • Following the U.S. withdrawal from South Vietnam in 1973 and the communist victory two years later, the Kingdom of Laos' coalition government was overthrown by the communists. The Hmong people, who had actively supported the anti-communist government, became targets of retaliation and persecution. Tens of thousands trekked to the Mekong River and sought refuge in Thailand, often under communist attack. The exodus continued for several years.[citation needed]
    • The communist Khmer Rouge government in Cambodia disproportionately targeted ethnic minority groups, including ethnic Chinese,Vietnamese and Thais. In the late 1960s, an estimated 425,000 ethnic Chinese lived in Cambodia; by 1984, as a result of Khmer Rouge genocide and emigration, only about 61,400 Chinese remained in the country. The small Thai minority along the border was almost completely exterminated, only a few thousand managing to reach safety in Thailand. The Cham Muslims suffered serious purges with as much as half of their population exterminated. A Khmer Rouge order stated that henceforth "The Cham nation no longer exists on Kampuchean soil belonging to the Khmers" (U.N. Doc. A.34/569 at 9).[87][88][89]
    • The Sino-Vietnamese War resulted in the discrimination and consequent migration of Vietnam's ethnic Chinese. Many of these people fled as "boat people". In 1978–79, some 450,000 ethnic Chinese left Vietnam by boat as refugees (many officially encouraged and assisted) or were expelled across the land border with China.[citation needed]

    1980s[edit]

    • Aftermath of Indira Gandhi assassination in 1984, the ruling party Indian National Congress supporters formed large mobs and killed around 3000 Sikhs around Delhi which is known as the 1984 anti-Sikh riots during the next four days. The mobs using the support of ruling party leaders used the Election voting list to identify Sikhs and kill them.
    • In 1987 and 1988 Al-Anfal Campaign, the Iraqi government under Saddam Hussein and headed by Ali Hassan al-Majid started Al-Anfal against the Iraqi Kurdistan or Kurdish civilian in Northern Iraq. Massacred 100,000 to 182,000 non-combatant civilians including women and children;, destroyed about 4,000 villages (out of 4,655) in Iraqi Kurdistan. Between April 1987 and August 1988, 250 towns and villages -were exposed to chemical weapons;, destroyed 1,754 schools, 270 hospitals, 2,450 mosques, 27 churches; and wiped out around 90% of Kurdish villages in targeted areas.
    • Between 16–17 March 1988, the Iraqi government under Saddam Hussein carried out a poison gas attack in the Kurdish town ofHalabja in Iraqi Kurdistan. Between 3,200 and 5,000 civilians died instantly, and between 7,000 and 10,000 civilians were injured, and thousands more would die in the following years from complications, diseases, and birth defects caused by the attack.
    Aftermath of the Halabja poison gas attack.
    • The Nagorno Karabakh conflict has resulted in the displacement of population from both sides. 700.000 Azerbaijanis and some thousand Kurds from Armenian controlled territories including Nagorno-Karabakh,[92] and 185,000[93] to 250,000 Azerbaijanis,[94] 18,000 Kurds and 3,500 Russians fled from Armenia to Azerbaijan from 1987 to 1989.[95] 280,000 to 304,000[93] persons—virtually all ethnicArmenians—fled Azerbaijan during the 1988–1993 war over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh.[96]

    1990s[edit]

    • In 1991, following a crackdown on Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar, 250,000 refugees took shelter in the Cox's Bazar district of neighbouring Bangladesh.[100]
    Ethnic cleansing of a Croatian home
    • The widespread ethnic cleansing accompanying the Croatian War of Independence that was committed by Serb-led JNA and rebel militia on the occupied areas of Croatia (self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina) (1991–1995). Large number of Croats and non-Serbs were removed, either by murder, deportation or being forced to flee. According to the ICTY indictment against Slobodan Milosevic, there was an expulsion of around 170,000 Croats and other non-Serbs from their homes.[106]
    • As a result of the Croatian army's capture of Krajina, around 200,000 Serbs[107] fled Krajina during or after Operation Storm, of which at least 20,000 were deported according to theICTY verdict.[108] Croatian generals Ante Gotovina and Ivan Čermak were eventually convicted by the Tribunal.
    • The mass expulsion of southern Lhotshampas (Bhutanese of Nepalese origin) by the northern Druk majority of Bhutan in 1990.[116]The number of refugees is approximately 103,000.[117]
    • In October 1990, the militant Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), forcibly expelled the entire Muslim population (approx 75,000) from the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. The Muslims were given 48 hours to vacate the premises of their homes while their properties were subsequently looted by LTTE. Those who refused to leave were killed. This act of ethnic cleansing was carried out so the LTTE could facilitate their goal of creating a mono-ethnic Tamil state in Northern Sri Lanka.[citation needed]
    • Separatist regime policy of proscription of non-Chechens (mostly Russians) from Chechnya in 1990s. Before First Chechen Wartens of thousands of people of non-Chechen ethnicity had left the republic, thousands of people were turned into slaves or killed. Since 1996 the violence against non-Chechens were continued and almost all of them left Chechnya to this moment.[118][119][120][121] The policy were expressed in ignoring of widespread lawlessness against non-Chechens (especially Russians) jointly with nationalistic propaganda.[122]
    • There have been serious outbreaks of inter-ethnic violence on the island of Kalimantan since 1997, involving the indigenous Dayak peoples and immigrants from the island of Madura. In 2001 in the Central Kalimantan town of Sampit, at least 500 Madurese were killed and up to 100,000 Madurese were forced to flee. Some Madurese bodies were decapitated in a ritual reminiscent of theheadhunting tradition of the Dayaks of old.[125]

    21st century[edit]

    • In 2003, Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of Mbuti Pygmies, told the UN's Indigenous People's Forum that during the Congo Civil War, his people were hunted down and eaten as though they were game animals. Both sides of the war regarded them as "subhuman" and some say their flesh can confer magical powers. Makelo asked the UN Security Council to recognise cannibalismas a crime against humanity and an act of genocide.[129][130]
    • From the late 1990s to the early 2000s, Indonesian paramilitaries organized and armed by Indonesian military and police killed or expelled large numbers of civilians in East Timor.[131][132][133][134][135][136][137] After the East Timorese people voted for independence in a 1999 referendum, Indonesian paramilitiaries retaliated, murdering some supporters of independence and levelling most towns. More than 200,000 people either fled or were forcibly taken to Indonesia before East Timor achieved full independence.[138]
    • Since the mid-1990s the central government of Botswana has been trying to move Bushmen out of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve. As of October 2005, the government has resumed its policy of forcing all Bushmen off their lands in the Game Reserve, using armed police and threats of violence or death.[139] Many of the involuntarily displaced Bushmen live in squalid resettlement camps and some have resorted to prostitution and alcoholism, while about 250 others remain or have surreptitiously returned to theKalahari to resume their independent lifestyle.[140] "How can we continue to have Stone Age creatures in an age of computers?" asked Botswana's president Festus Mogae.[141][142]
    • Since 2003, Sudan has been accused of carrying out a campaign against several black ethnic groups in Darfur, in response to a rebellion by Africans alleging mistreatment. Sudanese irregular militia known as the Janjaweed and Sudanese military and police forces have killed an estimated 450,000, expelled around two million, and burned 800 villages.[143][144] A 14 July 2007 article notes that in the past two months up to 75,000 Arabs from Chad and Niger crossed the border into Darfur. Most have been relocated by the Sudanese government to former villages of displaced non-Arab people. Some 450,000 have been killed and 2.5 million have now been forced to flee to refugee camps in Chad after their homes and villages were destroyed.[145] Sudan refuses to allow their return, or to allow United Nations peacekeepers into Darfur.
    • Currently in the Iraq Civil War (2003 to present), entire neighborhoods in Baghdad are being ethnically cleansed by Shia and Sunnimilitias.[146][147] Some areas are being evacuated by every member of a particular group due to lack of security, moving into new areas because of fear of reprisal killings. As of 21 June 2007, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that 2.2 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, and 2 million were displaced internally, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month.[148][149][150]
    • Although Iraqi Christians represent less than 5% of the total Iraqi population, they make up 40% of the refugees now living in nearby countries, according to UNHCR.[151][152] In the 16th century, Christians constituted half of Iraq's population.[153][dead link] In 1987, the last Iraqi census counted 1.4 million Christians.[154] Following the 2003 invasion and the reusltant growth of militant Islamism, Christians' total numbers slumped to about 500,000, of whom 250,000 live in Baghdad.[155] Furthermore, the Mandaean and Yazidicommunities are at the risk of elimination due to the ongoing atrocities by Islamic extremists.[156][157] A 25 May 2007 article notes that in the past 7 months only 69 people from Iraq have been granted refugee status in the United States.[158]
    • In October 2006, Niger announced that it would deport Arabs living in the Diffa region of eastern Niger to Chad.[159] This population numbered about 150,000.[160] Nigerein government forces forcibly rounded up Arabs in preparation for deportation, during which two girls died, reportedly after fleeing government forces, and three women suffered miscarriages. Niger's government eventually suspended the plan.[161][162]
    • In 1950, the Karen had become the largest of 20 minority groups participating in an insurgency against the military dictatorship in Burma. The conflict continues as of 2008. In 2004, the BBC, citing aid agencies, estimates that up to 200,000 Karen have been driven from their homes during decades of war, with 120,000 more refugees from Burma, mostly Karen, living in refugee camps on the Thai side of the border. Many accuse the military government of Burma of ethnic cleansing.[163] As a result of the ongoing war in minority group areas more than two million people have fled Burma to Thailand.[164]
    • Civil unrest in Kenya erupted in December 2007.[165] By 28 January 2008, the death toll from the violence was at around 800.[166]The United Nations estimated that as many as 600,000 people have been displaced.[167][168] A government spokesman claimed that Odinga's supporters were "engaging in ethnic cleansing".[169]
    • South Africa Ethnic Cleansing erupted on 11 May 2008 within three weeks 80 000 were displaced the death toll was 62, with 670 injured by the violence when South Africans ejected non-nationals in a nationwide ethnic cleansing/xenophobic outburst. The most affected foreigners have been SomalisEthiopiansIndiansPakistanis, Zimbabweans and Mozambiqueans. Local South Africans have also been caught up in the violence. Refugee camps a mistake Arvin Gupta, a senior UNHCR protection officer, said the UNHCR did not agree with the City of Cape Town that those displaced by the violence should be held at camps across the city.[174] During the 2010 FIFA world cup, rumors were reported that xenophobic attacks will be commenced after the final. A few incidents occurred where foreign individuals were targeted, but the South African police claims that these attacks can not be classified as xenophobic attacks but rather regular criminal activity in the townships. Elements of the South African Army were sent into the affected townships to assist the police in keeping order and preventing continued attacks.
    • In August 2008, the 2008 South Ossetia war broke out when Georgia launched a military offensive against South Ossetianseparatists, leading to military intervention by Russia, during which Georgian forces were expelled from the separatist territories of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. During the fighting, 15,000[175] ethnic Georgians living in South Ossetia were forced to flee to Georgia proper, and Ossetian militia burned their villages to prevent their return.

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. Jump up^ Richards, Eric (2004). Britannia's children: emigration from England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland since 1600. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 24. ISBN 1-85285-441-3.
    2. Jump up^ A brief History of Ethnic Cleansing, by Andrew Bell-Fialkoff, p. 4
    3. Jump up^
      • Albert Breton (Editor, 1995). Nationalism and Rationality. Cambridge University Press 1995. Page 248. "Oliver Cromwell offered Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer"
      • Ukrainian Quarterly. Ukrainian Society of America 1944. "Therefore, we are entitled to accuse the England of Oliver Cromwell of the genocide of the Irish civilian population.."
      • David Norbrook (2000).Writing the English Republic: Poetry, Rhetoric and Politics, 1627–1660. Cambridge University Press. 2000. In interpreting Andrew Marvell's contemporarily expressed views on Cromwell Norbrook says; "He (Cromwell) laid the foundation for a ruthless programme of resettling the Irish Catholics which amounted to large scale ethnic cleansing.."
      • Frances Stewart (2000). War and Underdevelopment: Economic and Social Consequences of Conflict v. 1 (Queen Elizabeth House Series in Development Studies), Oxford University Press. 2000. p. 51 "Faced with the prospect of an Irish alliance with Charles II, Cromwell carried out a series of massacres to subdue the Irish. Then, once Cromwell had returned to England, the English Commissary, General Henry Ireton, adopted a deliberate policy of crop burning and starvation, which was responsible for the majority of an estimated 600,000 deaths out of a total Irish population of 1,400,000."
      • Alan Axelrod (2002). Profiles in Leadership, Prentice-Hall. 2002. Page 122. "As a leader Cromwell was entirely unyielding. He was willing to act on his beliefs, even if this meant killing the king and perpetrating, against the Irish, something very nearly approaching genocide"
      • Tim Pat Coogan (2002). The Troubles: Ireland's Ordeal and the Search for PeaceISBN 978-0-312-29418-2. p 6. "The massacres by Catholics of Protestants, which occurred in the religious wars of the 1640s, were magnified for propagandist purposes to justify Cromwell's subsequent genocide."
      • Peter Berresford Ellis (2002). Eyewitness to Irish History, John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN 978-0-471-26633-4. p. 108 "It was to be the justification for Cromwell's genocidal campaign and settlement."
      • John Morrill (2003). Rewriting Cromwell – A Case of Deafening Silences, Canadian Journal of History. Dec 2003. "Of course, this has never been the Irish view of Cromwell.
        Most Irish remember him as the man responsible for the mass slaughter of civilians at Drogheda and Wexford and as the agent of the greatest episode of ethnic cleansing ever attempted in Western Europe as, within a decade, the percentage of land possessed by Catholics born in Ireland dropped from sixty to twenty. In a decade, the ownership of two-fifths of the land mass was transferred from several thousand Irish Catholic landowners to British Protestants. The gap between Irish and the English views of the seventeenth-century conquest remains unbridgeable and is governed by G.K. Chesterton's mirthless epigram of 1917, that "it was a tragic necessity that the Irish should remember it; but it was far more tragic that the English forgot it."
      • James M Lutz, Brenda J Lutz, (2004). Global Terrorism, Routledge:London, p.193: "The draconian laws applied by Oliver Cromwell in Ireland were an early version of ethnic cleansing. The Catholic Irish were to be expelled to the northwestern areas of the island. Relocation rather than extermination was the goal."
      • Mark Levene (2005). Genocide in the Age of the Nation State: Volume 2ISBN 978-1-84511-057-4 Page 55, 56 & 57. A sample quote describes the Cromwellian campaign and settlement as "a conscious attempt to reduce a distinct ethnic population".
      • Mark Levene (2005). Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State, I.B.Tauris: London:

        [The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state.

    4. Jump up^ Robert E. Greenwood PhD (2007). Outsourcing Culture: How American Culture has Changed From "We the People" Into a One World Government. Outskirts Press. p. 97.
    5. Jump up^ Rajiv Molhotra (2009). "American Exceptionalism and the Myth of the American Frontiers". In Rajani Kannepalli Kanth. The Challenge of Eurocentrism. Palgrave MacMillan. pp. 180,184,189,199.
    6. Jump up^ Paul Finkelman and Donald R. Kennon (2008). Congress and the Emergence of Sectionalism. Ohio University Press. pp. 15,141,254.
    7. Jump up^ Ben Kiernan (2007). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. pp. 328,330.
    8. Jump up^ Michael Mann, The dark side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansingpp. 112–4, Cambridge, 2005 "... figures are derive[d] from McCarthy (1995: I 91, 162–4, 339), who is often viewed as a scholar on the Turkish side of the debate. Yet even if we reduce his figures by 50 percent, the would still horrify. He estimates between 1812 and 1922 somewhere around 5½ million Muslims were driven out of Europe and 5 million more were killed or died of disease or starvation while fleeing. ... In the final Balkan wars of 1912–13 he estimates that 62 percent of Muslims (27 percent dead, 35 percent refugees) disappeared from the lands conquered by Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria. This was murderous ethnic cleansing on a stupendous scale not previously seen in Europe, ..."
    9. Jump up^ The Conquest of Texas: Ethnic Cleansing in the Promised Land, 1830–1875University of Oklahoma Press, 2005, p. 9 (quotation), ISBN 0-8061-3698-7. 2005. ISBN 978-0-8061-3698-1. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
    10. Jump up^http://www.cstudies.ubc.ca/liberalstudies/abstracts/documents/Abstract_Stevenson_Apr09.pdf-The 1755 Ethnic Cleansing of Acadia; Who Was Responsible?
    11. Jump up^ Donald Kenrick, Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies) pages xx–xxiv, Scarecrow, Lanham, 2007
    12. Jump up^ Birch, Nichola (15 December 2008). "Turkish academics in apology to Armenians"The Independent (London).
    13. Jump up^ Alfred de Zayas "Turkey must apologise" Cyprus Weekly, 25 February 2011, p. 14
    14. Jump up^ Kort, Michael (2001). The Soviet Colossus: History and Aftermath, p. 133. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0396-9.
    15. Jump up^ Hosking, Geoffrey A. (2006). Rulers and Victims: The Russians in the Soviet Union. Harvard University Press. p. [1]footnote 29. ISBN 0-674-02178-9. The footnote ends with a reference: Holquist, Peter (1997). "Conduct Merciless, Mass Terror Decossackization on the Don, 1919". Cahiers di monde Russe (38): 127–162.
    16. Jump up^ Naimark., Norman M. (2001). Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge and London:: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00994-3.[page needed]
    17. Jump up^ Alfred de Zayas, Nemesis at Potsdam, Routledge, London 177; "A Terrible Revenge" Palgrave/Macmillan 2006
    18. Jump up^ The Expulsion of 'German' Communities from Eastern Europe at the end of the Second World War, European University Institute, Florense. EUI Working Paper HEC No. 2004/1, Edited by Steffen Prauser and Arfon Rees pp. 24,20,29
    19. Jump up^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum about Jasenovac and Independent State of Croatia
    20. Jump up^ Genocide and Resistance in Hitler's Bosnia: The Partisans and the Chetniks, 1941–1943 pp20
    21. Jump up^ LIST OF INDIVIDUAL VICTIMS OF JASENOVAC CONCENTRATION CAMP
    22. Jump up^ http://www.jusp-jasenovac.hr/Default.aspx?sid=5020
    23. Jump up to:a b c Serge Krizman, Maps of Yugoslavia at War, Washington 1943.
    24. Jump up to:a b ISBN 86-17-09287-4: Kosta Nikolić, Nikola Žutić, Momčilo Pavlović, Zorica Špadijer: Историја за трећи разред гимназије природно-математичког смера и четврти разред гимназије општег и друштвено-језичког смера, Belgrade, 2002, p. 182.
    25. Jump up to:a b Annexe I, by the Serbian Information Centre-London to a report of the Select Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
    26. Jump up^ http://www.kosovo.net/default3.html
    27. Jump up^ Sassounian, Harut (28 June 2009). "Turkish Prime Minister Admits Ethnic Cleansing"Huffington Post.
    28. Jump up^ Enciklopedija Novog Sada, Sveska 5, Novi Sad, 1996 (page 196).
    29. Jump up^ Slobodan Ćurčić, Broj stanovnika Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 1996 (pages 42, 43).
    30. Jump up^ Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History: Volume II: Albania in Occupation and War, 1939–45. Owen Pearson. I.B.Tauris, 2006. ISBN 1-84511-104-4.
    31. Jump up^ .Pyrrhus J. Ruches. Albania's captivesArgonaut, 1965, p. 172 "The entire carnage, arson and imprisonment suffered by the hands of Balli Kombetar...schools burned".
    32. Jump up^ http://cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521856614&ss=exc
    33. Jump up^http://web.archive.org/web/20070607092454/http://www.sasnet.lu.se/partition.doc
    34. Jump up to:a b ""Черный сад": Глава 5. Ереван. Тайны Востока". BBC Russian. 8 July 2005. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
    35. Jump up to:a b De Waal, Thomas. Black Garden. NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-1945-7. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
    36. Jump up to:a b Lowell W. Barrington (2006). After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial & Postcommunist States. USA: University of Michigan Press. pp. In late 1988, the entire Azerbaijani population (including Muslim Kurds) — some 167, 000 people — was kicked out of the Armenian SSR. In the process, dozens of people died due to isolated Armenian attacks and adverse conditions. This population transfer was partially in response to Armenians being forced out of Azerbaijan, but it was also the last phase of the gradual homogenization of the republic under Soviet rule. The population transfer was the latest, and not so "gentle," episode of ethnic cleansing that increased Armenia's homogenization from 90 percent to 98 percent. Nationalists, in collaboration with the Armenian state authorities, were responsible for this exodus. ISBN 0-472-06898-9.
    37. Jump up^ De Waal, Thomas. Black garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8147-1945-7, p. 40
    38. Jump up^ Cornell, Svante E. Small nations and great powers: a study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus. London: Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-7007-1162-7. p. 82
    39. Jump up^ Remnick, David. "Hate Runs High in Soviet Union's Most Explosive Ethnic Feud." The Washington Post. 6 September 1989.
    40. Jump up^ Hosking, Geoffrey AThe First Socialist Society: A History of the Soviet Union from Within, 2nd ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993, p. 475.
    41. Jump up^ Kenez, PeterA History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 272.
    42. Jump up^ Azerbaijan: The status of Armenians, Russians, Jews and other minorities, report, 1993, INS Resource Informacion Center, p.10
    43. Jump up^ Britannica: Azerbaijan- The Soviet and post-Soviet periods
    44. Jump up^ Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War by Stuart J. Kaufman. Cornell University Press. 2001. p.58 ISBN 0-8014-8736-6
    45. Jump up^ (Russian) Turkish-Armenian War of 1920
    46. Jump up^ Turkish-Armenian War: Sep.24 – Dec.2, 1920 by Andrew Andersen
    47. Jump up^ (Russian) Ethnic Conflicts in the USSR: 1917–1991. State Archives of the Russian Federation, fund 1318, list 1, folder 413, document 21
    48. Jump up^ (Russian) Garegin Njdeh and the KGB: Report of Interrogation of Ohannes Hakopovich Devedjian August 28, 1947. Retrieved May 31, 2007
    49. Jump up^ Makiya, K (1998) [1989], Republic of fear:the politics of modern Iraq, University of California Press, pp. 168–172,ISBN 978-0-520-21439-2
    50. Jump up to:a b Walter F. White, "The Eruption of Tulsa"The Nation, 29 June 1921.
    51. Jump up^ Hannibal B. Johnson, Black Wall Street: From Riot to Renaissance in Tulsa's Historic Greenwood District. Austin, TX. 1998.
    52. Jump up^ Paul Kocot Nietupski (1999). Labrang: a Tibetan Buddhist monastery at the crossroads of four civilizations. Snow Lion Publications. p. 90. ISBN 1-55939-090-5. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
    53. Jump up^ Uradyn Erden Bulag (2002). Dilemmas The Mongols at China's edge: history and the politics of national unity. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 273. ISBN 0-7425-1144-8. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
    54. Jump up^ Chung-kuo fu li hui, Zhongguo fu li hui (1961). China reconstructs, Volume 10. China Welfare Institute. p. 16. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
    55. Jump up^ David S. G. Goodman (2004). China's campaign to "Open up the West": national, provincial, and local perspectives. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 0-521-61349-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
    56. Jump up^ Shail Mayaram (2009). The other global city. Taylor & Francis US. p. 76. ISBN 0-415-99194-3. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
    57. Jump up^ Shail Mayaram (2009). The other global city. Taylor & Francis US. p. 77. ISBN 0-415-99194-3. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
    58. Jump up^ A second reason for Armenian unity and coherence was the fact that progressively through the seventy years of Soviet power, the republic grew more Armenian in population until it became the most ethnically homogeneous republic in the USSR. On several occasions local Muslims were removed from its territory and Armenians from neighboring Soviet republics were settled in Armenia. The nearly 200,000 Azerbaijanis who lived in Soviet Armenia in the early 1980s either left or were expelled from the republic in 1988–89, largely without bloodshed. The result was a mass of refugees flooding into Azerbaijan, many of them becoming the most radical opponents of Armenians in Azerbaijan.Ronald Grigor Suny (Winter 1999–2000). Provisional Stabilities: The Politics of Identities in Post-Soviet Eurasia. International Security. Vol 24, No. 3. pp. 139–178.
    59. Jump up^http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=D09FF8A770847F94FCA796D602DF707B.tomcat1?fromPage=online&aid=2777544
    60. Jump up^ http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=5292188
    61. Jump up^ http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=xGV6gb0w914C&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=ethnic+german+expulsion&ots=JvchmfkQYo&sig=KnUP2aLgbKaoGWiyDDC3zlbTi5o#v=onepage&q=ethnic%20german%20expulsion&f=false
    62. Jump up^ Michael Mann, The dark side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansing, Cambridge University Press, 2005, page 109, 519
    63. Jump up^ Masalha, Nur (1992). Expulsion of the Palestinians. Institute for Palestine Studies, this edition 2001, p. 175.
    64. Jump up^ Benny Morris, Arab-Israeli War
    65. Jump up^ Rosemarie EsberUnder the Cover of War: The Zionist Expulsion of the Palestinians, 2009, p.23.
    66. Jump up^ Jews expelled from Arab countries accuse Arab regimes of ethnic cleansing. Jerusalem Post, 25 Jun. 2003, JENNY HAZAN AND GREER FAY CASHMAN]
    67. Jump up^ The Forgotten Narrative: Jewish Refugees from Arab Countries
    68. Jump up^ http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1214132663726&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull
    69. Jump up^ Ran HaCohen, "Ethnic Cleansing: Some Common Reactions"
    70. Jump up^ A bipartisan resolution passed by the U.S. Congress in October 2003 noted that that Jews in Arab countries, "were forced to flee and in some cases brutally expelled amid coordinated violence and anti-Semitic incitement that amounted to ethnic cleansing." (The Forgotten NarrativeRan HaCohen, while conceding that Jews faced harassment in Arab countries following the 1948 war, whether from the people and/or regimes, finds this characterization to be, "shamefully cynical when it is imputed by the very Zionists who demanded 'let my people go', or by the same Israel that did all it could to force those very countries to let their Jews leave." ("Ethnic Cleansing: Some Common Reactions")
    71. Jump up^ Struggle for Independence : 1945–1949
    72. Jump up^ "Current Africa race riots like 1949 anti-Indian riots: minister", TheIndianStar.com
    73. Jump up^ "From "Denying Human Rights and Ethnic Identity" series of Human Rights Watch" Human Rights Watch, 2 July 2006.
    74. Jump up^ Martin Smith (1991). Burma – Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London,New Jersey: Zed Books. pp. 43–44,98,56–57,176. ISBN 0-86232-868-3.
    75. Jump up^ Asians v. Asians, TIME
    76. Jump up^ Bell, Terry: Unfinished Business: South Africa, Apartheid and Truth, (pp. 63–4), Verso, (2001, 2003) ISBN 1-85984-545-2
    77. Jump up^ Valentino, Benjamin A., Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century, (p. 189), Cornell University Press, (2004) ISBN 0-8014-3965-5.
    78. Jump up^ "Marketplace: Pied-noirs breathe life back into Algerian tourism"
    79. Jump up^ Pied-Noir
    80. Jump up^ Country Histories – Empire's Children
    81. Jump up^ Who's Fault Is It?
    82. Jump up^ "Diego Garcia islanders battle to return"BBC News. 31 October 2002. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
    83. Jump up^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4380360.stm
    84. Jump up^ "Bangladesh: The Demolition Of Ramana Kali Temple In March 1971"Asian Tribune. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
    85. Jump up^ 1972: Asians given 90 days to leave Uganda
    86. Jump up^ "'Ethnic cleansing', Cypriot style"New York Times. 1992-09-05. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
    87. Jump up^ Genocide – Cambodia
    88. Jump up^ The Cambodian Genocide and International Law
    89. Jump up^ Cambodia the Chinese
    90. Jump up^ [2] Bulgaria MPs Move to Declare Revival Process as Ethnic Cleansing
    91. Jump up^ [3] Парламентът осъжда възродителния процес
    92. Jump up^ War, social change and 'no war, no peace' syndromes in Azerbaijani and Armenian societies
    93. Jump up to:a b Building Security in Europe's New Borderlands, Renata Dwan, M.E. Sharpe (1999) p. 148
    94. Jump up^ STATE COMMITTEE OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN ON DEALS OF REFUGEES AND INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS
    95. Jump up^ De Waal, Black Garden, p. 285
    96. Jump up^ Refugees and displaced persons in Azerbaijan
    97. Jump up^ Fair elections haunted by racial imbalance
    98. Jump up^ Focus on Meskhetian Turks
    99. Jump up^ Meskhetian Turk Communities around the World
    100. Jump up^ Burmese exiles in desperate conditions, BBC News
    101. Jump up^http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4089961.stm
    102. Jump up^ de Waal, Thomas (2004). Black garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through peace and war. ABC-CLIO. pp. 172–173.ISBN 0-8147-1945-7.
    103. Jump up^ Randolph, Joseph Russell (2008). Hot spot: North America and Europe. ABC-CLIO. p. 191. ISBN 0-313-33621-0.
    104. Jump up^ Human Rights Watch/Helsinki, RUSSIA. THE INGUSH-OSSETIAN CONFLICT IN THE PRIGORODNYI REGION, May 1996.
    105. Jump up^ Russia: The Ingush-Ossetian Conflict in the Prigorodnyi Region (Paperback) by Human Rights Watch Helsinki Human Rights Watch (April 1996) ISBN 1-56432-165-7
    106. Jump up^ "The legal battle ahead". BBC News. 8 February 2002. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
    107. Jump up^ Prodger, Matt (5 August 2005). "Evicted Serbs remember Storm". BBC News. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
    108. Jump up^ "Judgement Summary for Gotovina et al.". The Hague:ICTY. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
    109. Jump up^ Committee on Foreign Relations, US Senate, The Ethnic Cleansing of Bosnia-Hercegovina, (US Government Printing Office, 1992)
    110. Jump up^ Bosnia: Dayton Accords
    111. Jump up^ Resettling Refugees: U.N. Facing New Burden
    112. Jump up^ Serbia threatens to resist Kosovo independence plan
    113. Jump up^ Kosovo/Serbia: Protect Minorities from Ethnic Violence (Human Rights Watch)
    114. Jump up^ Bookman, Milica Zarkovic, "The Demographic Struggle for Power", (p. 131), Frank Cass and Co. Ltd. (UK), (1997) ISBN 0-7146-4732-2
    115. Jump up^ Leeder, Elaine J., "The Family in Global Perspective: A Gendered Journey", (p. 164-65), Sage Publications, (2004)ISBN 0-7619-2837-5
    116. Jump up^ Voice of America (18 October 2006)
    117. Jump up^ UNHCR Publication (State of the world refugees)
    118. Jump up^ O.P. Orlov; V.P. Cherkassov. "Россия — Чечня: Цепь ошибок и преступлений" (in Russian). Memorial.
    119. Jump up^ ГЕНОЦИД РУССКИХ В ЧЕЧНЕ
    120. Jump up^ Преступления против русских в Чечне.
    121. Jump up^ Геноцид русских в Чечне (video)
    122. Jump up^ Sokolov-Mitrich, Dmitryi. "Забытый геноцид". Izvestia. Retrieved on 17 July 2002.
    123. Jump up^ Anti-Chinese riots continue in Indonesia, 29 August 1998, CNN
    124. Jump up^ Wages of Hatred, Business Week
    125. Jump up^ Behind Ethnic War, Indonesia's Old Migration Policy
    126. Jump up^ Pallone introduces resolution condemning Human rights violation against Kashmiri PanditsUnited States House of Representatives, 2006-02-15
    127. Jump up^ Expressing the sense of Congress that the Government of the Republic of India and the State Government of Jammu and Kashmir should take immediate steps to remedy the situation of the Kashmiri Pandits and should act to ensure the physical, political, and economic security of this embattled community. HR Resolution 344United States House of Representatives, 2006-02-15
    128. Jump up^ Senate Joint Resolution 23, 75th OREGON LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY—2009 Regular Session
    129. Jump up^ DR Congo pygmies 'exterminated'
    130. Jump up^ DR Congo Pygmies appeal to UN
    131. Jump up^ Yes to Kosovo, No to East Timor? – International Herald Tribune
    132. Jump up^ 7.30 Report – 8/9/1999: Ethnic cleansing will empty East Timor if no aid comes: Belo
    133. Jump up^ U.S. Fiddles While East Timor Burns | AlterNet
    134. Jump up^ James M. Lutz, Brenda J. Lutz, Global Terrorism
    135. Jump up^ Outrage Over East Timor
    136. Jump up^ Hoover Institution – Hoover Digest – Why East Timor Matters
    137. Jump up^ We cannot look the other way on ethnic cleansing – Opinion
    138. Jump up^ The New Book of Knowledge (Grolier), volume T, p. 228 (2004)
    139. Jump up^ Moore, Charles. "Bushmen forced out of desert after living off land for thousands of years". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2005-10-29.
    140. Jump up^ African Bushmen Tour U.S. to Fund Fight for Land
    141. Jump up^ Exiles of the Kalahari
    142. Jump up^ UN condemns Botswana government over Bushman evictions
    143. Jump up^ Collins, Robert O., "Civil Wars and Revolution in the Sudan: Essays on the Sudan, Southern Sudan, and Darfur, 1962–2004 ", (p. 156), Tsehai Publishers (US), (2005) ISBN 0-9748198-7-5.
    144. Jump up^ Power, Samantha "Dying in Darfur: Can the ethnic cleansing in Sudan be stopped?"[4]The New Yorker, 30 August 2004. Human Rights Watch, "Q & A: Crisis in Darfur" (web site, retrieved 24 May 2006). Hilary Andersson, "Ethnic cleansing blights Sudan"BBC News, 27 May 2004.
    145. Jump up^ Arabs pile into Darfur to take land 'cleansed' by janjaweed
    146. Jump up^ Iraq is disintegrating as ethnic cleansing takes hold
    147. Jump up^ "There is ethnic cleansing"
    148. Jump up^ Iraq refugees chased from home, struggle to cope
    149. Jump up^ U.N.: 100,000 Iraq refugees flee monthly. Alexander G. Higgins, Boston Globe, 3 November 2006.
    150. Jump up^ In North Iraq, Sunni Arabs Drive Out Kurds
    151. Jump up^ Christians, targeted and suffering, flee Iraq
    152. Jump up^ IRAQ Terror campaign targets Chaldean church in Iraq – Asia News
    153. Jump up^ UNHCR | Iraq[dead link]
    154. Jump up^ Christians live in fear of death squads
    155. Jump up^ Jonathan Steele: While the Pope tries to build bridges in Turkey, the precarious plight of Iraq's Christians gets only worse | World news | guardian.co.uk
    156. Jump up^ Iraq's Mandaeans 'face extinction'
    157. Jump up^ Iraq's Yazidis fear annihilation
    158. Jump up^ Ann McFeatters: Iraq refugees find no refuge in America.Seattle Post-Intelligencer 25 May 2007.
    159. Jump up^ Niger starts mass Arab expulsions
    160. Jump up^ Reuters Niger's Arabs say expulsions will fuel race hate
    161. Jump up^ Niger's Arabs to fight expulsion
    162. Jump up^ UNHCR | Refworld – The Leader in Refugee Decision Support
    163. Jump up^ Burma Karen families 'on the run', BBC News
    164. Jump up^ " Human Rights in Burma: Fifteen Years Post Military Coup ", Refugees International
    165. Jump up^ U.S. envoy calls violence in Kenya 'ethnic cleansing'
    166. Jump up^ Al Jazeera English – News – Kenya Ethnic Clashes Intensify
    167. Jump up^ U.N.: 600,000 Displaced In Kenya Unrest
    168. Jump up^ BBC NEWS | Africa | Kenya opposition cancels protests
    169. Jump up^ BBC NEWS | Africa | Kenya diplomatic push for peace
    170. Jump up^ "25000 North Indian workers leave Pune"Indian Express. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
    171. Jump up^ "25000 North Indians leave, Pune realty projects hit"Times of India. 24 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
    172. Jump up^ "Maha exodus: 10,000 north Indians flee in fear"Times of India. 2008-02-14. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
    173. Jump up^ "MNS violence: North Indians flee Nashik, industries hit".Rediff. 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
    174. Jump up^ "Ethnic cleansing: South Africa's shame"The Independent(London). 25 May 2008.
    175. Jump up^ UNHCR secures safe passage for Georgians fearing further fighting
    176. Jump up^http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20100615/ts_nm/us_kyrgyzstan_violence
    177. Jump up^ http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-South-Central/2010/0616/Kyrgyzstan-riots-led-to-ethnic-cleansing-government-blames-Baki


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