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Wednesday, November 21, 2012

With Kasab hanged in topmost secret mission, Congress injected the hindutva nationalism dose in the veins of the nation ahead of Gujarat Election.

With Kasab hanged in topmost secret mission, Congress injected the hindutva nationalism dose in the veins of the nation ahead of Gujarat Election.
Indian Holocaust My Father`s Life and Time, Chapter: Nine Hundred Twenty Six

Palash Biswas

Mobile: 919903717833

Skype ID: palash.biswas44


"I swear by God, won't do such a thing again" (Allah kasam dubara aisi galti nahi karunga), were the last helpless words uttered by Ajmal Kasab, the only surviving terrorist, proved guilty in 26/11 terror attacks in Mumbai.

Hindutva envelop creates the blind nationalism tsunami to bail out the corporate government of India.The political war is being fought as Hindutva vs Hindutva.The maharashtra government led by Congress and corporate media created the most wanted hindutva hype with Bal Thakre`s demise. The facebook post debacle has not changed the color as yet. With Kasab hanged in topmost secret mission, Congress injected the hindutva nationalism dose in the veins of the nation ahead of Gujarat Election.The hanging of Mohammed Ajmal Amir Kasab for the 2008 terrorist attack on Mumbai has robbed the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) of an issue in the Gujarat elections and in the winter session of Parliament. I have been consistingly writing and speaking on the ruling hegemony strategy of manusmriti rule with a nuclear strategic alliance lead by zionist Israel and corporate imperialism.Economic reforms era is closely related with the resurrection of Hindutva promoted by Congress and sangh pariwar both. America`s War against terror returns to the topmost place with execution of kasab as frantic diplomatic efforts continued to secure a ceasefire in Gaza between Israel and Hamas, which saw the US secretary of state, Hillary Clinton, arrive in Cairo on Wednesday vowing to work to find an end to the latest conflict, India has not taken whatsoever stance against the ongoing genocide in Gaja in face of US Fiscal cliff and Eurozone recession hightened by impending oil crisis due to Arab Israel conflict.With the Lok Sabha Speaker's all-party meeting failing to break the logjam on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in retail issue, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has invited the top brass of the main Opposition party, BJP, for a dinner on Thursday.

Kasab, sole surviving gunman of the 26/11 terror attack, was hanged at the Yerawada Jail in Pune at 7:30am today after his mercy petition was rejected by president Pranab Mukherjee earlier this month.BJP on Wednesday welcomed 26/11 attack convict Ajmal Kasab's hanging but underlined the need for a more serious approach to combating terrorism, including fast tracking of such cases, prompt implementation of sentences and pressurising Pakistan to stop cross-border terror.

  1. News for kasab

  2. Hindustan Times

    1. Ajmal Kasab hanged in secrecy, buried at Pune's Yerwada Jail

    2. NDTV ‎- 34 minutes ago
    3. Mohammed Ajmal Amir Kasab, 25, the only terrorist caught alive during the 26/11 attacks on Mumbai, was hanged at Pune's Yerwada Jail at ...
    4. 26/11 villain Ajmal Kasab hanged, no demand from Pakistan for dead terrorist's body
    5. Hindustan Times‎ - 18 minutes ago
    6. After Kasab, pressure builds on government to take decision on Afzal Guru's execution
    7. IBNLive‎ - 31 minutes ago
  3. Ajmal Kasab - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  5. Mohammed Ajmal Amir Kasab (Urdu: محمد اجمل امیر قصاب‎; (13 September 1987 – 21 November 2012) was a Lashkar-e-Taiba militant who was involved in the ...
  6. 2008 Mumbai attacks - Incarceration - Timeline
  7. The Hindu : News / National : Kasab's last wish: tell my mother

  8. News National
  9. 6 hours ago – 'Tell my Ammi', this was the message conveyed by LeT terrorist Ajmal Kasab, who was hanged on Wednesday for his involvement in Mumbai ...
  10. Ajmal Kasab hanged and buried in Pune's Yerwada Jail - The Times ...

  12. 10 hours ago – In a secret operation, 26/11 attacks accused Ajmal Amir Kasab was hanged in the high-security Yerwada Jail in Pune at 7:30am today after a ...
  13. Ajmal Kasab's execution: Taliban shocked, Lashkar says he will ...

  15. 4 hours ago – Ajmal Kasab who was executed in Pune's Yerwada jail today for 26/11 Mumbai terror attacks was hailed as a "hero" by the Pak-based terror ...
  16. Ajmal Kasab hanged at Yerwada Jail in Pune at 7:30am - The Times ...

  18. 11 hours ago – In a secret operation, 26/11 attacks accused Ajmal Amir Kasab was hanged in the high-security Yerwada Jail in Pune at 7:30am today after a ...
  19. Ajmal Kasab nervous but quiet before execution, offered prayers ...

  21. 2 hours ago – Kasab, who was hanged earlier this morning, had also offered prayers and asked if his family was informed in advance about the hanging, the ...
  22. View: Why I am saddened by Kasab's hanging - India News

  23. News
  24. 5 hours ago – 'I thought we were a legitimate democracy anyway, why do we have to prove it by hanging a terrorist we captured alive,' asks Shivam Vij | View: ...
  25. Ajmal Kasab hanged, buried at Pune's Yerwada Jail |

  26. All India
  27. 5 hours ago – Mohammed Ajmal Amir Kasab, 25, the only terrorist caught alive during the 26/11 attacks on Mumbai, was hanged at Pune's Yerwada Jail at ...
  28. Kasab Hanging: Latest News, Photos, Videos on Kasab Hanging ...

  29. Topic
  30. 4 hours ago – Find Kasab Hanging Latest News, Videos & Pictures on Kasab Hanging and see latest updates, news, information from NDTV.COM. Explore ...
  31. Ajmal Kasab hanged, buried at Pune's Yerwada Jail : India, News ...

  32. India
  33. 13 hours ago – Ajmal Kasab was hanged at Yerwada Jail in Pune on November 21. His body was buried inside the jail premises.
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"Better late than never. Kasab's hanging will act as a balm on the wounds of the people of Mumbai but their wounds are still fresh. They will get relief only when Kasab's handler's across the border are brought to justice," BJP spokesperson Shahnawaz Hussain said.

It took barely a fortnight for President Pranab Mukherjee to decide on the mercy petition of 26/11 convict Ajmal Amir Kasab, who was hanged on Wednesday morning in a Pune jail.

"The president had rejected the mercy petition of Kasab on November 5," Venu Rajamony, the president's press secretary, told IANS.

After the Maharashtra government rejected Kasab's mercy plea on October 16 and the union home ministry followed suit on October 23, the file moved to President Mukherjee.

Mukherjee took his decision in about 12 days, rejecting Kasab's plea on November 5 - thus paving the way for his execution.

By November 8, the file had moved back to the Maharashtra government for further action, and Kasab was hanged November 21 - five days before the fourth anniversary of the carnage.

"The president rejected Kasab's mercy petition November 5. I had forwarded it to the Maharashtra government on November 8, and it was finalised that day that Kasab would be hanged on November 21 at 7.30 a.m.", Home Minister Sushilkumar Shinde told reporters confirming Kasab's hanging.

There are 14 mercy petitions before the president, including that of parliament attack convict Afzal Guru.

The Indian government, reduced to a minority for the first time since coming to power in 2004, is scrambling for support ahead of a parliament session that will severely test its economic reform agenda, and its chances of success look bleak.For the moment, there is no threat of the government falling. But an obstructive opposition and unreliable allies could mean there is little progress on reforms like opening up insurance and pension businesses when parliament's month-long winter session gets under way on Thursday.Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has engaged in unusual dinner diplomacy with allies at his New Delhi home to build consensus on the next round of economic reforms, which need parliamentary approval.

The finance ministry will try to push some seven bills for passage in the winter session of Parliament, including bills to reform the insurance and pension sectors. The session starts on Thursday.

Pundits say it is unlikely to gain a clear mandate for amendments to the insurance act. In September, the cabinet cleared a proposal to raise the foreign investment limit in insurance to 49 per cent from 26 per cent at present.

The govt is also planning to push a legislation to introduce options trading in commodities — which proponents believe will give a new "price discovery" option to farmers. Detractors have, however, slammed the move to give the sharks who play the futures markets just one more speculative instrument.

Options trading was banned when India launched forward trading in 1952 and had always been viewed with suspicion.

The Bombay Cotton Trade Association — established in 1875 — is the world's second oldest futures trading market after the Chicago Board of Trade. Futures trading was banned during the second world war and resumed in fits and starts in the sixties.

Insurance, pension funds

The BJP, the principal Opposition party, had agreed to support the insurance bill, provided the FDI cap was retained at 26 per cent.

However, with the government deciding to hike the cap, the BJP has made it clear that it would oppose the bill. This would make it rather difficult for the UPA to push the bill through in Parliament.

The government does not expect any major hurdles before the pension bill, finance ministry officials said, despite a clause that links FDI in pension funds with the cap in insurance.

"If Parliament does not agree with the insurance amendments, FDI in the pension sector stays at 26 per cent… if it agrees then it goes up," officials said.

Trinamul and the Left are opposing both the bills and are expected to vote against them. Floor managers say this will not affect the pension bill.

Forward trading

The Forward Contract Regulation Act (Amendment) Bill, to be taken up for voting in this session, seeks to give more power to the forward market regulator and do away with section 19 of the act that prohibits options trading in commodities.

An option gives the holder the right to buy or sell a specified amount of a certain commodity at a fixed price until the date the option expires. However, the holder isn't obliged to actually exercise the option.

The Trinamul Congress and Left will oppose the move as they fear options trading can lead to a speculative price spiral in food items.

Analysts, however, say food price rise does not have much to do with options but is linked to a global price spurt in commodities.

New banking licences

The banking bill will strengthen the RBI's oversight powers, and can pave the way for the issue of new bank licences by the apex bank.

The RBI had made it clear that new licences could be issued only after this act comes through as the higher number of banks would need a greater power of oversight to check any misuse.

The logjam over vote on FDI in retail continued Wednesday at the speaker's all-party meeting with the BJP making it a precondition for the smooth functioning of parliament's winter session and the government saying it would consult its allies.

West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee's Trinamool Congress, which wants to bring a no-confidence motion against the government on the first say of the session, opening Nov 22, was isolated as no other party supported its move.

After the all-party meeting, Lok Sabha speaker Meira Kumar said: "All parties assured me that they will cooperate in running the house smoothly."

Cutting across party lines, the country's political fraternity on Wednesday said that they would like to see a smooth functioning of the parliament during the almost month-long winter session that commences from Thursday.

Speaking to reporters in New Delhi after an all party meeting here that was presided over by Lok Sabha Speaker Meira Kumar, Bharatiya Janata Party leader and Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha, Sushma Swaraj, said the government had broken its promise, which it made last year that FDI would only be allowed after a consensus was developed among all political parties.

"This government went back on its promise of last year and that it was open violation when this government got approved FDI in retail from the cabinet. So that is why I feel that we should voice our opinion in the parliament. That can only happen through a vote. It is in our rules, the rule 184, which allows voting after a discussion. We all have given our notices and we have requested the speaker and the government that for the smooth functioning of the house our notices must be accepted," said Swaraj.

In recent years, the main opposition Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has frequently resorted to obstruction in parliament to denounce government policies and scandals.

Moving notices under Rule 184, entails voting in the parliament.

Speculations are rife that TMC, a former coalition partner in the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), is planning to move a no-confidence motion against the government in the winter session of the parliament.

The BJP is yet to take final decision on whether to support the no confidence motion or not.

Samajwadi Party leader Revati Raman Singh said that all the parties had decided that the house must function without any disruption.

"The common consensus we reached in the party meet was that the parliament must run smoothly. The main discussion was on the issue of FDI. It is on this the smooth functioning of the house depends," said Singh.

Communist Party of India leader Gurudas Dasgupta sounded sceptical of the government's view on voting and said that they would press for it.

"It appeared for sometime that the parliament would not run because it appears to me that the government does seem to accept 184. It was raised by Sushma ji and we supported her saying that we derive our strength from the basic fact that there was an undertaking in the parliament by Pranab Mukherjee that the issue be discussed with all stakeholders and then decision will be taken. Therefore it is not an issue of FDI in retail is a violation of the undertaking of the government in parliament. It adds a new dimension to it; therefore we are going to press for it. The government does not appear to be in the mood," said Dasgupta.

In September, the government allowed opening of retail sector for foreign investors, which allows global firms such as Wal-Mart Stores to set up shop with a local partner and sell directly to consumers for the first time, which supporters say could transform India's $450 billion retail market and tame inflation.

Leader of opposition Sushma Swaraj said the lower house must first debate and vote on the issue of foreign equity in multi-brand retail.

"We urge the speaker to accept our notice (on FDI in multi-brand retail) under Rule 184, which entails voting," Swaraj told reporters after the meeting.

She said the government had violated its earlier assurance given in parliament that it would not move forward on FDI in retail without consulting and evolving a consensus among various parties.

"Former leader of the house, Pranab Mukherjee, now the president of the country, had given an assurance not to take a decision on FDI without consulting various party leaders and chief ministers," Swaraj said.

Parliamentary Affairs Minister Kamal Nath said: "I don't think there was any assurance. We will go into records to check what Pranab Mukherjee said."

Stating that he would reach out to parties to arrive at a convergence on running parliament smoothly, Nath said it means a give and take from both sides.

But the hint that parliament functioning may be disrupted in the initial days came from Communist Party of India leader Gurudas Dasgupta.

"It appears parliament may not function smoothly for a few days as the government does not appear to be ready for a debate and vote on the FDI issue," he said.

Communist Party of India-Marxist leader Basudeb Acharia supported the view.

Earlier, Janata Dal (United) leader Sharad Yadav, who is also the NDA convenor, said most opposition parties wanted parliament should run without disruptions. But he also flagged a debate and vote on the FDI issue and said the government should not stick to its decision on FDI.

Nath appreciated the sentiment that the opposition wanted parliament to function.

Samajwadi Party leader Rewati Raman Singh said his party would finalise its stand on the FDI issue Wednesday. Though the party supports the government from outside, it is opposed to FDI.

Former Lok Sabha speaker Somnath Chatterjee praised the secret hanging of Pakistani terrorist Mohammed Ajmal Amir Kasab at Yerawada jail in Pune today saying the government had taken the 'right step'.

"There might have been trouble had it [the hanging] been announced in advance," he said while inaugurating a private school at Khandagosh in West Bengal's Burdwan district.

Referring to chief minister Mamata Banerjee's offer to Communist Party of India (Marxist) state secretary Biman Bose to visit the CPI(M) state headquarters to discuss the issue of bringing a no-confidence motion against the UPA government in the winter session of Parliament, he said she was trying to 'brush away' the untouchable relations with the party so that the motion was accepted.

"No party has supported her openly," said Chatterjee, who was expelled from the CPI(M) for not following the party line and resigning as speaker when it withdrew support from the United Progressive Alliance government over the indo-US civilian nuclear deal in 2008.

He said political animosity was increasing in the state. "There is an environment of unrest in the state ... maintaining law and order is of utmost importance if the state has to develop."

The hanging took place a day before the start of the winter session of Parliament and in the middle of the campaign for next month's Gujarat assembly elections.

Political analyst Aswini K Ray said the decision might have been taken in view of the Gujarat elections and the winter session.

"It is possible. Can't deny that. But there is overall acceptance that it was long overdue and has been done. I can say well done. One can't fault the government. It has done a reasonably good job and the step has overwhelming public support," Ray told the Indo-Asian News Service.

Ray, a former professor of political science at Jawaharlal Nehru University, said Kasab's execution was unlikely to make a major difference to the fortunes of the Congress in Gujarat.

"Gujarat polls will be based on local politics," he said while agreeing that the BJP had lost an issue for the elections.

He said if Kasab's death sentence had not been executed, the BJP would have raised the issue in Parliament on November 26, the fourth anniversary of the Mumbai attack which claimed 166 lives and left 300 injured.

Nine of Kasab's associates, who had sneaked into Mumbai for the three-day carnage and were killed by security forces, were secretly buried in January 2010.

Nisar-ul-Haq, head of the department of political science at Jamia Millia Islamia, also said the BJP had lost an issue with Kasab's hanging.

"I can't say if the timing [of execution] had any political significance but BJP has lost an issue," he said.

BJP leaders admitted that Kasab's execution had taken away an issue of the party against the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance government.

"It would not have an impact in Gujarat elections, but the Congress effort is to take away core issues of the BJP," a party leader told IANS.

The BJP leader said the government might also like to expedite the execution of the death penalty awarded to Parliament attack convict Afzal Guru. Guru's mercy petition is pending with the president.

Ajai Sahni, a security analyst, said Kasab's hanging would not make a major impact on the fortunes of the Congress in Gujarat.

"I do not think it will become a major issue. It will have very marginal impact," he said, adding that it was wrong to view the hanging from the prism of elections.

Subrata Mukherjee, a former professor at Delhi University, said the Congress could not think of deriving political advantage from Kasab's execution in the Gujarat elections.

"It could have helped perhaps if Afzal Guru was also hanged simultaneously," he said.

Mukherjee said the BJP had lost an issue following Kasab's execution but it was not likely to affect the party's prospects in Gujarat.

The Congress leaders IANS spoke to said the party would not try to derive mileage from Kasab's execution in the Gujarat elections.

They played down questions on the timing of execution, saying the decision to reject Kasab's mercy petition was taken by the president.

They, however, admitted that the decision would strike a popular chord in Maharashtra. Union home minister Sushilkumar Shinde, who conveyed the decision of the president to the Maharashtra government, is a former chief minister of the state. He was appointed home minister in July.

Criticised in the past for cold-shouldering allies and opponents, Singh also plans to dine this week with leaders of the main opposition Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), whose obstructionist tactics washed out the last session. But analysts doubt he will manage to forge a consensus on the reforms."If things go awry, and legislation gets deadlocked it would be negative for markets and will mean those that were pessimistic on Indian reforms taking shape will be vindicated," said Suresh Kumar Ramanathan, head of regional rates and forex strategy at CIMB in Kuala Lumpur.Analysts warn of a "nightmare scenario" in which the government loses a test vote in parliament on its flagship reform - opening up the retail sector to foreign supermarkets, a decision that has drawn fire from both opponents and allies who say it will destroy the livelihoods of mom and pop store owners.

The reform does not require parliamentary approval. But left- and-right-wing opposition parties, with an eye to upcoming state and national elections, want to use the session to hold the government to account on the policy, which they say does not have popular support. They are pushing hard for a symbolic vote against the measure. If the government lost the vote, it would be an embarrassing setback for a policy on which it has staked so much political capital. It could also sap its political will to pursue more difficult reforms to cut high spending and reduce a ballooning budget deficit.Most of the initiatives Singh has announced to date have required only an executive order, so this session of parliament poses the biggest test yet of his reform drive.

If he fails to get key allies and the BJP on board, his reformist legislative agenda could stall. Among the reform bills due to be introduced are measures to allow up to 49 percent foreign investment in local insurance companies and domestic pension funds. Currently, the cap for insurers is at 26 percent and foreign investors are barred from buying into pensions.


Uncertainty surrounding the passage of these bills has contributed to a 3.8 percent fall in the benchmark BSE stock market index since the start of October. The rupee, meanwhile, has shed all of its gains since the government launched its new economic reform drive in September. Analysts attribute the fall to a host of factors, including the global downturn, a ballooning deficit and fears that the promised reforms may not be fully implemented. It was not clear on Wednesday whether the government would relent and allow the vote on retail reform to go ahead or if it would concede only to a motion allowing discussion of the move but not a vote, a less risky proposition.Singh's biggest coalition ally, the Trinamool Congress party, has withdrawn its support over the reform, leaving him in charge of a minority administration at a time when he is trying to revive growth in Asia's third-largest economy. Trinamool is pushing for a vote of no-confidence in thegovernment during the winter session, which - if lost – could bring the government down and trigger a national election, well before it is due in 2014. For now, few opposition parties have the stomach for an early election, preferring instead to score political points by harrying a weakened government.But the highly fluid situation means nothing is certain."We expect a rocky ride," Citi Research said in an analyst note that questioned whether the government would be able to pass legislation given its minority status, despite its insistence that it has done the maths and has the votes. The economic bills can be passed in parliament's lower house with the support of two big regional parties - the Samajwadi Party (SP) and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) - which are not part of the ruling coalition but often give it support in parliament.

However, the SP has previously opposed the pension and insurance bills while the BSP is keeping its cards close to its chest. The government is in a minority in the upper house, so support from the opposition BJP is crucial there. But analysts say its unlikely the BJP will be willing to help its rival, which mean the bills could be tripped up at this last hurdle.

Shaheen Dhada's arrest triggered by pressure from Shiv Sainiks

MUMBAI: The Maharashtra Police on Tuesday arrested nine people accused of ransacking a clinic owned by an uncle of Shaheen Dhada, who posted comments on Facebook against Sunday's bandh in Maharashtra.

A medical clinic owned by Shaheen's uncle was vandalised on Monday. Police confirmed that nine persons were arrested for the attack and they were produced at a local court on Tuesday afternoon. Most of them are Shiv Sena members but their names were not disclosed.

Reacting to the incidents in Palghar Shiv Sena MP Sanjay Raut told reporters: "Shiv Sena chief was one of the most popular leaders in the country. If after his death there was a day-long bandh in Mumbai, nobody should ridicule it. If someone has done that, then it is natural for Shiv Sainiks to get angry."

Angry reactions in media and social media followed the arrest of Shaheen Dhada and her friend, Renu Srinivas, for comments on Facebook on the bandh to mark Shiv Sena chief Bal Thackeray's demise.

The state government has asked Inspector-General of Konkan range to run an investigation into how legal action was taken so quickly against two young women from Palghar in Thane district, after their posts on Facebook.

A government source told ET that initial investigations indicated that police arrested the two women under pressure from local Shiv Sainiks.

A senior official in the home department said, "initial investigation revealed that when Shiv Sainiks discovered a woman had posted some comments against the bandh, they went to the police station on late Sunday evening and insisted that she should be arrested. The local police said they would investigate the matter but a mob of Shiv Sainiks gathered outside the police station and started arguing with the police. They threatened that they would create law and order problems in Palghar if legal action was not taken instantly. The police called the women to police station and booked them under pressure from this crowd."

Maharashtra chief minister Prithviraj Chavan's office said that the entire case was being investigated by an Inspector General.

It also clarified that a reply has been sent to the chairman of the Press Council of India, Markandey Katju, who had demanded action against the police who took legal action against the girls.

Speaking to news channels Dhada said, "I decided to apologise for my posts because I was too scared about what was happening. I don't want any further trouble. The police called us on Monday night to the station and told us we were being arrested but they were polite to us."

Winter session of Parliament will decide direction of future reform process: Nomura

The Winter Session of Parliament, beginning tomorrow, will be a key gauge of the way some recently announced economic reforms are to be implemented and would decide the direction of future reform process, global investment banking Nomura said today.

"Our worry is that even a discussion on FDI in multi-brand retail will lead to heated debates and could lead to disruption in parliamentary proceedings. If the debate on FDI in multi brand retail is put to rest soon, we would hope that other reforms will also be passed," Nomura said in a research note ahead of the Winter Session.

"However, the Monsoon Session of Parliament does not inspire much confidence as the standoff between the government and the opposition parties on issues of graft and corruption led to a complete washout of the parliamentary session.

"There is a risk that the Winter Session could go down the same road. Overall, the winter session of parliament will be a very important gauge as to the extent to which the announced reforms are being implemented," it added.

Some of the reforms announced since September that will come up for approval during the session include higher foreign investment ceilings in insurance and pension sectors, Companies Bill (Amendment), 2011 for improving standards of corporate governance and Banking Laws (Amendment) Bill to pave the way for the RBI to give new banking licenses.

Other pending bills include Land Acquisition Rehabilitation and Resettlement bill, Direct Tax Code Bill, Forwards Contract (Regulation) Amendment Bill, and Competition Act (Amendment), 2002 to bring all sectors under the purview of the Competition Commission of India, except stressed banks or insurers.

"The direction of reforms in the coming months will depend on whether the ruling government becomes stronger or weaker out of this winter session," Nomura said.

The monsoon session of parliament was virtually washed away on the issue of CAG report on coal block allocations.

Nomura, however, said it does not see the government at risk as the Congress has both the inside support from parties like DMK, NCP and others, along with outside support from SP and BSP to tide over any no-confidence vote, which itself is uncertain.

"The SP and the BSP are opposed to FDI in multi-brand retail, but otherwise continue to support the government from outside," it said.

Mamata Banerjee-led Trinamool Congress has said it plans to bring a no-confidence motion against the government in Lok Sabha, but it is yet to get any clear support from other opposition parties.

Inflation partly responsible for slowdown: K C Chakrabarty

RBI Deputy Governor K C Chakrabarty today conceded that monetary policy is partly responsible for not being able to contain inflation and arrest slowdown in growth.

While the interest rates are not the only reason for economic slowdown, inflation is "definitely" one of the reasons for the sluggish growth, Chakrabarty said on the sidelines of an Assocham event here.

"Slowdown in the growth is for a variety of reasons. Yes, to that extent monetary policy is not able to control the inflation and not effective, it is responsible. We cannot say something wrong happening in the economy, we are not responsible. Collectively, we are all responsible," he said.

Inflation has remained at around 8 per cent for last several months, much above the comfort level of RBI and the government.

When asked whether 7 per cent has become "new normal", he said, it has to be in sync with the global trend which was about 5 per cent in 2011.

The economic growth has also been languishing. For the first quarter of the current fiscal declined to 5.5 per cent. GDP growth moderated to 9-year low of 6.5 per cent in 2011-12.

Asking banks not to shy away from giving loans to productive sectors, Chakrabarty said "when NPAs are high your risk management system has to be improved, your credit appraisal system has to be improved.

"Because of NPA fear, banks need not stop lending but banks must improve their credit management capability for which there is enough scope, he said, adding, banks need to pay more attention to the credit needs of agriculture, SME and retail," he said.

On the liquidity situation, the RBI Deputy Governor said, there is enough liquidity to take care of the lending activities of the banking system.

"I think liquidity is okay...whatever is the liquidity, that is adequate and comfortable. This is always monitored," he said.

In order to ease liquidity situation, the Reserve Bank last month announced infusion of Rs 17,500 crore by reducing Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) by 0.25 per cent.

Accordingly, the CRR, or the portion of deposits banks have to park with the RBI, now stands at 4.25 per cent, while the repo rate, at which RBI lends to the system, has been retained at 8 per cent.

LIC, EPFO to pick up Air India's Rs 7,400-crore bond issue at 9.08%

MUMBAI: Life insurance major LIC and the Employee Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) have agreed to fully subscribe to the Rs 7,400 crore bond sale of national carrier Air India, a top SBIBSE -0.25 % Caps official said here today.

"Life Insurance Corporation and the EPFO have agreed to purchase the entire Rs 7,400-crore non-convertible debentures (NCDs) being sold by Air India. However, the bond sale programme will continue to remain open till December 18," a senior official of SBI Caps, which is the sole arranger to the issue, said, on condition of anonymity.

The 19-year-old issue has a coupon of 9.08 per cent and will fetch 9.27 per cent for LIC and the EPFO on maturity, he added.

According to an Air India official, LIC has subscribed to bonds worth Rs 3,000 crore and the remaining by EPFO.

When contacted, Air India Finance Director S Venkat refused to talk, saying only the spokesperson could comment.

Calls to the Air India spokesperson did not elicit any response.

The NCD issue is part of the revival plan of the debt-laden national carrier, which was given a Rs 30,000-crore bailout by the government in April.

Accordingly, Air India will have to use the NCD proceeds to retire a good part of short-term working capital loans taken from 19 different banks.

The bailout package also included an upfront equity infusion of Rs 6,750 crore and an assured equity support of Rs 23,481 crore until 2020-21.

As of last December, Air India had a debt of Rs 43,777 crore on its books and an accumulated loss of Rs 27,000 crore from the past five years.

The debt include those taken for purchasing 27 Boeing Dreamliners, of which only three have been delivered so far, and nearly 60 other planes from Airbus.

The issue has a AAA rating from India Ratings, the domestic services of Fitch, reflecting the unconditional guarantee extended by the government to make timely repayment of principal and interest on the bonds.

India Ratings had said in a statement, "The proceeds of this NCD issue will be used to repay outstanding Rs 73,91.67 crore short-term bank loans, interest thereon, as well as expenses in relation to the issue of the debentures and the government guarantee fee as may be applicable."

The NCDs were issued early this month and have a tenor of 19 years, with principal redemption in five equal instalments starting from the 15th year and interest payments being made biannually, the rating agency said.

The NCD issue is a part of the government's restructuring plan for reviving the airline. The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs had on April 12 approved a financial restructuring plan for the airline, which included the issuance of the NCDs.

The bonds will be issued in three tranches -- Series I of Rs 3,000 crore, Series II of Rs 1,000 crore, and Series III of Rs 5 crore, according to India Rating.

In all three tranches the issuer has the option to retain additional subscription such that the total amount mobilised does not exceed Rs 7,400 crore, the agency added.

The airline has to turn cash-positive by next fiscal and net profit by 2020, and SBI Caps is working on the revival plan for the airline.

Last week, the airline failed to sell four Boeing 777s as it did not find any takers.

India must work towards creating biz friendly climate: Montek Singh Ahluwalia

NEW DELHI: India must work towards creating an investor friendly business climate as both foreign and domestic companies face hurdles in doing business here, Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Montek Singh Ahluwalia said today.

"All companies, not just Japanese but even Indian companies face a lot of hurdles because I don't think we have created a business environment in our country where people would say that there are no hurdles. We should work towards that," he said here.

Ahluwalia was speaking on the sidelines of India-Japan partnership symposium organised by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII).

He said it was a genuine issue and much of these problems arise at the level of state governments rather at the central government level.

"I generally do agree that...I don't think it is so much a problem at the central government level but I think many clearances at state government level do create problems," Ahluwalia said.

He further said the state governments should create an environment conducive enough for doing business and must look at their procedures relating to it.

"I think every state government that is interested in creating impression that it is pro-investment, should comprehensively look at its procedure and make sure that both domestic and foreign investors say that things are really cleaned-up," he added.

Earlier this year, the Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Hsien Loong during a visit here had said that India's business environment is "complicated" for investors who want policy stability.

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2008 Mumbai attacks

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2008 Mumbai attacks

Map of the 2008 Mumbai attacks
Date 26 November 2008 – 29 November 2008 (IST, UTC+05:30)
Attack type Bombings, shootings, hostage crisis,[1] siege
Deaths Approximately 166 (including 10 attackers)[2]
Injured More than 308[2]
Perpetrators Alleged by India on Lashkar-e-Taiba who allegedly is led by Hafiz Muhammad Saeed[3][4][5]

The 2008 Mumbai attacks were 11 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai, India's largest city, by Islamist terrorists[6][7] who were trained in and came from Pakistan.[8] The attackers allegedly received reconnaissance (recce) assistance before the attacks. Ajmal Kasab, the only attacker who was captured alive, later confessed upon interrogation that the attacks were conducted with the support of Pakistan's ISI.[9][10] The attacks, which drew widespread global condemnation, began on Wednesday, 26 November and lasted until Saturday, 29 November 2008, killing 164 people and wounding at least 308.[2][11]

Eight of the attacks occurred in South Mumbai: at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Oberoi Trident,[12] the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower,[12] Leopold Cafe, Cama Hospital (a women and children's hospital),[12] the Nariman House Jewish community centre,[13] the Metro Cinema,[14] and a lane behind the Times of India building and St. Xavier's College.[12] There was also an explosion at Mazagaon, in Mumbai's port area, and in a taxi at Vile Parle.[15] By the early morning of 28 November, all sites except for the Taj hotel had been secured by Mumbai Police and security forces. On 29 November, India's National Security Guards (NSG) conducted Operation Black Tornado to flush out the remaining attackers; it resulted in the deaths of the last remaining attackers at the Taj hotel and ending all fighting in the attacks.[16]

Ajmal Kasab[17] disclosed that the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Pakistan-based militant organisation, considered a terrorist organisation by India, Pakistan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the United Nations,[18] among others.[19] The Indian government said that the attackers came from Pakistan, and their controllers were in Pakistan.[20] On 7 January 2009,[21] Pakistan's Information Minister Sherry Rehman officially accepted Ajmal Kasab's nationality as Pakistani.[22] On 12 February 2009, Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik asserted that parts of the attack had been planned in Pakistan.[23] A trial court on 6 May, 2010 sentenced Ajmal Kasab to death on all the 86 charges for which he was convicted.[24] On his appeal against this verdict, Bombay High Court on 21 February 2011[25] and Supreme Court of India on 29 August 2012 upheld his death punishment.[26]. Kasab was hanged at Yerwada Jail in Pune on 21 November 2012[27][28]



One of the bomb-damaged coaches at the Mahim station in Mumbai during the 11 July 2006 train bombings

There have been many bombings in Mumbai since the 13 coordinated bomb explosions that killed 257 people and injured 700 on 12 March 1993.[29] The 1993 attacks are believed to have been in retaliation for the Babri Mosque demolition.[30]

On 6 December 2002, a blast in a BEST bus near Ghatkopar station killed two people and injured 28.[31] The bombing occurred on the 10th anniversary of the demolition of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya.[32] A bicycle bomb exploded near the Vile Parle station in Mumbai, killing one person and injuring 25 on 27 January 2003, a day before the visit of the Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee to the city.[33] On 13 March 2003, a day after the 10th anniversary of the 1993 Bombay bombings, a bomb exploded in a train compartment near the Mulund station, killing 10 people and injuring 70.[34] On 28 July 2003, a blast in a BEST bus in Ghatkopar killed 4 people and injured 32.[35] On 25 August 2003, two bombs exploded in South Mumbai, one near the Gateway of India and the other at Zaveri Bazaar in Kalbadevi. At least 44 people were killed and 150 injured.[36] On 11 July 2006, seven bombs exploded within 11 minutes on the Suburban Railway in Mumbai.[37] 209 people were killed, including 22 foreigners[38][39] and over 700 injured.[40][41] According to the Mumbai Police, the bombings were carried out by Lashkar-e-Taiba and Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI).[42][43]


The first events were detailed around 20:00 Indian Standard Time (IST) on 26 November, when 10 men in inflatable speedboats came ashore at two locations in Colaba. They reportedly told local Marathi-speaking fishermen who asked them who they were to "mind their own business" before they split up and headed two different ways. The fishermen's subsequent report to police received little response.[44]

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

Bullet marks on the wall of the suburban terminus at CST

The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) was attacked by two gunmen, one of whom, Ajmal Kasab, was later caught alive by the police and identified by eyewitnesses. The attacks began around 21:30 when the two men entered the passenger hall and opened fire,[45] using AK-47 rifles.[46] The attackers killed 58 people and injured 104 others,[46] their assault ending at about 22:45.[45] Security forces and emergency services arrived shortly afterwards. The two gunmen fled the scene and fired at pedestrians and police officers in the streets, killing eight police officers. The attackers passed a police station. Many of the outgunned police officers were afraid to confront the attackers, and instead switched off the lights and secured the gates. The attackers then headed towards Cama Hospital with an intention to kill patients,[47] but the hospital staff locked all of the patient wards. A team of the Mumbai Anti-Terrorist Squad led by police chief Hemant Karkare searched the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and then left in pursuit of Kasab and Khan. Kasab and Khan opened fire on the vehicle in a lane next to the hospital and the police returned fire. Karkare, Vijay Salaskar, Ashok Kamte and one of their officers were killed, though the only survivor, Constable Arun Jadhav, was wounded.[48] Kasab and Khan seized the police vehicle but later abandoned it and seized a passenger car instead. They then ran into a police roadblock, which had been set up after Jadhav radioed for help.[49] A gun battle then ensued in which Khan was killed and Kasab was wounded. After a physical struggle, Kasab was arrested.[50] A police officer, Tukaram Omble was also killed.

Leopold Cafe

The Leopold Cafe, a popular restaurant and bar on Colaba Causeway in South Mumbai, was one of the first sites to be attacked.[51] Two attackers opened fire on the cafe on the evening of 26 November, killing at least 10 people, (including some foreigners), and injuring many more.[52]

Bullet marks left at Leopold Cafe

Bomb blasts in taxis

There were two explosions in taxis caused by timer bombs. The first one occurred at 22:40 at Vile Parle, killing the driver and a passenger. The second explosion took place at Wadi Bunder between 22:20 and 22:25. Three people, including the driver of the taxi were killed, and about 15 others were injured.[15][53]

Taj Mahal Hotel and Oberoi Trident

The damaged Oberoi Trident hotel

Two hotels, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower and the Oberoi Trident, were among the four locations targeted. Six explosions were reported at the Taj hotel - one in the lobby, two in the elevators, three in the restaurant - and one at the Oberoi Trident.[54][55] At the Taj Mahal, firefighters rescued 200 hostages from windows using ladders during the first night.

CNN initially reported on the morning of 27 November 2008 that the hostage situation at the Taj had been resolved and quoted the police chief of Maharashtra stating that all hostages were freed;[56] however, it was learned later that day that there were still two attackers holding hostages, including foreigners, in the Taj Mahal hotel.[57]

The Wasabi restaurant on the first floor of the Taj Hotel was completely gutted.

During the attacks, both hotels were surrounded by Rapid Action Force personnel and Marine Commandos (MARCOS) and National Security Guards (NSG) commandos.[58][59] When reports emerged that attackers were receiving television broadcasts, feeds to the hotels were blocked.[60] Security forces stormed both hotels, and all nine attackers were killed by the morning of 29 November.[61][62] Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan of the NSG was killed during the rescue of Commando Sunil Yadav, who was hit in the leg by a bullet during the rescue operations at Taj.[63][64] 32 hostages were killed at the Oberoi Trident.[65]

A number of European Parliament Committee on International Trade delegates were staying in the Taj Mahal hotel when it was attacked,[66] but none of them were injured.[67] British Conservative Member of the European Parliament (MEP) Sajjad Karim (who was in the lobby when attackers initially opened fire there) and German Social Democrat MEP Erika Mann were hiding in different parts of the building.[68] Also reported present was Spanish MEP Ignasi Guardans, who was barricaded in a hotel room.[69][70] Another British Conservative MEP, Syed Kamall, reported that he along with several other MEPs left the hotel and went to a nearby restaurant shortly before the attack.[68] Kamall also reported that Polish MEP Jan Masiel was thought to have been sleeping in his hotel room when the attacks started, but eventually left the hotel safely.[71] Kamall and Guardans reported that a Hungarian MEP's assistant was shot.[68][72] Also caught up in the shooting were the President of Madrid, Esperanza Aguirre, while checking in at the Oberoi Trident,[72] and Indian MP N. N. Krishnadas of Kerala and Gulam Noon while having dinner at a restaurant in the Taj hotel.[73][74]

Nariman House

Front view of the Nariman House a week after the attacks

Nariman House, a Chabad Lubavitch Jewish center in Colaba known as the Mumbai Chabad House, was taken over by two attackers and several residents were held hostage.[75] Police evacuated adjacent buildings and exchanged fire with the attackers, wounding one. Local residents were told to stay inside. The attackers threw a grenade into a nearby lane, causing no casualties. NSG commandos arrived from Delhi, and a Naval helicopter took an aerial survey. During the first day, 9 hostages were rescued from the first floor. The following day, the house was stormed by NSG commandos fast-roping from helicopters onto the roof, covered by snipers positioned in nearby buildings. After a long battle, one NSG commando Havaldar Gajender Singh Bisht and both perpetrators were killed.[76][77] Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife Rivka Holtzberg, who was six months pregnant, were murdered with four other hostages inside the house by the attackers.[78]

According to radio transmissions picked up by Indian intelligence, the attackers "would be told by their handlers in Pakistan that the lives of Jews were worth 50 times those of non-Jews." Injuries reported on some of the bodies indicate they may have been tortured.[79][80]

End of the attacks

By the morning of 27 November, the NSG had secured the Jewish outreach center at Nariman House as well as the Oberoi Trident hotel. They also incorrectly believed that the Taj Mahal Palace and Towers had been cleared of attackers, and soldiers were leading hostages and holed-up guests to safety, and removing bodies of those killed in the attacks.[81][82][83] However, later news reports indicated that there were still two or three attackers in the Taj, with explosions heard and gunfire exchanged.[83] Fires were also reported at the ground floor of the Taj with plumes of smoke arising from the first floor.[83] The final operation at the Taj Mahal Palace hotel was completed by the NSG commandos at 08:00 on 29 November, killing three attackers and resulting in the conclusion of the attacks.[84] The NSG rescued 250 people from the Oberoi, 300 from the Taj and 60 people (members of 12 different families) from Nariman House.[85] In addition, police seized a boat filled with arms and explosives anchored at Mazgaon dock off Mumbai harbour.[86]


Ajmal Kasab at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

The Mumbai attacks were planned and directed by Lashkar-e-Taiba militants inside Pakistan, and carried out by ten young armed men trained and sent to Mumbai and directed from inside Pakistan via mobile phones and VoIP.[19][87][88]

In July 2009 Pakistani authorities confirmed that LeT plotted and financed the attacks from LeT camps in Karachi and Thatta.[89] In November 2009, Pakistani authorities charged seven men they had arrested earlier, of planning and executing the assault.[90]

Mumbai police originally identified 37 suspects—including two army officers—for their alleged involvement in the plot. All but two of the suspects, many of whom are identified only through aliases, are Pakistani.[91] Two more suspects arrested in the United States in October 2009 for other attacks were also found to have been involved in planning the Mumbai attacks.[92][93] One of these men, Pakistani American David Headley, was found to have made several trips to India before the attacks and gathered video and GPS information on behalf of the plotters.

In April 2011, the United States issued arrest warrants for four Pakistani men as suspects in the attack. The men, Sajid Mir, Abu Qahafa, Mazhar Iqbal, and alias "Major Iqbal", are believed to be members of Lashkar-e-Taiba and helped plan and train the attackers.[94]

Negotiations with Pakistan

Pakistan initially denied that Pakistanis were responsible for the attacks, blaming plotters in Bangladesh and Indian criminals,[95] a claim refuted by India,[96] and saying they needed information from India on other bombings first.[97]

Pakistani authorities finally agreed that Ajmal Kasab was a Pakistani on 7 January 2009,[21][98][99] and registered a case against three other Pakistani nationals.[100]

The Indian government supplied evidence to Pakistan and other governments, in the form of interrogations, weapons, and call records of conversations during the attacks.[4][101] In addition, Indian government officials said that the attacks were so sophisticated that they must have had official backing from Pakistani "agencies", an accusation denied by Pakistan.[88][98]

Under US and UN pressure, Pakistan arrested a few members of Jamaat ud-Dawa and briefly put its founder under house arrest, but he was found to be free a few days later.[102] A year after the attacks, Mumbai police continued to complain that Pakistani authorities are not cooperating by providing information for their investigation.[103] Meanwhile, journalists in Pakistan said security agencies were preventing them from interviewing people from Kasab's village.[104][105] Home Minister P. Chidambaram said the Pakistani authorities had not shared any information about American suspects Headley and Rana, but that the FBI had been more forthcoming.[106]

An Indian report, summarising intelligence gained from India's interrogation of David Headley,[107] was released in October 2010. It alleged that Pakistan's intelligence agency (ISI) had provided support for the attacks by providing funding for reconnaissance missions in Mumbai.[108] The report included Headley's claim that Lashkar-e-Taiba's chief military commander, Zaki-ur-Rahman Lakhvi, had close ties to the ISI.[107] He alleged that "every big action of LeT is done in close coordination with [the] ISI."[108]


Police looking for attackers outside Colaba

According to investigations, the attackers travelled by sea from Karachi, Pakistan, across the Arabian Sea, hijacked the Indian fishing trawler 'Kuber', killed the crew of four, then forced the captain to sail to Mumbai. After murdering the captain, the attackers entered Mumbai on a rubber dinghy. The captain of 'Kuber', Amar Singh Solanki, had earlier been imprisoned for six months in a Pakistani jail for illegally fishing in Pakistani waters.[109] The attackers stayed and were trained by the Lashkar-e-Taiba in a safehouse at Azizabad near Karachi before boarding a small boat for Mumbai.[110]

David Headley was a member of Lashkar-e-Taiba, and between 2002 and 2009 Headley travelled extensively as part of his work for LeT. Headley received training in small arms and countersurveillance from LeT, built a network of connections for the group, and was chief scout in scoping out targets for Mumbai attack[111][112] having allegedly been given $25,000 in cash in 2006 by an ISI officer known as Major Iqbal, The officer also helped him arrange a communications system for the attack, and oversaw a model of the Taj Mahal Hotel so that gunmen could know their way inside the target, according to Headley's testimony to Indian authorities. Headley also helped ISI recruit Indian agents to monitor Indian troop levels and movements, according to a US official. At the same time, Headley was also an informant for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, and Headley's wives warned American officials of Headley's involvement with LeT and his plotting attacks, warning specifically that the Taj Mahal Hotel may be their target.[111]

US officials believed that the Inter-Services Intelligence (I.S.I.) officers provided support to Lashkar-e-Taiba militants who carried out the attacks.[113]

The arrest of Zabiuddin Ansari alias Abu Hamza in June 2012 provided further clarity on how the plot was hatched. According to Abu Hamza, the attacks were previously scheduled for 2006, using Indian youth for the job. However, a huge cache of AK-47's and RDX, which were to be used for the attacks, was recovered from Aurangabad in 2006, thus leading to the dismantling of the original plot. Subsequently, Abu Hamza fled to Pakistan and along with Lashkar commanders, scouted for Pakistani youth to be used for the attacks. In September 2007, ten people were selected for the mission. In September 2008, these people tried sailing to Mumbai from Karachi, but couldn't complete their mission due to choppy waters. These men made a second attempt in November 2008, and successfully managed to execute the final attacks. David Headley's disclosures, that three Pakistani army officers were associated with the planning and execution of the attack were substantiated by Ansari's revelations during his interrogation.[114][115] After Ansari's arrest, Pakistan's Foreign Office claimed they had received information that up to 40 Indian nationals were involved in the attacks.[116]


The attackers had planned the attack several months ahead of time and knew some areas well enough for the attackers to vanish, and reappear after security forces had left. Several sources have quoted Kasab telling the police that the group received help from Mumbai residents.[117][118] The attackers used at least three SIM cards purchased on the Indian side of the border with Bangladesh.[119] There were also reports of a SIM card purchased in the US state New Jersey.[120] Police had also mentioned that Faheem Ansari, an Indian Lashkar operative who had been arrested in February 2008, had scouted the Mumbai targets for the November attacks.[121] Later, the police arrested two Indian suspects, Mikhtar Ahmad, who is from Srinagar in Kashmir, and Tausif Rehman, a resident of Kolkata. They supplied the SIM cards, one in Calcutta, and the other in New Delhi.[122]

Type 86 Grenades made by China's state-owned Norinco were used in the attacks.[123]

Blood tests on the attackers indicate that they had taken cocaine and LSD during the attacks, to sustain their energy and stay awake for 50 hours. Police say that they found syringes on the scenes of the attacks. There were also indications that they had been taking steroids.[124] The gunman who survived said that the attackers had used Google Earth to familiarise themselves with the locations of buildings used in the attacks.[125]

There were ten gunmen, nine of whom were subsequently shot dead and one captured by security forces.[126][127] Witnesses reported that they looked to be in their early twenties, wore black t-shirts and jeans, and that they smiled and looked happy as they shot their victims.[128]

It was initially reported that some of the attackers were British citizens,[129][130] but the Indian government later stated that there was no evidence to confirm this.[131] Similarly, early reports of twelve gunmen[132] were also later shown to be incorrect.[4]

On 9 December, the ten attackers were identified by Mumbai police, along with their home towns in Pakistan: Ajmal Amir from Faridkot, Abu Ismail Dera Ismail Khan from Dera Ismail Khan, Hafiz Arshad and Babr Imran from Multan, Javed from Okara, Shoaib from Narowal, Nazih and Nasr from Faisalabad, Abdul Rahman from Arifwalla, and Fahad Ullah from Dipalpur Taluka. Dera Ismail Khan is in the North-West Frontier Province; the rest of the towns are in Pakistani Punjab.[133]

On 6 April 2010, the Home Minister of Maharashtra State, which includes Mumbai, informed the Assembly that the bodies of the nine killed Pakistani gunmen from the 2008 attack on Mumbai were buried in a secret location in January 2010. The bodies had been in the mortuary of a Mumbai hospital after Muslim clerics in the city refused to let them be buried on their grounds.[134]


Ajmal Kasab was the only attacker arrested alive by police.[135] Much of the information about the attackers' preparation, travel, and movements comes from his confessions to the Mumbai police.[136]

On 12 February 2009 Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik said that Pakistani national Javed Iqbal, who acquired VoIP phones in Spain for the Mumbai attackers, and Hamad Ameen Sadiq, who had facilitated money transfer for the attack, had been arrested.[100] Two other men known as Khan and Riaz, but whose full names were not given, were also arrested.[137] Two Pakistanis were arrested in Brescia, Italy (north-west of Milan), on 21 November 2009, after being accused of providing logistical support to the attacks and transferring over US$200 to internet accounts using a false ID.[138][139] They had Red Corner Notices issued against them by Interpol for their suspected involvement and it was issued after the last year's strikes.[140]

In October 2009, two Chicago men were arrested and charged by the FBI for involvement in terrorism abroad, David Coleman Headley and Tahawwur Hussain Rana. Headley, a Pakistani-American, was charged in November 2009 with scouting locations for the 2008 Mumbai attacks.[141][142] Headley is reported to have posed as an American Jew and is believed to have links with militant Islamist groups based in Bangladesh.[143] On 18 March 2010, Headley pled guilty to a dozen charges against him thereby avoiding going to trial.

In December 2009, the FBI charged Abdur Rehman Hashim Syed, a retired major in the Pakistani army, for planning the terror attacks in association with Headley.[144]

On 15 January 2010, in a successful snatch operation R&AW agents nabbed Sheikh Abdul Khwaja, one of the handlers of the 26/11 attacks, chief of HuJI India operations and a most wanted terror suspect in India, from Colombo, Sri Lanka, and brought him over to Hyderabad, India for formal arrest.[145]

On 25 June 2012, the Delhi Police arrested Zabiuddin Ansari alias Abu Hamza, one of the key suspects in the attack at the Indira Gandhi International Airport in New Delhi. His arrest was touted as the most significant development in the case since Kasab's arrest.[146] Security agencies had been chasing him for three years in Delhi. Ansari is an Lashker-e-Taiba ultra and the Hindi tutor of 10 terrorists who were responsible for the Mumbai attacks in 2008.[147][148] He was apprehended, after he was arrested and deported to India by Saudi Intelligence officials as per official request by Indian authorities.[149] After Ansari's arrest, investigations revealed that in 2009 he allegedly stayed for a day in a room in Old Legislators's Hostel, belonging to Fauzia Khan, a former MLA and minister in Maharashtra Government. The minister, however, denied having any links with him. Home Minister P. Chidambaram, asserted that Ansari was provided a safe place in Pakistan and was present in the control room, which could not have been established without active State support. Ansari's interrogation further revealed that Sajid Mir and a Pakistani Army major visited India under fake names as cricket spectators to survey targets in Delhi and Mumbai for about a fortnight.[150][151][152]

Casualties and compensation

At least 166 victims (civilians and security personnel) and nine attackers were killed in the attacks. Among the dead were 28 foreign nationals from 10 countries.[2][56][153][154][155] One attacker was captured.[156] The bodies of many of the dead hostages showed signs of torture or disfigurement.[157] A number of those killed were notable figures in business, media, and security services.[158][159][160]

The government of Maharashtra announced about INR500,000 (US$9,100) as compensation to the kin of each of those killed in the terror attacks and about INR50,000 (US$910) to the seriously injured.[161] In August 2009, Indian Hotels Company and the Oberoi Group received about $28 million USD as part-payment of the insurance claims, on account of the attacks on Taj Mahal and Trident, from General Insurance Corporation of India.[162]


The attacks are sometimes referred to in India as "26/11", after the date in 2008 that they began the attacks, and the nomenclature behind the 9/11 attacks (akin to that of the 3/11 attack in Madrid). The Pradhan Inquiry Commission, appointed by the Maharashtra government, produced a report that was tabled before the legislative assembly over one year after the events. The report said the "war-like" attack was beyond the capacity of any police force, but it also found fault with the Mumbai Police Commissionaer Hasan Gafoor's lack of leadership during the crisis.[163]

The Maharashtra government planned to buy 36 speed boats to patrol the coastal areas and several helicopters for the same purpose. It also planned to create an anti-terror force called "Force One" and upgrade all the weapons that Mumbai police currently have.[164] Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on an all-party conference declared that legal framework would be strengthened in the battle against terrorism and a federal anti-terrorist intelligence and investigation agency, like the FBI, will be set up soon to coordinate action against terrorism.[165] The government strengthened anti-terror laws with UAPA 2008, and the federal National Investigation Agency was formed.

The attacks further strained India's slowly recovering relationship with Pakistan. India's then External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee (presently President of India) declared that India may indulge in military strikes against terror camps in Pakistan to protect its territorial integrity. There were also after-effects on the United States's relationships with both countries,[166] the US-led NATO war in Afghanistan,[167] and on the Global War on Terror.[168] FBI chief Robert Mueller praised the "unprecedented cooperation" between American and Indian intelligence agencies over Mumbai terror attack probe.[169] Interpol secretary general Ronald Noble indicated Indian intelligence agencies did not share any information with them.[170]

A new National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) was proposed to be setup by the then Home Minister P. chidambaram as an office to collect, collate, summarize, integrate, analyze, coordinate and report all information and inputs received from various intelligence agencies, state police departments, and other ministries and their departments.

Movement of troops

Pakistan moved troops towards the border with India voicing concerns about the Indian government's possible plans to launch attacks on Pakistani soil if it did not cooperate. After days of talks, the Pakistan government, however, decided to start moving troops away from the border.[171]


Candlelight vigils at the Gateway of India in Mumbai

Indians criticised their political leaders after the attacks, saying that their ineptness was partly responsible. The Times of India commented on its front page that "Our politicians fiddle as innocents die."[172] Political reactions in Mumbai and India included a range of resignations and political changes, including the resignations of Minister for Home Affairs Shivraj Patil,[173] Chief Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh[174] and Deputy Chief Minister R. R. Patil[175] for controversial reactions to the attack including taking the former's son and Bollywood director Ram Gopal Verma to tour the damaged Taj Mahal and the latters remarks that the attacks were not a big deal in such a large city. Prominent Muslim personalities such as Bollywood actor Aamir Khan appealed to their community members in the country to observe Eid al-Adha as a day of mourning on 9 December.[176] The business establishment also reacted, with changes to transport, and requests for an increase in self-defense capabilities.[177] The attacks also triggered a chain of citizens' movements across India such as the India Today Group's "War Against Terror" campaign. There were vigils held across all of India with candles and placards commemorating the victims of the attacks.[178] The NSG commandos based in Delhi also met criticism for taking 10 hours to reach the 3 sites under attack.[179][180]

Citizens gather outside the Taj Mahal Palace and Tower hotel demanding the government takes action.

International reaction for the attacks was widespread, with many countries and international organisations condemning the attacks and expressing their condolences to the civilian victims. Many important personalities around the world also condemned the attacks.[181]

Media coverage highlighted the use of social media and Internet social networking tools, including Twitter and Flickr, in spreading information about the attacks. In addition, many Indian bloggers and Wikipedia offered live textual coverage of the attacks.[182] A map of the attacks was set up by a web journalist using Google Maps.[183][184] The New York Times, in July 2009, described the event as "what may be the most well-documented terrorist attack anywhere."[185]

In November 2010, families of American victims of the attacks filed a lawsuit in Brooklyn, New York, naming Lt. Gen. Ahmed Shuja Pasha, chief of the I.S.I., as being complicit in the Mumbai attacks. On 22 September 2011, the attack on the American Embassy in Afghanistan, was attributed to Pakistan via cell phone records identical to the attacks in Mumbai, also linked to Pakistan. The investigation is on-going.[113]


Kasab's trial

Kasab's trial was delayed due to legal issues, as many Indian lawyers were unwilling to represent him. A Mumbai Bar Association passed a resolution proclaiming that none of its members would represent Kasab. However, the Chief Justice of India stated that Kasab needed a lawyer for a fair trial. A lawyer for Kasab was eventually found, but was replaced due to a conflict of interest. On 25 February 2009, Indian investigators filed an 11,000-page chargesheet, formally charging Kasab with murder, conspiracy, and waging war against India among other charges.

Kasab's trial began on 6 May 2009. He initially pleaded not guilty, but later admitted his guilt on 20 July 2009. He initially apologised for the attacks and claimed that he deserved the death penalty for his crimes, but later retracted these claims, saying that he had been tortured by police to force his confession, and that he had been arrested while roaming the beach. The court had accepted his plea, but due to the lack of completeness within his admittance, the judge had deemed that many of the 86 charges were not addressed and therefore the trial continued.

Kasab was convicted of all 86 charges on 3 May 2010. He was found guilty of murder for directly killing seven people, conspiracy to commit murder for the deaths of the 166 people killed in the three-day terror siege, waging war against India, causing terror, and of conspiracy to murder two high-ranking police officers. On 6 May 2010, he was sentenced to death by hanging.[24] [186] [187][188] However, he appealed his sentence at high court. On 21 February 2011, the Bombay High Court upheld the death sentence of Kasab, dismissing his appeal.[25]

On 29 August 2012, the Indian Supreme Court upheld the death sentence for Kasab. The court stated, "We are left with no option but to award death penalty. The primary and foremost offence committed by Kasab is waging war against the Government of India."[189] The verdict followed 10 weeks of appeal hearings, and was decided by a two-judge Supreme Court panel, which was led by Judge Aftab Alam. The panel rejected arguments that Kasab was denied a free and fair trial.[26]

Kasab filed a mercy petition with the President of India, which was rejected on 5th of November, 2012. Kasab was hanged in Pune's Yerwada jail in secret on November 21st 2012 at 7:30 AM. The Indian mission in Islamabad informed the Pakistan government about Kasab's hanging through letter. Pakistan refused to take the letter, which was then faxed to them.[190].

Trials in Pakistan

Indian and Pakistani police have exchanged DNA evidence, photographs and items found with the attackers to piece together a detailed portrait of the Mumbai plot. Police in Pakistan have arrested seven people, including Hammad Amin Sadiq, a homoeopathic pharmacist, who arranged bank accounts and secured supplies. Sadiq and six others begin their formal trial on 3 October 2009 in Pakistan, though Indian authorities say the prosecution stops well short of top Lashkar leaders.[191] In November 2009, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that Pakistan has not done enough to bring the perpetrators of the attacks to justice.[192]

On the eve of the first anniversary of 26/11, a Pakistani anti-terror court formally charged seven accused, including LeT operations commander Zaki ur Rehman Lakhvi. However the actual trial started on 5 May 2012. The Pakistani court conducting trial of Mumbai attacks accused, reserved its judgement on the applicaion filed by Lakhvi, challenging the report of the judicial panel, to 17 July 2012.[193] On 17 July 2012, the court refused to take the findings of the Pakistani judicial commission as part of the evidence. It however, ruled that if a new agreement that allows panel's examination of witnesses, is reached, the prosecution may move an application for sending the panel to Mumbai.[194] The Indian Government upset over the court ruling, however,contended that evidence collected by the Pakistani judicial panel has evidential value to punish all those involved in the attack.[195] In August 2012, Pakistan has asked the Indian Government to allow second visit of their judicial commission for cross examination of witnesses of 26/11 case for gathering evidence against seven accused, including Lashkar-e-Taiba commander Zakiur Rehman Lakhvi. The Indian Government will be taking a decision on the request after getting the ruling of the Pakistan Court examined by legal experts.[196]

Trials in the United States

The LeT operative David Headley (born Daood Sayed Gilani) in his testimony before a Chicago federal court during co-accused Tahawwur Rana's trial revealed that Mumbai Chabad House was added to the list of targets for surveillance given by his Inter Services Intelligence handler Major Iqbal, though the Oberoi hotel, one of the sites attacked, was not originally on the list.[197] On 10 June 2011, Tahawwur Rana was acquitted of plotting the 2008 Mumbai attacks, but was held guilty on two other charges.[198]


All the incidents except the explosion at Vile Parle took place in downtown South Mumbai.


On the first anniversary of the event, the state paid homage to the victims of the attack. Force One—a new security force created by the Maharashtra government—staged a parade from Nariman Point to Chowpatty. Other memorials and candlelight vigils were also organised at the various locations where the attacks occurred.[199]

On the second anniversary of the event, homage was again paid to the victims.[200] Security forces were also displayed from Nariman Point.

On the evening of 27 November 2011, a flash mob surfaced at the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus. The mob consisting of a group of 200 people danced to the Rang De Basanti title soundtrack with the intention of paying tribute to the victims of the attacks.[201][202]

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